Oracle PL/SQL by Example- P1

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Oracle PL/SQL by Example- P1

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Điều này giải pháp dạy học tích hợp tất cả các Oracle PL / SQL kỹ năng cần thiết, thực hành, thông qua các phòng thí nghiệm thế giới thực, phong phú, ví dụ, bài tập, và các dự án! Hoàn toàn được cập nhật cho Oracle 11g, Oracle PL / SQL của Ví dụ, thứ tư Edition bao gồm tất cả các nguyên tắc cơ bản, từ cú pháp PL / SQL và kiểm soát chương trình thông qua gói và Oracle 11gs cải thiện đáng kể gây ra...

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  2. Oracle PL/SQL ™ ® by Example FOURTH EDITION Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  4. Oracle PL/SQL ™ ® by Example FOURTH EDITION BENJAMIN ROSENZWEIG ELENA SILVESTROVA RAKHIMOV Upper Saddle River, NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San Francisco • New York • Toronto • Montreal • London • Munich • Paris • Madrid • Cape Town • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  5. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. The authors and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book, but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein. The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, and branding interests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 800-382-3419 For sales outside the United States, please contact: International Sales Visit us on the Web: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rosenzweig, Benjamin. Oracle PL/SQL by example / Benjamin Rosenzweig, Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov. p. cm. ISBN 0-13-714422-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. PL/SQL (Computer program language) 2. Oracle (Computer file) 3. Relational databases. I. Rakhimov, Elena Silvestrova. II. Title. QA76.73.P258R68 2008 005.75’6—dc22 2008022398 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to: Pearson Education, Inc. Rights and Contracts Department 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900 Boston, MA 02116 Fax: (617) 671 3447 ISBN-13: 978-0-137-14422-8 ISBN-10: 0-137-14422-9 Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at Edwards Brothers in Ann Arbor, Michigan First printing August 2008 Editor-in-Chief: Mark Taub Acquisitions Editor: Trina MacDonald Development Editor: Songlin Qiu Managing Editor: Kristy Hart Project Editor: Todd Taber Copy Editor: Gayle Johnson Indexer: Erika Millen Proofreader: Debbie Williams Technical Reviewers: Oleg Voskoboynikov, Shahdad Moradi Publishing Coordinator: Olivia Basegio Cover Designer: Chuti Prasertsith Composition: Nonie Ratcliff Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  6. To my parents, Rosie and Sandy Rosenzweig, for their love and support. —Benjamin Rosenzweig To Sean. —Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  8. Contents Acknowledgments xiv About the Authors xv Introduction xvii CHAPTER 1 PL/SQL Concepts 1 LAB 1.1 PL/SQL in Client/Server Architecture 2 1.1.1 Use PL/SQL Anonymous Blocks 8 1.1.2 Understand How PL/SQL Gets Executed 10 LAB 1.2 PL/SQL in SQL*Plus 12 1.2.1 Use Substitution Variables 16 1.2.2 Use the DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE Statement 17 Chapter 1 Try It Yourself 19 CHAPTER 2 General Programming Language Fundamentals 21 LAB 2.1 PL/SQL Programming Fundamentals 22 2.1.1 Make Use of PL/SQL Language Components 23 2.1.2 Make Use of PL/SQL Variables 24 2.1.3 Handle PL/SQL Reserved Words 26 2.1.4 Make Use of Identifiers in PL/SQL 27 2.1.5 Make Use of Anchored Datatypes 28 2.1.6 Declare and Initialize Variables 31 2.1.7 Understand the Scope of a Block, Nested Blocks, and Labels 34 Chapter 2 Try It Yourself 37 CHAPTER 3 SQL in PL/SQL 39 LAB 3.1 Making Use of DML in PL/SQL 40 3.1.1 Use the Select INTO Syntax for Variable Initialization 41 3.1.2 Use DML in a PL/SQL Block 42 3.1.3 Make Use of a Sequence in a PL/SQL Block 44 LAB 3.2 Making Use of SAVEPOINT 45 3.2.1 Make Use of COMMIT, ROLLBACK, and SAVEPOINT in a PL/SQL Block 48 Chapter 3 Try It Yourself 51 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  9. viii Contents CHAPTER 4 Conditional Control: IF Statements 53 LAB 4.1 IF Statements 54 4.1.1 Use the IF-THEN Statement 58 4.1.2 Use the IF-THEN-ELSE Statement 62 LAB 4.2 ELSIF Statements 65 4.2.1 Use the ELSIF Statement 69 LAB 4.3 Nested IF Statements 74 4.3.1 Use Nested IF Statements 76 Chapter 4 Try It Yourself 80 CHAPTER 5 Conditional Control: CASE Statements 81 LAB 5.1 CASE Statements 82 5.1.1 Use the CASE Statement 89 5.1.2 Use the Searched CASE Statement 91 LAB 5.2 CASE Expressions 96 5.2.1 Use the CASE Expression 100 LAB 5.3 NULLIF and COALESCE Functions 103 5.3.1 The NULLIF Function 107 5.3.2 Use the COALESCE Function 109 Chapter 5 Try It Yourself 112 CHAPTER 6 Iterative Control: Part I 113 LAB 6.1 Simple Loops 114 6.1.1 Use Simple Loops with EXIT Conditions 118 6.1.2 Use Simple Loops with EXIT WHEN Conditions 120 LAB 6.2 WHILE Loops 124 6.2.1 Use WHILE Loops 128 LAB 6.3 Numeric FOR Loops 132 6.3.1 Use Numeric FOR Loops with the IN Option 137 6.3.2 Use Numeric FOR Loops with the REVERSE Option 139 Chapter 6 Try It Yourself 142 CHAPTER 7 Iterative Control: Part II 143 LAB 7.1 The CONTINUE Statement 144 7.1.1 Use the CONTINUE Statement 146 7.1.2 Use the CONTINUE WHEN Condition 152 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  10. Contents ix LAB 7.2 Nested Loops 154 7.2.1 Use Nested Loops 157 Chapter 7 Try It Yourself 161 CHAPTER 8 Error Handling and Built-in Exceptions 163 LAB 8.1 Handling Errors 164 8.1.1 Understand the Importance of Error Handling 167 LAB 8.2 Built-in Exceptions 169 8.2.1 Use Built-in Exceptions 174 Chapter 8 Try It Yourself 178 CHAPTER 9 Exceptions 179 LAB 9.1 Exception Scope 180 9.1.1 Understand the Scope of an Exception 183 LAB 9.2 User-Defined Exceptions 188 9.2.1 Use User-Defined Exceptions 193 LAB 9.3 Exception Propagation 197 9.3.1 Understand How Exceptions Propagate 203 9.3.2 Reraise Exceptions 206 Chapter 9 Try It Yourself 209 CHAPTER 10 Exceptions: Advanced Concepts 211 LAB 10.1 RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR 212 10.1.1 Use RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR 215 LAB 10.2 EXCEPTION_INIT Pragma 217 10.2.1 USE the EXCEPTION_INIT Pragma 219 LAB 10.3 SQLCODE and SQLERRM 222 10.3.1 Use SQLCODE and SQLERRM 225 Chapter 10 Try It Yourself 227 CHAPTER 11 Introduction to Cursors 229 LAB 11.1 Cursor Manipulation 230 11.1.1 Make Use of Record Types 234 11.1.2 Process an Explicit Cursor 235 11.1.3 Make Use of Cursor Attributes 240 11.1.4 Put It All Together 242 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  11. x Contents LAB 11.2 Using Cursor FOR Loops and Nested Cursors 246 11.2.1 Use a Cursor FOR Loop 247 11.2.2 Process Nested Cursors 247 Chapter 11 Try It Yourself 252 CHAPTER 12 Advanced Cursors 253 LAB 12.1 Using Parameters with Cursors and Complex Nested Cursors 254 12.1.1 Use Parameters in a Cursor 255 12.1.2 Use Complex Nested Cursors 255 LAB 12.2 FOR UPDATE and WHERE CURRENT Cursors 258 12.2.1 For UPDATE and WHERE CURRENT Cursors 258 CHAPTER 13 Triggers 263 LAB 13.1 What Triggers Are 264 13.1.1 Understand What a Trigger Is 272 13.1.2 Use BEFORE and AFTER Triggers 274 LAB 13.2 Types of Triggers 277 13.2.1 Use Row and Statement Triggers 283 13.2.2 Use INSTEAD OF Triggers 285 Chaper 13 Try It Yourself 290 CHAPTER 14 Compound Triggers 291 LAB 14.1 Mutating Table Issues 292 14.1.1 Understand Mutating Tables 296 LAB 14.2 Compound Triggers 300 14.2.1 Understand Compound Triggers 306 Chapter 14 Try It Yourself 313 CHAPTER 15 Collections 315 LAB 15.1 PL/SQL Tables 316 15.1.1 Use Associative Arrays 326 15.1.2 Use Nested Tables 330 LAB 15.2 Varrays 334 15.2.1 Use Varrays 338 LAB 15.3 Multilevel Collections 342 15.3.1 Use Multilevel Collections 344 Chapter 15 Try It Yourself 348 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  12. Contents xi CHAPTER 16 Records 349 LAB 16.1 Record Types 350 16.1.1 Use Table-Based and Cursor-Based Records 358 16.1.2 Use User-Defined Records 362 LAB 16.2 Nested Records 367 16.2.1 Use Nested Records 369 LAB 16.3 Collections of Records 373 16.3.1 Use Collections of Records 374 Chapter 16 Try It Yourself 378 CHAPTER 17 Native Dynamic SQL 379 LAB 17.1 EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statements 380 17.1.1 Use the EXECUTE IMMEDIATE Statement 387 LAB 17.2 OPEN-FOR, FETCH, and CLOSE Statements 392 17.2.1 Use OPEN-FOR, FETCH, and CLOSE Statements 395 Chapter 17 Try It Yourself 401 CHAPTER 18 Bulk SQL 403 LAB 18.1 The FORALL Statement 404 18.1.1 Use the FORALL Statement 413 LAB 18.2 The BULK COLLECT Clause 422 18.2.1 Use the BULK COLLECT Statement 428 Chapter 18 Try It Yourself 437 CHAPTER 19 Procedures 439 LAB 19.1 Creating Procedures 441 19.1.1 Create Procedures 441 19.1.2 Query the Data Dictionary for Information on Procedures 443 LAB 19.2 Passing Parameters into and out of Procedures 444 19.2.1 Use IN and OUT Parameters with Procedures 445 Chapter 19 Try It Yourself 447 Part 1 447 Part 2 447 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  13. xii Contents CHAPTER 20 Functions 449 LAB 20.1 Creating and Using Functions 450 20.1.1 Create Stored Functions 451 20.1.2 Make Use of Functions 452 20.1.3 Invoke Functions in SQL Statements 453 20.1.4 Write Complex Functions 454 Chapter 20 Try It Yourself 455 CHAPTER 21 Packages 457 LAB 21.1 The Benefits of Using Packages 458 21.1.1 Create Package Specifications 460 21.1.2 Create Package Bodies 462 21.1.3 Call Stored Packages 464 21.1.4 Create Private Objects 465 21.1.5 Create Package Variables and Cursors 469 LAB 21.2 Cursor Variables 471 21.2.1 Make Use of Cursor Variables 475 LAB 21.3 Extending the Package 480 21.3.1 Extend the Package 480 Chapter 21 Try It Yourself 493 CHAPTER 22 Stored Code 495 LAB 22.1 Gathering Information About Stored Code 496 22.1.1 Get Stored Code Information from the Data Dictionary 496 22.1.2 Enforce the Purity Level with the RESTRICT_REFERENCES Pragma 500 22.1.3 Overload Modules 506 Chapter 22 Try It Yourself 512 CHAPTER 23 Object Types in Oracle 513 LAB 23.1 Object Types 514 23.1.1 Use Object Types 522 23.1.2 Use Object Types with Collections 526 LAB 23.2 Object Type Methods 531 23.2.1 Use Object Type Methods 544 Chapter 23 Try It Yourself 554 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  14. Contents xiii CHAPTER 24 Oracle Supplied Packages 555 LAB 24.1 Making Use of Oracle Supplied Packages to Profile PL/SQL, Access Files, and Schedule Jobs 556 24.1.1 Access Files with UTL_FILE 563 24.1.2 Schedule Jobs with DBMS_JOB 563 24.1.3 Submit Jobs 564 LAB 24.2 Making Use of Oracle-Supplied Packages to Generate an Explain Plan and Create HTML Pages 568 24.2.1 Generate an Explain Plan with DBMS_XPLAN 572 LAB 24.3 Creating Web Pages with the Oracle Web Toolkit 578 24.3.1 Create an HTML Page with the Oracle Web Toolkit 594 APPENDIX A PL/SQL Formatting Guide 597 APPENDIX B Student Database Schema 601 APPENDIX C ANSI SQL Standards 607 APPENDIX D Answers to the Try It Yourself Sections 613 INDEX 705 1) Visit to learn how to register this product and gain access to additional content. 2) To register this product and gain access to bonus content, go to to sign in and enter the ISBN. After you register the product, a link to the additional content will be listed on your Account page, under Registered Products. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  15. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Benjamin Rosenzweig: I would like to thank my coauthor, Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov, for being a wonderful and knowledgeable colleague to work with. I would also like to thank Douglas Scherer for giving me the opportunity to work on this book, as well as for providing constant support and assistance through the entire writing process. I am indebted to the team at Prentice Hall, which includes Trina MacDonald, Songlin Qiu, Todd Taber, Shahdad Moradi, and Oleg Voskoboynikov. Their contributions, suggestions, and edits helped improve our original manuscript and make the book what it is today. Finally, I would like to thank my many friends and family, especially Edward Clarin and Edward Knopping, for helping me through the long process of putting the whole book together, which included many late nights and weekends. Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov: My contribution to this book reflects the help and advice of many people. I am particularly indebted to my coauthor, Benjamin Rosenzweig, for making this project a rewarding and enjoyable experience. Special thanks to Trina MacDonald, Songlin Qiu, Todd Taber, and many others at Prentice Hall who diligently worked to bring this book to market. Thanks to Shahdad Moradi and Oleg Voskoboynikov for their valuable comments and sugges- tions. Most importantly, to my family, whose excitement, enthusiasm, inspiration, and support encouraged me to work hard to the very end, and were exceeded only by their love. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  16. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Benjamin Rosenzweig is a software development manager at Misys Treasury & Capital Markets, where he has worked since 2002. Prior to that he was a principal consultant for more than three years at Oracle Corporation in the Custom Development Department. His computer experience ranges from creating an electronic Tibetan–English dictionary in Kathmandu, Nepal, to supporting presentation centers at Goldman Sachs and managing a trading system at TIAA-CREF Rosenzweig . has been an instructor at the Columbia University Computer Technology and Application program in New York City since 1998. In 2002 he was awarded the Outstanding Teaching Award from the chair and director of the CTA program. He holds a B.A. from Reed College and a certificate in data- base development and design from Columbia University. His previous books with Prentice Hall are Oracle Forms Developer: The Complete Video Course (ISBN: 0-13-032124-9) and Oracle Web Application Programming for PL/SQL Developers (ISBN: 0-13-047731-1). Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov has more than 15 years of experience in database development in a wide spectrum of enterprise and business environments, ranging from nonprofit organiza- tions to Wall Street. She currently works at Alea Software, where she serves as Senior Developer and Team Lead. Her determination to stay hands-on notwithstanding, Rakhimov has managed to excel in the academic arena, having taught relational database programming at Columbia University’s highly esteemed Computer Technology and Applications program. She was educated in database analysis and design at Columbia University and in applied mathematics at Baku State University in Azerbaijan. She currently resides in Vancouver, Canada. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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  18. INTRODUCTION PL/SQL New Features in Oracle 11g Oracle 11g has introduced a number of new features and improvements for PL/SQL. This intro- duction briefly describes features not covered in this book and points you to specific chapters for features that are within scope of this book. The list of features described here is also available in the “What’s New in PL/SQL?” section of the PL/SQL Language Reference manual offered as part of Oracle help available online. The new PL/SQL features and enhancements are as follows: . Enhancements to regular expression built-in SQL functions . SIMPLE_INTEGER, SIMPLE_FLOAT, and SIMPLE_DOUBLE datatypes . CONTINUE statement . Sequences in PL/SQL expressions . Dynamic SQL enhancements . Named and mixed notation in PL/SQL subprogram invocations . Cross-session PL/SQL function result cache . More control over triggers . Compound triggers . Database resident connection pool . Automatic subprogram inlining . PL/Scope . PL/SQL hierarchical profiler . PL/SQL native compiler generates native code directly Enhancements to Regular Expression Built-In SQL Functions In this release Oracle has introduced a new regular expression built-in function, REGEXP_COUNT. It returns the number of times a specified search pattern appears in a source string. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  19. xviii Introduction FOR EXAMPLE SELECT REGEXP_COUNT ('Oracle PL/SQL By Example Updated for Oracle 11g', 'ora', 1, 'i') FROM dual; REGEXP_COUNT('ORACLEPL/SQLBYEXAMPLEUPDATEDFORORACLE11G','ORA',1,'I') -------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 The REGEXP_COUNT function returns how many times the search pattern 'ora' appears in the source string 'Oracle PL/SQL...' 1 indicates the position of the source string where the search begins, and 'i' indicates case-insensitive matching. The existing regular expression built-in functions, REGEXP_INSTR and REGEXP_SUBSTR, have a new parameter called SUBEXPR. This parameter represents a subexpression in a search pattern. Essentially it is a portion of a search pattern enclosed in parentheses that restricts pattern matching, as illustrated in the following example. FOR EXAMPLE SELECT REGEXP_INSTR ('Oracle PL/SQL By Example Updated for Oracle 11g', '((ora)(cle))', 1, 2, 0, 'i') FROM dual; REGEXP_INSTR('ORACLEPL/SQLBYEXAMPLEUPDATEDFORORACLE11G',...) ------------------------------------------------------------ 38 The REGEXP_INSTR function returns the position of the first character in the source string 'Oracle PL/SQL…' corresponding to the second occurrence of the first subexpression 'ora' in the seach pattern (ora)(cle). 1 indicates the position of the source string where the search begins, 2 indicates the occurrence of the subexpression in the source string, 0 indicates that the position returned corresponds to the position of the first character where the match occurs, and 'i' indicates case-insensitive matching and REGEXP_SUBSTR. SIMPLE_INTEGER, SIMPLE_FLOAT, and SIMPLE_DOUBLE Datatypes These datatypes are predefined subtypes of the PLS_INTEGER, BINARY_FLOAT, and BINARY_DOUBLE, respectively. As such, they have the same range as their respective base types. In addition, these subtypes have NOT NULL constraints. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
  20. Introduction xix These subtypes provide significant performance improvements over their respective base types when the PLSQL_CODE_TYPE parameter is set to NATIVE. This is because arithmetic opera- tions for these subtypes are done directly in the hardware layer. Note that when PLSQL_CODE_TYPE is set to INTERPRETED (the default value), the performance gains are significantly smaller. This is illustrated by the following example. FOR EXAMPLE SET SERVEROUTPUT ON DECLARE v_pls_value1 PLS_INTEGER := 0; v_pls_value2 PLS_INTEGER := 1; v_simple_value1 SIMPLE_INTEGER := 0; v_simple_value2 SIMPLE_INTEGER := 1; -- Following are used for elapsed time calculation -- The time is calculated in 100th of a second v_start_time NUMBER; v_end_time NUMBER; BEGIN -- Perform calculations with PLS_INTEGER v_start_time := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME; FOR i in 1..50000000 LOOP v_pls_value1 := v_pls_value1 + v_pls_value2; END LOOP; v_end_time := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Elapsed time for PLS_INTEGER: '|| (v_end_time - v_start_time)); -- Perform the same calculations with SIMPLE_INTEGER v_start_time := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME; FOR i in 1..50000000 LOOP v_simple_value1 := v_simple_value1 + v_simple_value2; END LOOP; v_end_time := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Elapsed time for SIMPLE_INTEGER: '|| (v_end_time - v_start_time)); END; Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on to remove this watermark.
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