Petroleum products handbook By Virgil B. Guthrie

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Petroleum products handbook By Virgil B. Guthrie

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References to oil and gas production handbook, author Virgil B. Guthrie. Hopefully documents provide useful knowledge for engineering and technology students specializing in chemical industry - oil and gas.

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  1. Contents Contributing Editors ........................................................ vii Preface ........................................................................... xi Guide for Handbook Users ............................................. xiii Petroleum Flow Chart from the Well through the Refinery ..................................................................... xv Section 1. The Raw Material, Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas ....................................................... 1-1 Part I. Petroleum, Our Man of all Work .................................. 1-1 Nature and Occurrence of Petroleum ................................. 1-3 How the Oil Industry Functions ............................................ 1-6 Nature and Composition of Crude Oil ................................. 1-9 Transforming Crude Oil into Products ................................. 1-10 Products from Petroleum and Natural Gas ......................... 1-14 Bibliography ......................................................................... 1-28 Part II. Natural Gasoline a Source of Liquid Products ........... 1-30 Birth in the Early Pennsylvania Oil Fields ............................ 1-32 Research for Broader Markets ............................................ 1-35 Wider Use in Motor Fuel ...................................................... 1-35 Specifications and Properties .............................................. 1-37 xv
  2. xvi Contents Testing Methods .................................................................. 1-37 References ........................................................................... 1-38 Bibliography ......................................................................... 1-38 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 1-39 Appendix A: Check List of Commercial Petroleum Products ......................................................................... 1-40 Section 2. Additives for Petroleum Products ............ 2-1 General Properties of Additives ........................................... 2-3 Selection and Control of Additives ...................................... 2-4 Liquid Fuel Additives ............................................................ 2-6 Additives for Automotive Lubricants .................................... 2-18 Additives in Oil Specifications .............................................. 2-24 Additives for Industrial Oils .................................................. 2-30 Bibliography ......................................................................... 2-42 Section 3. Liquefied Petroleum Gas .......................... 3-1 Properties of LP-Gas Hydrocarbons ................................... 3-2 Production and Treating of LP-Gas ..................................... 3-6 Specifications and Test Methods ........................................ 3-10 Storage and Handling of LP-Gas ........................................ 3-13 Rules, Regulations, and Standards ..................................... 3-18 Distribution Methods ............................................................ 3-21 Utilization of LP-Gas ............................................................ 3-25 Sizing of Tanks and Piping .................................................. 3-29 Receipt of Shipments ........................................................... 3-30 Taxes Applicable to LP-Gas ................................................ 3-34 Toxicity of LP-Gas Hydrocarbons ........................................ 3-35 Securing Maximum Performance ........................................ 3-35 References ........................................................................... 3-39
  3. Contents xvii Glossary of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Terms ...................... 3-40 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 3-46 Section 4. Gasoline ..................................................... 4-1 General Performance Requirements .................................. 4-6 Chemical Composition of Gasoline ..................................... 4-8 Motor Fuel Gasoline ............................................................ 4-11 Alcohol Blends ..................................................................... 4-37 Aviation Gasoline ................................................................. 4-38 Marine Gasoline ................................................................... 4-42 Gasoline Tractor Fuel .......................................................... 4-44 References ........................................................................... 4-45 Bibliography ......................................................................... 4-47 Appendix A: Tentative Specifications for Gasoline ............. 4-48 Appendix B: Tentative Specifications for Aviation Gasolines ....................................................................... 4-51 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 4-54 Section 5. Aircraft Gas Turbine Fuels and Lubricants ................................................................ 5-1 Principles of Operation and Types ...................................... 5-2 Fuel Developments and Specifications ............................... 5-6 Aircraft Gas Turbine Fuel Manufacture ............................... 5-10 Fuel Requirements and Properties ...................................... 5-10 Aircraft Gas Turbine Lubricants ........................................... 5-23 References ........................................................................... 5-27 Section 6. Diesel Fuel Oils .......................................... 6-1 Diesel Fuel Economics ........................................................ 6-1 Composition of Fuel an Important Factor ............................ 6-4
  4. xviii Contents Properties Determining Fuel Performance .......................... 6-5 Test Methods for Diesel Fuel Oils ....................................... 6-9 Significance of Tests on Diesel Fuels ................................. 6-12 Utilization of Diesel Fuels .................................................... 6-13 Growth Trends in Diesel-Engine Field ................................. 6-29 Storage, Shipping, and Handling ......................................... 6-31 References ........................................................................... 6-32 Bibliography ......................................................................... 6-32 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 6-33 Section 7. Distillate Heating Oils ................................ 7-1 Status of the Heating-Oil Industry ........................................ 7-3 Burners, Controls, and Tanks .............................................. 7-9 Central-Heating Systems ..................................................... 7-15 Specifications and Testing ................................................... 7-24 Burning Qualities in Oils ...................................................... 7-28 Stability in Heating Oils ........................................................ 7-37 Handling and Delivery .......................................................... 7-46 References ........................................................................... 7-50 Bibliography ......................................................................... 7-51 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 7-52 Section 8. Residual Fuel Oils ...................................... 8-1 Historical .............................................................................. 8-1 Statistical .............................................................................. 8-2 Specifications for Residual Fuels ........................................ 8-3 Properties of Commercial Residual Fuels ........................... 8-11 Detailed Inspections of Heavy Fuels ................................... 8-23 End Uses of Residual Fuel Oils ........................................... 8-27 Problems Associated with Utilization ................................... 8-30
  5. Contents xix The Combustion of Residual Fuels ..................................... 8-36 Specific Heat of Fuel Oils .................................................... 8-48 Residual Fuel Oil Burners .................................................... 8-49 References ........................................................................... 8-50 Bibliography ......................................................................... 8-50 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 8-51 Section 9. Lubricating Oils and Greases ................... 9-1 Part I. Automotive Oils ........................................................... 9-1 Performance Characteristics ............................................... 9-2 Fluid Characteristic - Viscosity ............................................ 9-5 "Boundary" Lubrication ........................................................ 9-24 Stability and Chemical Inertness ......................................... 9-28 Evaluating Automotive Lubricants ....................................... 9-28 References ........................................................................... 9-31 Part II. Industrial Lubrication .................................................. 9-34 Engine and Machine Oils ..................................................... 9-34 Steam Cylinder Oils ............................................................. 9-37 Diesel Engine Oils ................................................................ 9-41 Steam Turbine Oils .............................................................. 9-43 Speed Reduction Gear Lubrication ..................................... 9-47 Compressor Oils .................................................................. 9-49 Electric-Motor Bearing Oils .................................................. 9-53 Hydraulic Fluids ................................................................... 9-56 Industrial Circulating Oils ..................................................... 9-58 Wire-Rope Lubrication ......................................................... 9-62 Industrial Gear Oils .............................................................. 9-64 Spindle Oils .......................................................................... 9-65
  6. xx Contents Instrument Lubricants .......................................................... 9-67 Pneumatic Tool Oils ............................................................. 9-68 Oil-Spray Lubrication ........................................................... 9-70 Insulating and Transformer Oils .......................................... 9-71 Metalworking and Cutting Oils ............................................. 9-72 Bibliography ......................................................................... 9-74 Part III. Lubricating Greases .................................................. 9-75 Functions of a Lubricating Grease ...................................... 9-78 Evaluating Lubricating Greases ........................................... 9-79 Properties that Influence Selection ...................................... 9-85 Availability of Specific Greases ........................................... 9-90 Types of Bearings to Be Lubricated .................................... 9-91 Specific Industry Applications .............................................. 9-96 Special Greases and Trends ............................................... 9-120 Handling and Storing Greases ............................................ 9-121 References ........................................................................... 9-122 Bibliography ......................................................................... 9-123 Part IV. Reclaiming Lubricating Oils ...................................... 9-124 Contaminants from Two Sources ........................................ 9-127 Effects of Oil Contamination ................................................ 9-128 Oxidation .............................................................................. 9-128 Oil-Reclamation Methods .................................................... 9-129 Section 10. The Petroleum Waxes ............................. 10-1 Wax Production Methods .................................................... 10-2 Petroleum-Wax Uses by Volume ........................................ 10-6 Paraffin Waxes, Natural and Synthetic ................................ 10-6 Microcrystalline Waxes ........................................................ 10-11
  7. Contents xxi Petrolatums .......................................................................... 10-13 Petroleum-Wax Industrial Uses ........................................... 10-17 The Future of Petroleum Waxes ......................................... 10-28 Bibliography ......................................................................... 10-28 Section 11. Miscellaneous Light Oils ......................... 11-1 Part I. Kerosine (Illuminating Oils) ......................................... 11-1 The Essential Properties of Kerosine .................................. 11-3 References ........................................................................... 11-7 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 11-7 Part II. Industrial Naphthas .................................................... 11-8 Chemistry of Industrial Solvents .......................................... 11-9 Manufacture of Industrial Naphthas .................................... 11-12 Distributing Methods Modernized ........................................ 11-14 Utilization and Standardization ............................................ 11-15 Physical and Chemical Tests .............................................. 11-18 Safety Precautions Essential ............................................... 11-23 Guide to Current and Primary Reference Data ................... 11-24 Appendix A: Properties of Standard Industrial Naphthas and Related Materials ................................... 11-25 References ........................................................................... 11-29 Part III. Use of Petroleum as Pesticides ................................ 11-30 Insecticides .......................................................................... 11-30 Herbicides ............................................................................ 11-42 Fungicides ............................................................................ 11-44 Solvents for Agricultural Pesticides ..................................... 11-44 References ........................................................................... 11-51
  8. xxii Contents Section 12. Petrochemicals ........................................ 12-1 History of Petrochemicals .................................................... 12-2 Growth Pattern, Past and Future ......................................... 12-4 Three Types of Petrochemicals ........................................... 12-7 Petrochemical Statistics ....................................................... 12-9 Where Petrochemicals Come from ..................................... 12-12 Marketing Petrochemicals ................................................... 12-25 Glossary of Petrochemicals ................................................. 12-29 References ........................................................................... 12-39 Section 13. Petroleum Asphalt ................................... 13-1 Types of Petroleum Asphalt ................................................ 13-1 Asphalt Cement ................................................................... 13-2 Liquid Asphalts ..................................................................... 13-5 Blown Asphalts .................................................................... 13-12 Uses of Petroleum Asphalt .................................................. 13-13 References ........................................................................... 13-17 Bibliography ......................................................................... 13-18 Section 14. Petroleum Coke ....................................... 14-1 Economics of Coking ........................................................... 14-1 Commercial Coking Processes ........................................... 14-3 Petroleum-Coke Quality ....................................................... 14-6 Utilization of Raw Petroleum Coke ...................................... 14-12 Utilization of Calcined Coke ................................................. 14-15 Bibliography and References .............................................. 14-20 Section 15. Carbon Black ........................................... 15-1 Manufacturing Processes and Types of Carbon Blacks ............................................................................. 15-2
  9. Contents xxiii Properties and Evaluation ................................................... 15-7 Applications and Uses ......................................................... 15-10 References ........................................................................... 15-15 Section 16. Reference Data Section ........................... 16-1 Introduction .......................................................................... 16-1 Contents ............................................................................... 16-1 Part I. Reference Data Directory ............................................ 16-2 Part II. Sampling and Measurement of Liquid Petroleum Products ............................................................................ 16-10 Sampling Petroleum Products ............................................. 16-10 Measurement and Calculation of Volume ........................... 16-10 The ASTM-IP Petroleum Measurement Tables .................. 16-12 Nomograph for Volume and Gravity Corrections ................ 16-15 Tables of Volumetric and Weight Measures ....................... 16-16 Sources for General Reference Data .................................. 16-18 Part III. Test Methods, Product Specifications, and Antiknock Scale Conversions ........................................... 16-19 Guide to ASTM Petroleum Product Test Methods .............. 16-19 ASTM Specifications for Petroleum Products by Title ........ 16-25 Federal Specifications for Petroleum Products by Title ............................................................................ 16-27 Federal Specifications for Commercial Products ................ 16-28 Crankcase-Oil Viscosity Classification, SAE Recommended Practice ................................................ 16-43 Transmission and Axle-Lubricant Classification, SAE Recommended Practice ................................................ 16-44 Conversions of Antiknock Scales ........................................ 16-45
  10. xxiv Contents Sources for General Reference Data .................................. 16-55 Part IV. Storage, Handling, and Transportation of Petroleum Products .......................................................... 16-56 General Reference Data Sources ....................................... 16-56 Part V. Directory of United States Petroleum Refineries .......................................................................... 16-57 Sources for General Reference Data .................................. 16-66 Part VI. Motor Fuel Tax and Tax Refund Procedures; Product Inspection by States ............................................ 16-67 Motor Fuel Tax Refund Procedures .................................... 16-67 Petroleum Product Inspection by States ............................. 16-77 Sources for General Reference Data .................................. 16-78 Part VII. Petroleum Products Supply-Demand, Utilization, and Price Statistics .......................................... 16-79 General Reference Data Sources ....................................... 16-93 Section 17. Petroleum Trade Glossary ...................... 17-1 Abel Tester to Azeotropic Distillation ................................... 17-1 Balanced Gasoline to Byproduct ......................................... 17-3 °C to Cylinder Stock ............................................................. 17-5 Deasphalting to Dry Point .................................................... 17-8 Emulsification to Extractive Distillation ................................ 17-10 °F (Degrees Fahrenheit) to Furnace Oils ............................ 17-11 Gallon (Imperial) to Gum Tests ........................................... 17-13 Heart Cut to Hydrometer ...................................................... 17-14 IBP (Initial Boiling Point) to Isopropyl Alcohol, Isopropanol [(CH3)2CHOH] ............................................ 17-15
  11. Contents xxv Jet Engine (Aircraft) to Jump ............................................... 17-16 K-factor to Knock Suppressor .............................................. 17-16 Lacquer to Lubricity .............................................................. 17-17 Mahogany Acids to Multipurpose-type Grease ................... 17-18 Naphtha to Normal (N) Heptane ......................................... 17-20 Octane (C8H18) to Ozokerite ................................................ 17-21 Painters' Naphtha to Pyrethrum .......................................... 17-22 Qualitative Test to Quenching Oil ........................................ 17-24 Raffinate to RVP (Reid Vapor Pressure) ............................. 17-25 SAE Numbers to Synthetic Rubber ..................................... 17-26 Tackiness Agent to Turnaround .......................................... 17-30 Ullage to USP Acid Test ...................................................... 17-31 Vacuum Distillation to Volatility ............................................ 17-32 Wash to Worked Penetration ............................................... 17-33 Xylenes, Xylol [C6H4(CH3)2] ................................................. 17-34 Yellow Scale to Yield ........................................................... 17-34 Index .............................................................................. I-17
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