The phase locked loop is a feedback system comprised of a phase comparator, a low pass
filter and error amplifier in the forward signal path and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VC0) in
the feedback path. The block diagram of a basic PLL system is shown. Perhaps the single most
important point to realize when designing with the PLL is that it is a feedback system and, hence,
is characterized mathematically by the same questions that apply to other, more conventional
feedback systems. The parameters in the equations are somewhat different, however since the
feedback error signal in the phase locked system is related to phase rather than...