PHP & MySQL for Dummies- P1

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PHP & MySQL for Dummies- P1

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  2. Get More and Do More at Dummies.com ® Start with FREE Cheat Sheets Cheat Sheets include • Checklists • Charts • Common Instructions • And Other Good Stuff! To access the Cheat Sheet created specifically for this book, go to www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/phpmysql Get Smart at Dummies.com Dummies.com makes your life easier with 1,000s of answers on everything from removing wallpaper to using the latest version of Windows. Check out our • Videos • Illustrated Articles • Step-by-Step Instructions Plus, each month you can win valuable prizes by entering our Dummies.com sweepstakes. * Want a weekly dose of Dummies? Sign up for Newsletters on • Digital Photography • Microsoft Windows & Office • Personal Finance & Investing • Health & Wellness • Computing, iPods & Cell Phones • eBay • Internet • Food, Home & Garden Find out “HOW” at Dummies.com *Sweepstakes not currently available in all countries; visit Dummies.com for official rules.
  3. PHP & MySQL ‰ FOR DUMmIES ‰ 4TH EDITION Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  5. PHP & MySQL ‰ FOR DUMmIES ‰ 4TH EDITION by Janet Valade Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  6. PHP & MySQL® For Dummies, 4th Edition ® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permit- ted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http:// www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, Making Everything Easier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/ or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. MySQL is a registered trademark of MySQL AB. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITH- OUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FUR- THER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFOR- MATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. For technical support, please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2009940274 ISBN: 978-0-470-52758-0 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. About the Author Janet Valade is the author of PHP & MySQL Web Development All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies, PHP 5 For Dummies, PHP & MySQL Everyday Apps For Dummies, and PHP & MySQL: Your visual blueprint for creating dynamic, database-driven Web sites, as well as the first, second, and third editions of this book. In addition, Janet is the author of Spring into Linux and a coauthor of Mastering Visually Dreamweaver 8 and Flash 8. Janet has twenty years of experience in the computing field. Most recently, she worked as a Web designer and programmer in an engineering firm for four years. Before that, Janet worked for thirteen years in a university envi- ronment, where she was a systems analyst. During her tenure, she super- vised the installation and operation of computing resources, designed and developed a data archive, supported faculty and students in their computer usage, wrote numerous technical papers, and developed and presented semi- nars on a variety of technology topics. To keep in touch, see janetvalade.com. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  9. Author’s Acknowledgments First, I want to express my appreciation to the entire open source commu- nity. Without those who give their time and talent, there would be no cool PHP and MySQL for me to write about. Furthermore, I never would have learned this software without the lists, where people generously spend their time answering foolish questions from beginners. I want to thank my mother for passing on a writing gene, along with many other things. And my children always for everything. My thanks to my friends Art, Dick, and Marge for responding to my last-minute call for help. I particu- larly want to thank Sammy, Dude, Spike, Lucky, Upanishad, Sadie, and E.B. for their important contributions. And, of course, I want to thank the professionals who make it all possible. Without the people at Wiley, this book would not exist. Because they all do their jobs so well, I can contribute my part to this joint project. Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  10. Publisher’s Acknowledgments We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments at http://dummies.custhelp.com. For other comments, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, out- side the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions and Editorial Composition Services Project Editor: Rebecca Senninger Project Coordinator: Kristie Rees (Previous Edition: Pat O’Brien) Layout and Graphics: Melissa K. Jester, Acquisitions Editor: Kyle Looper Christine Williams Copy Editor: Virginia Sanders Proofreader: Toni Settle Technical Editor: John Gosney Indexer: BIM Indexing & Proofreading Editorial Manager: Leah Cameron Editorial Assistant: Amanda Foxworth Sr. Editorial Assistant: Cherie Case Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com) Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher Mary Bednarek, Executive Acquisitions Director Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director Publishing for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher Composition Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  11. Contents at a Glance Introduction ................................................................ 1 Part I: Developing a Web Database Application Using PHP and MySQL ................................................ 7 Chapter 1: Introduction to PHP and MySQL ................................................................... 9 Chapter 2: Setting Up Your Work Environment ........................................................... 21 Chapter 3: Developing a Web Database Application ................................................... 47 Part II: MySQL Database ........................................... 73 Chapter 4: Building the Database .................................................................................. 75 Chapter 5: Protecting Your Data .................................................................................. 111 Part III: PHP ........................................................... 131 Chapter 6: General PHP ................................................................................................. 133 Chapter 7: PHP Building Blocks for Programs ........................................................... 165 Chapter 8: Data In, Data Out ......................................................................................... 211 Chapter 9: Moving Information from One Web Page to the Next ............................ 285 Part IV: Applications ............................................... 305 Chapter 10: Putting It All Together.............................................................................. 307 Chapter 11: Building an Online Catalog ...................................................................... 321 Chapter 12: Building a Members Only Web Site ........................................................ 359 Part V: The Part of Tens ........................................... 387 Chapter 13: Ten Things You Might Want to Do Using PHP Functions .................... 389 Chapter 14: Ten PHP Gotchas ...................................................................................... 397 Part VI: Appendixes ................................................. 403 Appendix A: Installing PHP, MySQL, and Apache from XAMPP ............................... 405 Appendix B: Configuring PHP ....................................................................................... 415 Index ...................................................................... 421 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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  13. Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................. 1 About This Book .............................................................................................. 1 Conventions Used in This Book ..................................................................... 2 What You’re Not To Read ............................................................................... 2 Foolish Assumptions ....................................................................................... 3 How This Book Is Organized .......................................................................... 3 Part I: Developing a Web Database Application Using PHP and MySQL ....................................................................... 4 Part II: MySQL Database ........................................................................ 4 Part III: PHP ............................................................................................. 4 Part IV: Applications .............................................................................. 4 Part V: The Part of Tens ........................................................................ 4 Part VI: Appendixes ............................................................................... 4 Icons Used in This Book ................................................................................. 5 Where to Go from Here ................................................................................... 5 Part I: Developing a Web Database Application Using PHP and MySQL ................................................. 7 Chapter 1: Introduction to PHP and MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 What Is a Web Database Application? .......................................................... 9 The database: Storing data ................................................................. 11 The application: Moving data in and out of the database .............. 11 MySQL, My Database .................................................................................... 12 Advantages of MySQL.......................................................................... 13 How MySQL works ............................................................................... 14 Communicating with the MySQL server ........................................... 14 PHP, a Data Mover ......................................................................................... 15 Advantages of PHP............................................................................... 16 How PHP works .................................................................................... 16 MySQL and PHP, the Perfect Pair ................................................................ 17 Advantages of the relationship .......................................................... 18 How MySQL and PHP work together ................................................. 18 Keeping Up with PHP and MySQL Changes................................................ 19 PHP versions ........................................................................................ 19 MySQL versions ................................................................................... 20 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  14. xii PHP & MySQL For Dummies, 4th Edition Chapter 2: Setting Up Your Work Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Anatomy of a Web Site .................................................................................. 21 Building a Web Site........................................................................................ 22 Deciding Where to Publish Your Web Site ................................................. 23 Using a Web hosting company ........................................................... 24 Using a company Web site.................................................................. 28 Setting up your own server ................................................................ 29 Deciding Where to Develop Your Web Site ................................................ 30 On your own computer ....................................................................... 30 On another computer .......................................................................... 30 Setting Up Your Web Site ............................................................................. 31 With a Web hosting company ............................................................ 31 On a company Web site ...................................................................... 32 Information you need .......................................................................... 33 Setting Up Your Development Environment .............................................. 34 Your own computer............................................................................. 34 Web hosting company......................................................................... 38 A company computer .......................................................................... 39 Testing, Testing, 1,2,3 ................................................................................... 39 Understanding PHP/MySQL functions .............................................. 40 Testing PHP .......................................................................................... 40 Testing your local PHP configuration file ......................................... 43 Testing MySQL ..................................................................................... 43 Chapter 3: Developing a Web Database Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Planning Your Web Database Application .................................................... 47 Identifying what you want from the application .............................. 48 Taking the user into consideration ................................................... 50 Making the site easy to use ................................................................ 51 Leaving room for expansion ............................................................... 51 Writing it down..................................................................................... 52 Presenting the Two Running Examples in This Book ............................... 52 Stuff for Sale .......................................................................................... 52 Members Only ...................................................................................... 53 Designing the Database ................................................................................ 54 Choosing the data ................................................................................ 54 Organizing the data ............................................................................. 56 Designing the Sample Databases ................................................................. 60 Pet Catalog design process................................................................. 61 Members Only design process ........................................................... 63 Types of Data ................................................................................................. 66 Character data...................................................................................... 66 Numerical data ..................................................................................... 66 Date and time data ............................................................................... 67 Enumeration data ................................................................................ 67 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. Table of Contents xiii MySQL data type names ..................................................................... 67 Writing it down..................................................................................... 69 Taking a Look at the Sample Database Designs ........................................ 69 Stuff for Sale database tables ............................................................. 69 Members Only database tables.......................................................... 70 Developing the Application .......................................................................... 71 Building the database .......................................................................... 72 Writing the programs .......................................................................... 72 Part II: MySQL Database ............................................ 73 Chapter 4: Building the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Communicating with MySQL ........................................................................ 75 Building SQL queries ........................................................................... 76 Sending SQL queries ............................................................................ 77 Building a Database ....................................................................................... 82 Creating a new database ..................................................................... 82 Viewing the databases ........................................................................ 85 Deleting a database ............................................................................. 85 Adding tables to a database ............................................................... 86 Changing the database structure....................................................... 90 Moving Data Into and Out of the Database ................................................ 92 Adding information .............................................................................. 93 Viewing information ............................................................................ 98 Retrieving information ........................................................................ 99 Combining information from tables ................................................ 104 Updating information ........................................................................ 109 Removing information ....................................................................... 110 Chapter 5: Protecting Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Controlling Access to Your Data ............................................................... 111 Understanding account names and hostnames ............................. 112 Finding out about passwords ........................................................... 113 Taking a look at account privileges ................................................. 115 Setting Up MySQL Accounts....................................................................... 116 Adding accounts ................................................................................ 117 Allowing access to a database ......................................................... 118 Changing privileges ........................................................................... 120 Adding and changing passwords ..................................................... 121 Removing accounts ........................................................................... 121 Backing Up Your Data ................................................................................. 122 Exporting your data with phpMyAdmin ......................................... 123 Viewing the Export file ...................................................................... 125 Restoring Your Data .................................................................................... 127 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. xiv PHP & MySQL For Dummies, 4th Edition Part III: PHP ........................................................... 131 Chapter 6: General PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Adding a PHP Section to an HTML Page ................................................... 133 Writing PHP Statements.............................................................................. 136 Using PHP Variables .................................................................................... 139 Naming a variable .............................................................................. 140 Creating and assigning values to variables .................................... 140 Dealing with notices .......................................................................... 142 Using PHP Constants ................................................................................... 142 Working with Numbers ............................................................................... 144 Working with Character Strings ................................................................ 146 Single-quoted strings versus double-quoted strings..................... 147 Joining strings .................................................................................... 148 Working with Dates and Times .................................................................. 149 Setting local time ............................................................................... 149 Formatting a date ............................................................................... 150 Storing a timestamp in a variable .................................................... 151 Using dates with MySQL ................................................................... 153 Comparing Values ....................................................................................... 154 Making simple comparisons ............................................................. 155 Matching character strings to patterns .......................................... 157 Joining Comparisons with and/or/xor ...................................................... 161 Adding Comments to Your Program ......................................................... 163 Chapter 7: PHP Building Blocks for Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Useful Simple Statements ........................................................................... 166 Using echo statements ...................................................................... 167 Using assignment statements........................................................... 170 Using increment statements ............................................................. 171 Using exit ............................................................................................ 172 Using function calls ........................................................................... 173 Using PHP Arrays......................................................................................... 173 Creating arrays ................................................................................... 173 Viewing arrays .................................................................................... 174 Removing values from arrays........................................................... 176 Sorting arrays ..................................................................................... 176 Getting values from arrays ............................................................... 178 Walking through an array ................................................................. 180 Multidimensional arrays ................................................................... 183 Useful Conditional Statements................................................................... 186 Using if statements ............................................................................ 187 Using switch statements ................................................................... 190 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. Table of Contents xv Using Loops .................................................................................................. 191 Using for loops ................................................................................... 192 Using while loops ............................................................................... 194 Using do..while loops ........................................................................ 196 Infinite loops ....................................................................................... 197 Breaking out of a loop ....................................................................... 199 Using Functions ........................................................................................... 201 Using variables in functions ............................................................. 203 Passing values between a function and the main program .......... 204 Using built-in functions ..................................................................... 209 Chapter 8: Data In, Data Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 PHP and MySQL Functions ......................................................................... 212 Making a Connection ................................................................................... 214 Connecting to the MySQL server ..................................................... 214 Selecting the right database ............................................................. 218 Sending SQL queries .......................................................................... 219 Getting Information from a Database ........................................................ 220 Sending a SELECT query ................................................................... 220 Getting and using the data ................................................................ 221 Using functions to get data ............................................................... 228 Getting Information from the User ............................................................ 232 Using HTML forms ............................................................................. 233 Making forms dynamic ...................................................................... 238 Using the information from the form .............................................. 251 Checking the information ................................................................. 253 Giving users a choice with multiple submit buttons..................... 263 Putting Information into a Database ......................................................... 265 Preparing the data ............................................................................. 265 Adding new information.................................................................... 270 Updating existing information.......................................................... 276 Getting Information in Files ........................................................................ 279 Using a form to upload the file ......................................................... 280 Processing the uploaded file ............................................................ 280 Putting it all together......................................................................... 282 Chapter 9: Moving Information from One Web Page to the Next . . .285 Moving Your User from One Page to Another ......................................... 286 Moving Information from Page to Page .................................................... 289 Adding information to the URL ........................................................ 290 Storing information via cookies ....................................................... 294 Passing information with HTML forms ........................................... 297 Using PHP Sessions ..................................................................................... 298 Understanding how PHP sessions work ......................................... 298 Opening sessions ............................................................................... 299 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. xvi PHP & MySQL For Dummies, 4th Edition Using PHP session variables............................................................. 299 Sessions without cookies .................................................................. 301 Making sessions private .................................................................... 303 Closing PHP sessions......................................................................... 304 Part IV: Applications ................................................ 305 Chapter 10: Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307 Organizing the Application......................................................................... 307 Organizing at the application level .................................................. 308 Organizing at the program level ...................................................... 309 Keeping It Private ........................................................................................ 316 Ensure the security of the computer .............................................. 316 Don’t let the Web server display filenames .................................... 317 Hide things .......................................................................................... 317 Don’t trust information from users ................................................. 318 Use a secure Web server................................................................... 318 Completing Your Documentation .............................................................. 318 Chapter 11: Building an Online Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 Designing the Application .......................................................................... 322 Showing pets to the customers........................................................ 322 Adding pets to the catalog ................................................................ 323 Building the Database ................................................................................. 323 Building the Pet table ........................................................................ 324 Building the PetType table ............................................................... 327 Building the Color table .................................................................... 328 Adding data to the database ............................................................ 330 Designing the Look and Feel ...................................................................... 331 Showing pets to the customers........................................................ 331 Adding pets to the catalog ................................................................ 335 Writing the Programs .................................................................................. 337 Showing pets to the customers........................................................ 338 Adding pets to the catalog ................................................................ 344 Chapter 12: Building a Members Only Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 Designing the Application .......................................................................... 360 Building the Database ................................................................................. 360 Building the Member table ............................................................... 361 Building the Login table .................................................................... 363 Adding data to the database ............................................................ 364 Designing the Look and Feel ...................................................................... 365 Storefront page................................................................................... 365 Login page ........................................................................................... 366 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  19. Table of Contents xvii New Member Welcome page ............................................................ 368 Members Only section ...................................................................... 368 Writing the Programs .................................................................................. 369 Writing PetShopFront ........................................................................ 370 Writing Login ...................................................................................... 371 Writing New_member ........................................................................ 384 Writing the Members Only section .................................................. 385 Planning for Growth .................................................................................... 386 Part V: The Part of Tens ............................................ 387 Chapter 13: Ten Things You Might Want to Do Using PHP Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 Communicate with MySQL ......................................................................... 389 Send E-Mail ................................................................................................... 390 Use PHP Sessions......................................................................................... 392 Stop Your Program ...................................................................................... 392 Handle Arrays .............................................................................................. 392 Check for Variables ..................................................................................... 393 Format Values .............................................................................................. 393 Compare Strings to Patterns ...................................................................... 395 Find Out about Strings ................................................................................ 395 Change the Case of Strings ......................................................................... 396 Chapter 14: Ten PHP Gotchas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397 Missing Semicolons ..................................................................................... 397 Not Enough Equal Signs .............................................................................. 398 Misspelled Variable Names ........................................................................ 398 Missing Dollar Signs .................................................................................... 398 Troubling Quotes......................................................................................... 399 Invisible Output ........................................................................................... 399 Numbered Arrays ........................................................................................ 400 Including PHP Statements .......................................................................... 401 Missing Mates .............................................................................................. 401 Confusing Parentheses and Brackets........................................................ 402 Part VI: Appendixes .................................................. 403 Appendix A: Installing PHP, MySQL, and Apache from XAMPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405 Installing XAMPP on Windows ................................................................... 405 Installing XAMPP on Mac ............................................................................ 410 Using XAMPP ................................................................................................ 412 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  20. xviii PHP & MySQL For Dummies, 4th Edition Appendix B: Configuring PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415 Changing Settings in php.ini....................................................................... 416 In the general php.ini file .................................................................. 416 In a php.ini file on your Web site ..................................................... 417 Changing Settings with an .htaccess File .................................................. 418 Changing Settings with PHP Statements................................................... 419 Index ....................................................................... 421 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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