PHP5 and MySQL Bible (P1)

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Tim Converse has written software to recommend neckties, answer questions about space stations, pick value stocks, and make simulated breakfast. He has an M.S. in Computer Science from the University of Chicago, where he taught several programming classes. He is now an engineering manager in the Web search group at Yahoo!. Joyce Park has an M.A. in history from the University of Chicago, and has worked for several Silicon Valley startups including Epinions, KnowNow, and Friendster. She is a co-lead of the Mod-pubsub Open Source project....

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  1. PHP5 and MySQL Bible ® Tim Converse and Joyce Park with Clark Morgan
  2. PHP5 and MySQL Bible ®
  3. PHP5 and MySQL Bible ® Tim Converse and Joyce Park with Clark Morgan
  4. PHP5 and MySQL® Bible Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 10475 Crosspoint Boulevard Indianapolis, IN 46256 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 0-7645-5746-7 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1B/SR/QU/QU/IN No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4447, E-Mail: permcoordinator@wiley.com. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2004103176 Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. MySQL is a registered trademark of MySQL AB Limited Company. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
  5. About the Authors Tim Converse has written software to recommend neckties, answer questions about space stations, pick value stocks, and make simulated breakfast. He has an M.S. in Computer Science from the University of Chicago, where he taught several programming classes. He is now an engineering manager in the Web search group at Yahoo!. Joyce Park has an M.A. in history from the University of Chicago, and has worked for several Silicon Valley startups including Epinions, KnowNow, and Friendster. She is a co-lead of the Mod-pubsub Open Source project. Clark Morgan is a Web application and educational software developer with more than five years’ experience writing PHP. He works primarily with medical clients and related busi- nesses. Originally from Boston, he now lives and works in Jacksonville, Florida, with his wife and two children. Clark spends entirely too much of his free time reading other people’s com- puter books.
  6. Credits Acquisitions Editor Vice President and Publisher Debra Williams Cauley Joseph B. Wikert Development Editor Executive Editorial Director Sara Shlaer Mary Bednarek Production Editor Project Coordinator Eric Newman April Farling Technical Editors Graphics and Production Specialists Chris Cornell Beth Brooks David Wall Sean Decker Carrie Foster Copy Editor Lauren Goddard C. M. Jones Quality Control Technician Editorial Manager Laura Albert Mary Beth Wakefield Carl William Pierce Vice President & Executive Group Permissions Editor Publisher Carmen Krikorian Richard Swadley Media Development Specialist Vice President and Executive Angela Denny Publisher Bob Ipsen Proofreading and Indexing TECHBOOKS Production Services
  7. To our parents: For their love, for their sacrifices, and for letting us read a lot when we were kids. — Tim Converse and Joyce Park This, my first serious writing effort, is for my lifelong friend Bob, who pointed me in this direction nearly ten years ago and then had the nerve to suggest I write about it. — Clark Morgan
  8. Preface W elcome to PHP5 and MySQL Bible! Although we’re biased, we believe that the PHP Web-scripting language is the hands-down win- ner in its niche — by far the easiest and most flexible server-side tool for getting great Web sites up and running in a hurry. Although millions of Web programmers worldwide could be wrong, in this particular case, they’re not. MySQL is the most popular open-source database platform, and it is the first choice of many for creating database-backed PHP-driven Web sites As we write this, PHP5 is in its third beta version, and PHP has continued to grow in reach, adoption, and features since we wrote the first two versions of this book. What Is PHP? PHP is an open-source, server-side, HTML-embedded Web-scripting language that is compati- ble with all the major Web servers (most notably Apache). PHP enables you to embed code fragments in normal HTML pages — code that is interpreted as your pages are served up to users. PHP also serves as a “glue” language, making it easy to connect your Web pages to server-side databases. Why PHP? We devote nearly all of Chapter 1 to this question. The short answer is that it’s free, it’s open source, it’s full featured, it’s cross-platform, it’s stable, it’s fast, it’s clearly designed, it’s easy to learn, and it plays well with others. What’s New in This Edition? Although this book has a new title, it is in some sense a third edition. Previous versions were: ✦ PHP 4 Bible. Published in August 2000, covering PHP through version 4.0. ✦ PHP Bible, Second Edition. Published in September 2002, a significantly expanded ver- sion of the first edition, current through PHP 4.2. Our initial plan for this book was to simply reorganize the second edition and bring it up to date with PHP5. We realized, however, that although the previous editions covered PHP/MySQL interaction, we had left readers in the dark about how to create and administer MySQL databases in the first place, and this led to many reader questions. As a result, we decided to beef up the coverage of MySQL and change the title.
  9. x Preface New PHP5 features Although much of PHP4’s functionality survives unchanged in PHP5, there have been some deep changes. Among the ones we cover are: ✦ Zend Engine 2 and the new object model, with support for private/protected members, abstract classes, and interfaces ✦ PHP5’s completely reworked XML support, built around libmxl2 ✦ Exceptions and exception handling MySQL coverage We now cover MySQL 4.0 installation, database design, and administration, including back- ups, replication, and recovery. As with previous editions, we devote much of the book to techniques for writing MySQL-backed PHP applications. Other new material In addition to MySQL- and PHP5-specific features, we’ve added: ✦ Improved coverage of databases other than MySQL (Oracle, PostgreSQL, and the PEAR database interaction layer) ✦ The PEAR code repository ✦ A chapter on integrating PHP and Java ✦ Separate chapters on error-handling and debugging techniques Finally, we reorganized the entire book, pushing more advanced topics toward the end, to give beginners an easier ramp up. Who wrote the book? The first two editions were by Converse and Park, with a guest chapter by Dustin Mitchell and tech editing by Richard Lynch. For this version, Clark Morgan took on much of the revi- sion work, with help by Converse and Park as well as by David Wall and Chris Cornell, who also contributed chapters and did technical editing. Whom This Book Is For This book is for anyone who wants to build Web sites that exhibit more complex behavior than is possible with static HTML pages. Within that population, we had the following three particular audiences in mind: ✦ Web site designers who know HTML and want to move into creating dynamic Web sites ✦ Experienced programmers (in C, Java, Perl, and so on) without Web experience who want to quickly get up to speed in server-side Web programming ✦ Web programmers who have used other server-side technologies (Active Server Pages, Java Server Pages, or ColdFusion, for example) and want to upgrade or simply add another tool to their kit.
  10. Preface xi We assume that the reader is familiar with HTML and has a basic knowledge of the workings of the Web, but we do not assume any programming experience beyond that. To help save time for more experienced programmers, we include a number of notes and asides that com- pare PHP with other languages and indicate which chapters and sections may be safely skipped. Finally, see our appendixes, which offer specific advice for C programmers, ASP coders, and pure-HTML designers. This Book Is Not the Manual The PHP Documentation Group has assembled a great online manual, located at www.php.net and served up (of course) by PHP. This book is not that manual or even a substitute for it. We see the book as complementary to the manual and expect that you will want to go back and forth between them to some extent. In general, you’ll find the online manual to be very comprehensive, covering all aspects and functions of the language, but inevitably without a great amount of depth in any one topic. By contrast, we have the leisure of zeroing in on aspects that are most used or least understood and give background, explanations, and lengthy examples. How the Book Is Organized This book is divided into five parts, as the following sections describe. Part I: PHP: The Basics This part is intended to bring the reader up to speed on the most essential aspects of PHP, with complexities and abstruse features deferred to later Parts. ✦ Chapters 1 through 4 provide an introduction to PHP and tell you what you need to know to get started. ✦ Chapters 5 through 10 are a guide to the most central facets of PHP (with the exception of database interaction): the syntax, the datatypes, and the most basic built-in functions. ✦ Chapter 11 is a guide to the most common pitfalls of PHP programming. Part II: PHP and MySQL Part II is devoted both to MySQL and to PHP’s interaction with MySQL. ✦ Chapters 12 and 13 provide a general orientation to Web programming with SQL databases, including advice on how to choose the database system that is right for you. ✦ Chapter 14 covers installation and administration of MySQL databases, and Chapter 15 is devoted to PHP functions for MySQL. ✦ Chapters 16 and 17 are detailed, code-rich case studies of PHP/MySQL interactions. ✦ Chapters 18 and 19 provide tips and gotchas specific to PHP/MySQL work.
  11. xii Preface Part III: Advanced Features and Techniques In this part we cover more advanced and abstruse features of PHP, usually as self-contained chapters, including object-oriented programming, session handling, exception handling, using cookies, and regular expressions. Chapter 32 is a tour of debugging techniques, and Chapter 33 discusses programming style. Part IV: Connections In this part we cover advanced techniques and features that involve PHP talking to other services, technologies, or large bodies of code. ✦ Chapters 34 through 36 cover PHP’s interaction with other database technologies (PostgreSQL, Oracle, and the PEAR database abstraction layer). ✦ Chapters 37 through 42 cover self-contained topics: PHP and e-mail programs, combin- ing PHP with JavaScript, integrating PHP and Java, PHP and XML, PHP-based Web ser- vices, and creating graphics with the gd image library. Part V: Case Studies Here we present six extended case studies that wrap together techniques from various early chapters. ✦ Chapter 43 takes you through the design and implementation of a weblog. ✦ Chapter 44 presents a user authentication system in detail. ✦ Chapter 45 shows how to build a rating system that lets users vote on content. ✦ Chapter 46 discusses a soup-to-nuts implementation of a novel trivia quiz game. ✦ Chapter 47 is a study of the process of converting a static HTML site to dynamic PHP. ✦ Chapter 48 uses the gd image library to visualize data from a MySQL database. Appendixes At the end, we offer three “quick-start” appendixes, for use by people new to PHP but very familiar with either C (Appendix A), Perl (Appendix B), or pure HTML (Appendix C). If you are in any of these three situations, start with the appropriate appendix for an orientation to important differences and a guide to the book. The final appendix (D) is a guide to important resources, Web sites, and mailing lists for the PHP community. Conventions Used in This Book We use a monospaced font to indicate literal PHP code. Pieces of code embedded in lines of text look like this, while full code listing lines look as follows: print(“this”); If the appearance of a PHP-created Web page is crucial, we include a screenshot. If it is not, we show textual output of PHP in monospaced font. If we want to distinguish the PHP output as seen in your browser from the actual output of PHP (which your browser renders), we call the former browser output.
  12. Preface xiii If included in a code context, italics indicate portions that should be filled in appropriately, as opposed to being taken literally. In normal text, an italicized term means a possibly unfamiliar word or phrase. What the Icons Mean Icons similar to the following example are sprinkled liberally throughout the book. Their pur- pose is to visually set off certain important kinds of information. Tip Tip icons indicate PHP tricks or techniques that may not be obvious and that enable you to accomplish something more easily or efficiently. Note Note icons usually provide additional information or clarification but can be safely ignored if you are not already interested. Notes in this book are often audience-specific, targeted to people who already know a particular programming language or technology. Caution Caution icons indicate something that does not work as advertised, something that is easily misunderstood or misused, or anything else that can get programmers into trouble. Cross- We use this icon whenever related information is in a different chapter or section. Reference The Web Site and Sample Code All the sample code from the book, as well as supplementary material we develop after press time, can be found at our Web site at www.troutworks.com/phpbook. You can also find the sample code at www.wiley.com/compbooks/converse. We want to hear from you! Please send us e-mail at phpbook@troutworks.com with com- ments, errata, kudos, flames, or any other communication that you care to send our way.
  13. Acknowledgments T his project began out of a conversation with Debra Williams Cauley, our acquisitions edi- tor at Wiley. She managed the project, found additional contributors, and maintained a sense of humor as she insulated naive first-time authors from the harsh realities of the pub- lishing business. (For the next two editions, she insulated naive second-time and third-time authors, respectively.) Sara Shlaer was the development editor who coordinated everything among the contributors, stayed on us to make the project not quite as late as it would otherwise have been, and cri- tiqued our drafts in detail, making some great saves along the way. Clark Morgan did the majority of the revision of previous material. David Wall and Chris Cornell each wrote novel chapters, revised previous chapters, and served as technical reviewers. Thanks to the Webmasters of the PHP team for permission to reproduce a graph of PHP usage; the folks at Zend for permission to use screenshots of their Zend Studio product; Amazon.com for data in the Web services chapter; KnowNow, Inc., for permission to excerpt code originally owned by them; Mimi Yin for her fabo design work; Alex Selkirk for permis- sion to reproduce material from Opencortex.org; Tim Perdue for inspiration; Hoang Nguyen for debugging help; and Jeff Barr of Syndic8.com for timely aid. Our obvious thanks go to everyone who created PHP itself (Rasmus Lerdorf, Zeev Suraski, Andi Gutmans, Thies Arntzen, Stig Bakken, Sascha Schumann, Andrei Zmievski, Sterling Hughes, Wez Furlong, George Schlossnagle, Dan Libby, Sam Ruby, and a host of other contributors), the peo- ple who have documented PHP (Stig Bakken, Alexander Aulbach, Egon Schmid, Lars Torben Wilson, Jim Winstead, and others), and everyone on the PHP mailing list. Special thanks to Rasmus, Sascha, and Richard Lynch for mailing-list answers to our own questions. Finally, both Converse and Park would like thank their spouses for their support while this book was being written and revised. In a very literal sense, we couldn’t have done it without them.
  14. Contents at a Glance Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Part I: PHP: The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1: Why PHP and MySQL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2: Server-Side Web Scripting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 3: Getting Started with PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Chapter 4: Adding PHP to HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Chapter 5: Syntax and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Chapter 6: Control and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Chapter 7: Passing Information between Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Chapter 8: Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Chapter 9: Arrays and Array Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Chapter 10: Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Chapter 11: Basic PHP Gotchas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Part II: PHP and MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Chapter 12: Choosing a Database for PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Chapter 13: SQL Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Chapter 14: MySQL Database Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Chapter 15: PHP/MySQL Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Chapter 16: Displaying Queries in Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Chapter 17: Building Forms from Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Chapter 18: PHP/MySQL Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Chapter 19: PHP/MySQL Gotchas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Part III: Advanced Features and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Chapter 20: Object-Oriented Programming with PHP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 Chapter 21: Advanced Array Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Chapter 22: String and Regular Expression Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Chapter 23: Filesystem and System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Chapter 24: Sessions, Cookies, and HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 Chapter 25: Types and Type Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Chapter 26: Advanced Use of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Chapter 27: Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Chapter 28: PEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
  15. Chapter 29: Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 Chapter 30: Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Chapter 31: Exceptions and Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Chapter 32: Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 Chapter 33: Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Part IV: Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 Chapter 34: PostgreSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Chapter 35: Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Chapter 36: PEAR Database Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669 Chapter 37: E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681 Chapter 38: PHP and JavaScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703 Chapter 39: PHP and Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Chapter 40: PHP and XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Chapter 41: Web Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 Chapter 42: Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 Part V: Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Chapter 43: Weblogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 Chapter 44: User Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 Chapter 45: A User-Rating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857 Chapter 46: A Trivia Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 Chapter 47: Converting Static HTML Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913 Chapter 48: Data Visualization with Venn Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945 Appendix A: PHP for C Programmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 967 Appendix B: PHP for Perl Hackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 973 Appendix C: PHP for HTML Coders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979 Appendix D: PHP Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
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