PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF CONCESSION (CỤM TỪ VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ CHỈ SỰ NHƯỢNG BỘ)

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Cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ thường được bắt đầu bằng giới từ ‘In spite of’ hoặc ‘Despite’ (mang nghĩa mặc dù, cho dù) Cấu trúc ...

Nội dung Text: PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF CONCESSION (CỤM TỪ VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ CHỈ SỰ NHƯỢNG BỘ)

PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF CONCESSION
(CỤM TỪ VÀ MỆNH Đ Ề CHỈ S Ự NHƯỢNG BỘ )


Cụm từ và mệnh đề chỉ sự nhượng bộ d ùng để di ễn đạt hai ý trái ngược trong cùng một câu.

I. PHRASES OF CONCESSION
 Cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ thường được bắt đầu bằng giớ i từ ‘In spite of ’ hoặc ‘Despite’ (mang
nghĩa m ặc dù, cho dù)
 Cấu trúc :
In spite of
+ N/N phrase/Gerund phrase , Main clause
Despite
 Sau hai giớ i từ này phải là m ột danh từ, một cụm danh từ hoặc một V-ing.
E.g. Despite the cold weather , they enjoyed the picnic.
Despite the fact that the weather was cold, they enjoyed the picnic.
Despite the weather being cold, they enjoyed the picnic.
In spite of his old age, he still leads an active life.
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 M ệnh đ ề có ‘Despite’ hoặc ‘In spite of ’ có thể được đặt trước hoặc sau m ệnh đ ề chính. Nếu đ ứng
trước mệnh đ ề chính, ta phải thêm dấu phẩy vào trước mệnh đ ề chính, nếu đứng sau mệnh đề
chính, ta không cần thêm dấu phẩy.
She couldn’t pass the exam despite studying hard .

II. CLAUSES OF CONCCESSION
 M ệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ là m ệnh đề phụ chỉ sự tương phản của 2 hành đ ộng trong câu.
 M ệnh đ ề này thường bắt đ ầu v ới những từ nố i : although, though, even though, no matter,
whatever (dù, cho dù)
 Cấu trúc :
Although
Main clause
1/ Though +S+V ,
Even though

 Đằng sau 3 cụm từ này phải là m ột mệnh đ ề hoàn chỉnh (có cả chủ ngữ v à đ ộng từ). Các m ệnh đề
này có thể đứng trước hoặc sau m ệnh đ ề chính. Nếu đ ứng trước m ệnh đ ề chính, ta phả i thêm dấu
phẩy vào trước mệnh đề chính, nếu đ ứng sau m ệnh đ ề chính, ta không cần thêm dấu phẩy.
E.g. Although the weather was cold , they enjoyed the picnic.
Jane will be admitted to the university even though she has bad grades.
Anna was fond of Jim though he often annoyed her .
 Nếu ‘though’ đứng m ột mình cuố i câu, tách biệt bở i câu chính bở i dấu phẩy thì nó mang nghĩa tuy
nhiên.
He promised to call me, till now I haven’t received any call from him, though .

No matter + who/what/when/where/why/how (adj, adv) + S + V, main clause
2/
Whatever (+N) + S + V, main clause


 Mệnh đ ề bắt đ ầu bằng NO MATTER hoặc WHATEVER thường được đặt trước m ệnh đề chính, mang
nghĩa ‘dù ……. đi nữa’
E.g. No matter how hard she tried , she couldn’t pass the exam.
No matter what she says, I don’t believe her.
……………………………………………………………………
W hatever jobs he chose, his parent were pleased with him.


PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF REASON
(CỤM TỪ VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ CHỈ LÝ DO)


I. PHRASES OF REASON
 Cụm từ chỉ lý do thường được bắt đ ầu bằng từ nố i : because of, owing to, due to, as a result
of, on account of
 Cấu trúc :
Because of
Owing to
Main clause
Due to + N/N phrase/Gerund phrase,
On account of
As a result of

 Các cụm từ này có thể đứng trước hoặc sau mệnh đề chính, mang nghĩa là ‘vì, do’. Nếu đ ứng trước
mệnh đ ề chính, ta phải thêm dấu phẩy vào trước mệnh đ ề chính, nếu đứng sau m ệnh đ ề chính, ta
không cần thêm dấu phẩy.
E.g. Jan was worried because of the rain .
Because of the traffic jam, the students arrived late.
The project has to be abandoned due to a lack of government funding .
Owing to his illness, he could not continue with his studies.
She dies as a result of her injur ies.

II. CLAUSES OF REASON
 Mệnh đ ề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do là m ột mệnh đ ề phụ chỉ lý do hoặc nguyên nhân của hành đ ộng được
nêu trong m ệnh đề chính.
 Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do thường được nối v ớ i mệnh đ ề chính nhờ các từ nối như : because,
as, since. (Lưu ý : ‘since’ và ‘as’ thường đặt ở đầu câu)
 Cấu trúc :
Because/As/Since + S + V, main clause
E.g. He came ten minutes late because he missed the first bus.
As the weather was bad , they didn’t take part in the trip.

EXERCISES
I. Complete the sentences with although/ in spite of/ because/ because of
1. ................. it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
2. I couldn’t get to sleep ...................... the noise.
3. ..................... I had an apple for lunch, I ate dinner early.
4. A lot of things went wrong ...................... all our careful plans .
5. She wasn’t wearing a coat .......................... it was quite cold
6. He only accepted the job ....................... t he salary, which was very high.
7. I went home early ................................. I was tired.
8. ............................. I knew the truth, I decided not to tell them.
9. Sarah can’t climb up the tree ........................ her fear of heights
10. We decided not to go out for a meal ............................... we had no money.
II. Rewrite the following sentences using the words provided without changing the meaning.
1. It rained alot but we enjoyed our holiday. (although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. Though we had planned carefully, alot of things went wrong. (in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3. I managed to sleep despite the fact that there was alot of noise. (although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4. I couldn’t sleep well although I was very tired. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
5. They have very little money but they are very happy. (in spite of )
.........................................................................................................................................................................
6. Inspite of the silly story, I enjoyed the film.(although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
7. I was feeling well but I went home early. (though)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
8. I could get to sleep although it was noisy. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
9. He has a very important job, but he isn’t particularly well -paid. (although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
10. Although the trafic was bad, I arrived on time. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
11. We went out inspite of the rain. (Although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
12. Although I had all the necessary qualifications, I didn’t get the job. (In spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
14. I had an umbrella but I got very wet in the rain. (Even though)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
15. Although my foot was injured, I managed to walk to the nearest village. (in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
16. She wasn’t wearing a coat although it was quite cold. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
17. Although I didn’t speak the language, I managed to make myself understand.(in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
18. I didn’t recognise her although I’d met her twice before. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
19. Although I had never s een her before, I recognized her from a photograph. (in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
20. He took many pictures though the sky was cloudy. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
III. Combine sentences, using clause or phrase of reason:
1. It's raining, so we stay at home.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. Most people hear jogging is a good exercise, so they begin to jog.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3. The climate in the country is healthy, so people like to live here.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4. A computer can be used for various purposes, so it becomes very popular nowadays.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
5. Tomorrow is a public holiday, so all the shops will be shut.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
IV. Change clauses of reason to phrases:
1. Mary didn't go to school yesterday because she was sick.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. She went to bed early because she felt tired.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3.Ann didn't go to the circus with Betty because she had a bad cold
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4. John succeeded in his exam because he worked hard and methodically.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
5. Margaret stayed home because her mother was sick.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
6. I like him because his father is kind to me.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
7. I can't eat these fruits because they are green.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
8. I couldn’t do the test because it was difficult.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
9. I couldn’t read the letter because it was dark.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
10. He came late because it rained heavily.
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