Phương pháp tổ chức cuộc họp

Chia sẻ: Nguyen Minh Phung | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:6

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Phương pháp tổ chức cuộc họp

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Phương pháp tổ chức cuộc họp

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  1. Ph−¬ng ph¸p tæ chøc mét cuéc häp T¸c gi¶: Elise Pinners, Cè vÊn Ph¸t triÓn Tæ chøc VECO, hîp t¸c víi GRET T¹i sao chóng ta cÇn cã h−íng dÉn vÒ ph−¬ng ph¸p chuÈn bÞ vµ tæ chøc mét cuéc häp? V× chóng ta th−êng nghe thÊy nh÷ng nhËn xÐt nh−: häp qu¸ nhiÒu! cuéc häp kÐo dµi qu¸ l©u! chóng ta mong muèn c¸c cuéc häp ®−îc chuÈn bÞ vµ ®iÒu hµnh tèt h¬n ®Ó lµm hµi lßng c¸c thµnh viªn tham dù (trong ®ã ®Çy ®ñ th«ng tin chi tiÕt, lËp kÕ ho¹ch tèt vµ ®−a ra c¸c quyÕt ®Þnh), ®ång thêi gi¶m thêi l−îng vµ tr¸ch nh÷ng cuéc häp ®Þnh kú kh«ng cÇn thiÕt. 1. Vai trß ®Æc biÖt cña ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh vµ th− ký cuéc häp Vai trß cña ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh: − Theo dâi thêi gian − Thèng nhÊt néi dung, tæ chøc häp theo néi dung, vµ ®iÒu chØnh néi dung khi cÇn thiÕt − Gióp cho th¶o luËn ®−îc diÔn ra thuËn lîi − Kh¼ng ®Þnh l¹i c¸c quyÕt ®Þnh vµ ho¹t ®éng dù kiÕn. Vai trß cña th− ký: − ChuÈn bÞ néi dung (th¶o luËn víi ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh, vµ nh÷ng ng−êi ph¶I tr×nh bµy trong cuéc häp!) − Göi giÊy mêi häp (kÌm theo néi dung) − ViÕt biªn b¶n (hoÆc chØ ®Þnh ng−êi viÕt thay thÕ). Mét sè c«ng viÖc cã thÓ uû quyÒn cho ng−êi kh¸c: vÝ dô: mét thµnh viªn tham gia häp cã thÓ ®−îc giao nhiÖm vô theo dâi thêi gian vµ nh¾c nhë ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh nÕu cuéc häp kh«ng theo ®óng tiÕn tr×nh, hay viÖc viÕt biªn b¶n häp cã thÓ giao cho ng−êi kh¸c (nh− th− ký v¨n phßng ch¼ng h¹n) (thay nhau viÕt trong c¸c cuéc häp kh¸c nhau, theo tõng chñ ®Ò). T−¬ng tù, vÞ trÝ ®iÒu hµnh còng cã thÓ giao cho ng−êi kh¸c. Mét lý do hîp lý ®Ó giao nhiÖm vô nµy lµ khi ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh muèn tham gia tÝch cùc vµo mét cuéc th¶o luËn nµo ®ã. Trong tr−êng hîp nµy ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh khã gi÷ ®−îc vÞ trÝ trung lËp cña m×nh, vµ dÔ bÞ hiÓu lµ lîi dông vai trß ®iÒu hµnh, ¸p ®Æt c¸c quyÕt ®Þnh. V× vËy (®èi víi mét sè chñ ®Ò) nªn giao quyÒn ®iÒu hµnh cho ng−êi trung lËp h¬n. 2. ChuÈn bÞ cuéc häp 2.1 Môc ®Ých häp Häp chØ lµ mét trong nh÷ng c«ng cô giao tiÕp gi÷a c¸c thµnh viªn trong nhãm vµ c¸c nhãm kh¸c nhau. Tuy nhiªn häp d−êng nh− lµ ph−¬ng tiÖn giao tiÕp quan träng nhÊt, bëi v× cuéc häp lµ n¬i ®−a ra c¸c quyÕt ®Þnh quan träng vµ chuÈn bÞ kÕ ho¹ch. VËy môc tiªu cña cuéc häp lµ g×? Chóng ta tæ chøc häp ®Ó th¶o luËn vÊn ®Ò chiÕn l−îc, vÊn ®Ò nhËn sù, vÊn ®Ò tµi chÝnh, hay th«ng b¸o nh÷ng ho¹t ®éng ®ang vµ sÏ tiÕn hµnh (LËp kÕ ho¹ch vµ b¸o c¸o)? 2.2 GiÊy mêi häp Ai tham dù phô thuéc vµo môc tiªu cña cuéc häp. Th«ng th−êng, ®Ó ®æi míi ph−¬ng ph¸p häp, chóng ta nªn xem xÐt vÊn ®Ò: cã nªn mêi ®¹i diÖn cña c¸c tæ chøc kh¸c (cïng ho¹t ®éng trong lÜnh vùc) v× hä cã thÓ tham luËn vÒ vÊn ®Ò ®Çu vµo: hä thùc hiÖn c¸c ho¹t ®éng nh− thÕ nµo vµ cã thÓ gióp g× ®−îc chóng ta. Khi mêi ®¹i biÓu tham dù, cÇn th«ng b¸o cho hä biÕt vÒ môc ®Ých, thêi gian, ®Þa ®iÓm vµ tèt h¬n lµ cïng víi néi dung cuéc häp. ViÖc nµy cho phÐp c¸c ®¹I biÓu ®−îc mêi ®¸nh gi¸ ®−îc tÇm quan träng cña cuéc häp vµ quyÕt ®Þnh cã tham gia kh«ng hay chØ tham gia mét phÇn, nÕu cã th× ph¶i chuÈn bÞ g× (®Ó tham gia th¶o luËn, thu thËp th«ng tin liªn quan). VECO Vietnam, Elise Pinners 01/22/03 Page 1
  2. 2.3 Néi dung häp Néi dung (hay ch−¬ng tr×nh nghÞ sù) Ýt nhiÒu chØ ra trËt tù l« gÝc cña c¸c chñ ®IÓm t−¬ng øng víI môc tiªu, thêi gian (Ýt nhÊt lµ thêi gian khai m¹c vµ kÕt thóc). Néi dung mét cuéc häp chuyªn m«n cã h×nh thøc t−¬ng ®èi gièng mÉu sau: 8.00 Khai m¹c 8.10 Th«ng qua néi dung 8.15 Th«ng qua biªn b¶n häp lÇn tr−íc 8.20 Nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò n¶y sinh trong biªn b¶n 8.30 Néi dung chñ ®Ò 1 9.00 Néi dung chñ ®Ò 2, v.v. 9.15 C¸c vÊn ®Ò n¶y sinh trong cuéc häp 9.30 Tãm t¾t nghÞ quyÕt vµ kÕ ho¹ch hµnh ®éng 9.45 KÕt thóc. 2.4 ChuÈn bÞ bµi ph¸t biÓu Ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh vµ th− ký nªn quan t©m ®Õn viÖc chuÈn bÞ bµi ph¸t biÓu cña c¸c ®¹i biÓu ®Ó ®¶m b¶o chÊt l−îng cña néi dung tr×nh bµy. Ch¼ng h¹n khi tr×nh bµy vÊn ®Ò tµi chÝnh c¸c sè liÖu tÝnh to¸n ph¶i ®−îc chuÈn bÞ vµ tr×nh bµy tèt, theo mét b¶ng sè liÖu râ rµng ®Ó dÔ dµng so s¸nh chi tiªu cho c¸c ho¹t ®éng ë c¸c thêi ®iÓm kh¸c nhau. NÕu kh«ng chuÈn bÞ tèt, ng−êi tr×nh bµy cã thÓ lóng tóng vµ mÊt thêi gian kh«ng cÇn thiÕt. Biªn b¶n c¸c cuéc häp tr−íc còng nªn ®−îc chuÈn bÞ chu ®¸o: nÕu kh«ng, cã thÓ g©y ra nhiÒu trïng lÆp kh«ng cÇn thiÕt. 2.5 ChuÈn bÞ ®Þa ®iÓm häp Giao tiÕp trong cuéc häp lµ cÇn thiÕt. Trong cuéc häp kh«ng chØ cã sù giao tiÕp gi÷a ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh víi ng−êi tham dù mµ cßn gi÷a nh÷ng ng−êi tham dù víi nhau. Kh«ng chØ tån t¹i viÖc giao tiÕp b»ng ng«n ng÷ mµ cã c¶ giao tiÕp phi ng«n ng÷. Do ®ã t¹o ®−îc mét m«i tr−êng cho phÐp më réng tèi ®a quan hÖ giao tiÕp lµ rÊt quan träng. Lùa chän nh÷ng ®Þa ®IÓm: - Cho phÐp ng−êi tham dù nghe tèt (kh«ng cã tiÕng ån tõ bªn ngoµi) nh−ng vÉn tho¸ng khÝ - ThuËn tiÖn cho viÖc tr×nh bµy b»ng h×nh ¶nh (cã b¶ng, cã t−êng trèng ®Ó cã thÓ treo nh÷ng khæ giÊy lín, hoÆc cã m¸y chiÕu h×nh) - S¾p xÕp bµn ghÕ theo h×nh trßn hoÆc h×nh b¸n nguyÖt ®Ó mäi ng−êi cã thÓ nh×n thÊy nhau!!! Ng−êi th− ký nªn ®Õn sím h¬n ®Ó chuÈn bÞ s¾p xÕp bµn nghÕ, dän vÖ sinh phßng häp. 3. Ph−¬ng ph¸p ®iÒu hµnh mét cuéc häp Mét sè chØ dÉn dµnh cho ng−êi ®IÒu hµnh: 1. Khai m¹c: nh¾c l¹i môc tiªu cña cuéc häp, chØ ®Þnh th− ký (viÕt biªn b¶n), nÕu cÇn thiÕt giíi thiÖu mét sè ®¹i biÓu. §Ó t¹o mét kh«ng khÝ tho¶i m¸i cho cuéc häp nªn ¸p dông mét sè ho¹t ®éng dÉn nhËp: nh− v¨n nghÖ, tù giíi thiÖu kÌm theo nh÷ng chi tiÕt vui ®ïa hãm hØnh, hay b¾t ch−íc mét con vËt mµ m×nh yªu thÝch v.v. 2. Th«ng qua néi dung häp: tham kh¶o ý kiÕn ®Ò xuÊt tr−íc khi th«ng qua. 3. Th«ng qua biªn b¶n cña cuéc häp tr−íc: xin ý kiÕn söa ch÷a. Cã thÓ cö ng−êi ®äc to biªn b¶n, hoÆc chØ ®äc phÇn quyÕt ®Þnh vµ kÕ ho¹ch hµnh ®éng. 4. Nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò n¶y sinh trong biªn b¶n: mét sè vÊn ®Ò cã trong kÕ ho¹ch nh−ng ch−a ®−îc bµn ®Õn, cÇn trao ®æi thªm; nÕu cÇn thiÕt ®iÒu chØnh l¹i néi dung häp. 5. Néi dung c¸c chñ ®Ò: mét sè vÊn ®Ò chØ cÇn tr×nh bµy mang tÝnh chÊt th«ng b¸o, mét sè kh¸c cÇn th¶o luËn bµn b¹c. Ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh nªn ®IÒu khiÓn cuéc th¶o luËn, ®¶m b¶o nh÷ng yªu cÇu sau: - Mäi thµnh viªn tham dù häp chuÈn bÞ tèt tr−íc khi th¶o luËn, nÕu cÇn thiÕt cã thÓ dµnh thêi gian cho c¸c vÞ ®¹i biÓu ®äc tµi liÖu - Tr¸nh lÆp l¹i: tãm t¾t ý kiÕn th¶o luËn, c¾t ngang nh÷ng ý kiÕn lÆp l¹i - Nªn t¹o mét kh«ng khÝ tho¶i m¸i, th©n mËt: nh−ng còng nªn tr¸nh nh÷ng xóc ph¹m c¸ nh©n. §«i khi nh÷ng c©u nãi vui ®ïa cã t¸c dông ti¸ch cùc - C¬ héi b×nh ®¼ng cho mäi thµnh viªn tham gia th¶o luËn: ®Æc biÖt chó ý ®Õn nh÷ng thµnh viªn Ýt tham gia ®ãng gãp ý kiÕn (phô n÷?, ng−êi nghÌo?), hoÆc nh÷ng ng−êi ë gãc xa phßng häp b»ng c¸ch ®Æt nh÷ng c©u hái - H¹n chÕ nh÷ng ng−êi cè t×nh ¸p ®Æt ý kiÕn VECO Vietnam, Elise Pinners 01/22/03 Page 2
  3. - Tr¸nh l¹c ®Ò, c¸c ý kiÕn th¶o luËn ph¶i ®i ®óng h−íng - Trong tr−êng hîp ph¶i ®−a ra nh÷ng quyÕt ®Þnh quan träng nh−ng ch−a kÕt thóc ®−îc cuéc th¶o luËn: cè g¾ng ®−a vÊn ®Ò ®Õn kÕt luËn, hoÆc tù quyÕt ®Þnh (dùa trªn nh÷ng ý kiÕn næi bËt hay ®−îc hÇu hÕt c¸c ®¹I biÓu t¸n thµnh), hay tæ chøc bá phiÕu - Kh¼ng ®Þnh l¹i c¸c quyÕt ®Þnh vµ c¸c ho¹t ®éng dù kiÕn sau khi ®· x¸c ®Þnh tr¸ch nhiÖm cña mäi ng−êi ®èi víi tõng c«ng viÖc. 6. Nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò n¶y sinh: cã nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ch−a ®−îc bµn ®Õn mµ thêi gian cã h¹n, chóng ta cã thÓ ho·n ®Õn cuéc häp sau 7. Tãm t¾t l¹i nghÞ quyÕt vµ kÕ ho¹ch hµnh ®éng 8. KÕt thóc: ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh cã thÓ mêi mét ®¹I biÓu lªn bÕ m¹c cuéc häp, nhËn xÐt vÒ viÖc theo dâi thêi gian, vµ kh«ng quªn th«ng b¸o ®Þa ®iÓm vµ thêi gian cho cuéc häp tiÕp theo! 9. ChØ dÉn dµnh cho th− ký: sau khi kÕt thóc cuéc häp, th¶o luËn biÖn ph¸p vµ thêi gian hoµn chØnh biªn b¶n cuéc häp. 4. Ph−¬ng ph¸p viÕt biªn b¶n cuéc häp Khi viÕt tªn biªn b¶n cuéc häp, nªn chó ý ®èi t−îng ®äc biªn b¶n (th«ng th−êng ng−êi ®éc biªn b¶n lµ nh÷ng ng−êi bªn trong tæ chøc). Biªn b¶n lµ mét c¸ch tiÕp cËn cuéc häp rÊt thùc tiÔn, nªn tr¸ch mÊt thêi gian vµo nh÷ng chi tiÕt mang tÝnh h×nh thøc kh«ng cÇn thiÕt trong phÇn më ®Çu v× kh«ng ai ®äc phÇn nµy c¶. Tiªu ®Ò nªn ng¾n gän vµ ®¬n gi¶n. Sau tiªu ®Ò, b¾t ®Çu viÕt ngµy vµ thµnh phÇn tham dù, nh÷ng ®¹i biÓu cã mÆt vµ v¾ng mÆt, tªn ng−êi ®IÒu hµnh vµ th− ký. Sau ®ã biªn b¶n nªn theo s¸t néi dung ®· thèng nhÊt vµ tiÕn hµnh trong cuéc häp, (xem phÇn 3). Cã thÓ h÷u Ých nÕu kÕt thóc biªn b¶n víi mét danh s¸ch c¸c quyÕt ®Þnh vµ c¸c ho¹t ®éng. TÊt nhiªn kh«ng ph¶i viÕt tÊt c¶ nh÷ng g× ®−îc ph¸t biÓu trong cuéc häp. ChØ viÕt nh÷ng th«ng tin quan träng, ®Æc biÖt chó ý tãm t¾t nh÷ng ý kiÕn tham luËn (do ng−êi ®IÒu hµnh hoÆc mét ai ®ã), nh÷ng kÕt luËn ®−îc ®−a ra (do ng−êi ®IÒu hµnh kh¼ng ®Þnh l¹i), vµ c¸c ho¹t ®éng dù kiÕn (ng−êi chÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm). Khi muèn viÕt chi tiÕt ý kiÕn th¶oluËn, nªn viÕt tªn ng−êi tham luËn bªn c¹nh ý kiÕn tham luËn. VÝ dô: «ng Ph¶i: sau kho¸ tËp huÊn vÒ tin häc, chóng t«I muèn ®−îc cÊp chøng nhËn. Khi mét vÊn ®Ò ®−îc th¶o luËn qu¸ nhanh, hoÆc kh«ng râ rµng, ng−êi viÕt biªn b¶n cã thÓ ®Ò nghÞ ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh tãm t¾t l¹i c¸c ý kiÕn th¶o luËn. §ã lµ lý do thùc tÕ ®Ó ng−êi viÕt biªn b¶n ngåi gÇn ng−êi ®iÒu hµnh. --------------------------------------- VECO Vietnam, Elise Pinners 01/22/03 Page 3
  4. HOW TO ORGANISE A MEETING Elise Pinners, advisor Organisational Development VECO, in collaboration with GRET Why do we write guidelines on how to prepare and carry out meetings? Because we often hear: too many meetings! meetings are too long! and we hope that well-prepared and well-guided meetings can lead to satisfactory meetings (in which decisions are taken, good plans are made, sufficient information given), and at the same time reduce the length of a meeting, or unnecessary frequent meetings. 1. The special role of a chairperson, and a secretary The role of a chairperson: - timekeeping - consensus on agenda, follow the agenda, if necessary adjust the agenda - facilitate discussions - repeat, confirm decisions and intended actions. The role of the secretary: - prepare agenda (concertation with chairperson, and with those who have to prepare presentations!) - send the invitations (+ agenda) - keep minutes (or make sure that a minute keeper is appointed). Some tasks can be delegated: any other participant may be given the task to keep time (and warn the chairperson when time is not kept), and also it is not un-usual to give the task of minutes writing to another participant (taking minutes by turn, each meeting another writer), to split up the task of minute writing to several persons (per subject), or to give the task to an outsider (a secretary of the office). Also the chairing of a meeting may be delegated to another person. One good reason to do so is when you as chairperson are personally involved in a certain subject, and you really want to participate actively in the debate. In that case you cannot stay ‘above’ the discussion, you risk to confuse your chairing position with your contribution in the debate, and even risk to be accused of abusing your position, forcing group decisions. So then (for certain subjects) it is better to (propose to) hand over to a more neutral person. 2. Preparation of a meeting 2.1 Objective(s) of a meeting Meetings are just one of several tools of communication in an organisation, or between organisations. However, they seem to be the most important way of communicating, because in a meeting important decisions can be taken, or plans can be prepared, or ... and ... Yes! What is (or are) the objective(s) of this meeting? Do we meet for a strategic discussion, to discuss personnel issues, or to be informed about activities carried out, and the ones to come next (Planning & Reporting), or to discuss financial matters? 2.2 Invitations for a meeting It naturally depends on the objective of a meeting, who we invite. But generally, to improve meetings, it may be interesting to consider this: invite a person from another (similar) organisation, who can give an input, on how they do things differently, or how they can help. When preparing a letter to invite people for a meeting, make sure that they are at least informed about the objectives of the meeting, time, venue, and preferably even the agenda, and who else will participate. This allows the invitee to assess the importance of a meeting, to make a choice to attend or not, or partly. Also it allows the invitee to prepare for the meeting (e.g. discuss things with others, or collect relevant information). 2.3 The agenda The agenda is the programme for a meeting. It indicates the more or less logical order of the subjects, usually according to the objective(s) of the meeting. It also indicates time: at least the beginning time and the end time. A professional agenda for a meeting looks more or less like this: VECO Vietnam, EP-Meetings.doc, Elise Pinners 01/22/03 -1-
  5. 8.00 Opening 8.10 Adoption of the agenda 8.15 Adoption of the minutes of last meeting 8.20 Matters arising from the minutes 8.30 Agenda subject 1 9.00 Agenda subject 2, etc. 9.15 Other matters arising. 9.30 Summary of decisions and action plan. 9.45 Closing. 2.4 Preparation of presentations The chairperson or secretary should make sure that those who are to present something are well prepared! For example, when financial matters are to be reported in the meeting, the calculations have to be presented well, for example in a table that allows to compare expenditures per activity, or per period. If such preparations are not done beforehand, unnecessary confusion and waste of time is the result. Also the minutes of the previous meetings(s) should be prepared: if they are not available, unnecessary repetition will be the result. 2.5 Preparation of the venue Communication in meetings is essential. This communication is not only between chairperson and participants, but also between participants. Besides, the communication is not only verbal, but also non- verbal! Therefore it is very important to create an environment that allows for a maximum of communication. Choose a venue that allows for: - good hearing (no noise from outside) and still with good ventilation - visual presentations (with a blackboard, or a wall upon which one can pin a big sheet of paper, or with an overhead projector) - arranging tables and chairs in a (semi-)circle so that everybody can see eachother!!! For this it may be necessary for a secretary to arrive earlier, to be able to shift furtniture, clean, etc. 3. How to chair a meeting Some tips for a chairperson: 1. Opening: recall the objectives of the meeting, appoint a secretary (for minutes writing), if necessary introduction of (some) participants. As part of the the opening some warming-up activities may be done, for example: sing a song, each participant saying his/her name and adding a lie or copying your favourite animal, etc. etc. 2. Adoption of the agenda: ask for comments, suggestions, before adoption. 3. Adoption of the minutes of last meeting: ask for corrections. There you can choose to (have somebody) read the minutes read aloud, or only to read the decisions made, and the action plan. 4. Matters arising from the minutes: some matters in the action plan may not appear on the agenda, and still require exchange of information; if necessary re-adjust the agenda. 5. Agenda subjects: some matters are just for presentation, for information, but some matters require a discussion. The chairperson should facilitate discussions, making sure that: - people are well prepared (informed) before the discussion takes place; if necessary some time may be reserved during the meeting for participants to read (e.g. discussion papers). - repetition is avoided: summarise discussions, cut short those that repeat. - a friendly athmosphere is maintained; this means that personal attacks should not be rewarded (a chairperson can indicate that certain personally confronting remarks are not to the point), and sometimes a joke can also help. - everybody gets a fair opportunity to contribute to discussions: pay special attention to those who usually say little (women?, poor?), or those who sit far away or in a difficult corner: ask them a question, ask for their opinion. - those who try to dominate with their views are not allowed to talk too much. - discussions stay on track: avoid a change of the subject during a discussion! - if decisions have to be taken and discussions seem inconclusive: try to reach a consensus, or decide yourself based on (what you perceive as) the dominating or opinion (or the opinion that is acceptable to most people) or organise a voting. - confirm decisions or intended actions, and make sure that for each action there is a responsible. VECO Vietnam, EP-Meetings.doc, Elise Pinners 01/22/03 -2-
  6. 6. Other matters arising: any subject not already discussed; if time is short, you can choose to postpone some matters to a next meeting. 7. Summary of the major decisions taken, and actions planned: a good secretary must have a list of decisions and actions. 8. Closing: the chairperson may invite another participants to give some closing remarks. Also it is useful to evaluate the time keeping, and: don’t forget to decide on when & where to meet again! Tip for the secretary: discuss after the meeting on how and when to finalise the minutes. 4. How to write minutes When writing the title of the minutes, just think of those who are to read the minutes (mostly only those from your organisation). Minutes are just a very practical way to improve communication; do not add unnecessary formal things in the heading, that nobody really wants to read. In most cases a short title is simply enough. After the title, start writing the date, and the names of participants that are present, and those who are invited but absent. Indicate who is the chairperson and who the secretary. Now the minutes can follow the structure of the agenda that was adopted and followed during the meeting (see chapter 3). It may be useful to conclude the minutes with a separate list of decisions and actions. Clearly not all that is said by each and every person can be written down. To make sure to have most important information, pay special attention to: summaries of discussions (made by the chairperson or anybody else), decisions that are made (repeated by the chairperson), and actions intended (and who is responsible). If you do want to write down details of a discussion, do not forget to note the name of a person, before noting the opinion given in that discussion. For example: Mr. Phai: if there is training on use of computers, we also need certificates. When things go too fast, or are not clear, a minute write should claim special attention from the chairperson, to clarify conclusions. Therefore it is practical to sit next to the chairperson. For more formal minutes (for example in which decisions are taken on rules and regulations of a group) it may be practical to have the final version of the minutes signed by the chairperson and the secretary. VECO Vietnam, EP-Meetings.doc, Elise Pinners 01/22/03 -3-

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