Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services- P1

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Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services- P1

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  1. THE EXPERT’S VOICE ® IN SQL SERVER Covers Release 2! Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services Create value and competitive advantage through careful mining and analysis of your company’s business data Philo Janus and Guy Fouché
  2. Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services Philo Janus Guy Fouché
  3. Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services Copyright © 2010 by Philo Janus and Guy Fouché All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher. ISBN-13 (pbk): 978-1-4302-1995-8 ISBN-13 (electronic): 978-1-4302-1996-5 Printed and bound in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Trademarked names, logos, and images may appear in this book. Rather than use a trademark symbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, logo, or image we use the names, logos, and images only in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Publisher and President: Paul Manning Lead Editor: Jonathan Gennick Technical Reviewers: Dana Hoffman and Fabio Claudio Ferrachiatti Editorial Board: Clay Andres, Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, Jonathan Hassell, Michelle Lowman, Matthew Moodie, Duncan Parkes, Jeffrey Pepper, Frank Pohlmann, Douglas Pundick, Ben Renow-Clarke, Dominic Shakeshaft, Matt Wade, Tom Welsh Coordinating Editors: Candace English and Fran Parnell Copy Editors: Sharon Wilkey and Mary Ann Fugate Compositor: Bytheway Publishing Services Indexer: John Collin Artist: April Milne Cover Designer: Anna Ishchenko Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC., 233 Spring Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10013. Phone 1-800-SPRINGER, fax (201) 348-4505, e-mail orders-ny@springer- sbm.com, or visit www.springeronline.com. For information on translations, please e-mail rights@apress.com, or visit www.apress.com. Apress and friends of ED books may be purchased in bulk for academic, corporate, or promotional use. eBook versions and licenses are also available for most titles. For more information, reference our Special Bulk Sales–eBook Licensing web page at www.apress.com/info/bulksales. The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this work, neither the author(s) nor Apress shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the information contained in this work. The source code for this book is available to readers at www.apress.com. You will need to answer questions pertaining to this book in order to successfully download the code.
  4. To Jodi Fouché: For her poetry, being my biggest fan, and unequivocal love — Guy Fouché
  5. CONTENTS Contents at a Glance Contents.................................................................................................................. v About the Authors................................................................................................ xiv About the Technical Reviewers ............................................................................ xv Acknowledgments ............................................................................................... xvi Introduction ........................................................................................................ xvii Chapter 1: Introduction to OLAP .............................................................................1 Chapter 2: Cubes, Dimensions, and Measures .....................................................15 Chapter 3: SQL Server Analysis Services..............................................................41 Chapter 4: SSAS Developer and Admin Interfaces...............................................75 Chapter 5: Creating a Data Source View...............................................................97 Chapter 6: Creating Dimensions .........................................................................117 Chapter 7: Building a Cube .................................................................................167 Chapter 8: Deploying and Processing.................................................................195 Chapter 9: MDX...................................................................................................219 Chapter 10: Cube Features .................................................................................251 Chapter 11: Data Mining .....................................................................................275 Chapter 12: PowerPivot ......................................................................................311 Chapter 13: Administration.................................................................................333 Chapter 14: User Interfaces ................................................................................373 Appendix A: Setting Up Adventure Works...........................................................431 Appendix B: Data-Mining Resources ..................................................................435 Index ...................................................................................................................437 iv
  6. CONTENTS Contents Contents at a Glance.............................................................................................. iv Contents.................................................................................................................. v About the Authors................................................................................................ xiv About the Technical Reviewers ............................................................................ xv Acknowledgments ............................................................................................... xvi Introduction ........................................................................................................ xvii Chapter 1: Introduction to OLAP .............................................................................1 From Pivot Tables to Dimensional Processing...................................................................2 Data Warehousing .............................................................................................................4 Applications of OLAP..........................................................................................................5 History of OLAP ..................................................................................................................7 SQL Server Analysis Services ............................................................................................8 Data Mining .....................................................................................................................13 Summary .........................................................................................................................14 Chapter 2: Cubes, Dimensions, and Measures .....................................................15 Cubes and Their Components..........................................................................................15 Defining Measures and Dimensions ................................................................................18 Schemas................................................................................................................................................. 18 Dimensions in Depth............................................................................................................................... 20 Measures................................................................................................................................................ 27 Types of Aggregation.............................................................................................................................. 31 v
  7. CONTENTS Writeback ............................................................................................................................................... 32 Calculated Measures .............................................................................................................................. 33 Actions.............................................................................................................................34 XMLA................................................................................................................................35 Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) ..............................................................................36 Data Warehouses.............................................................................................................37 Storage ............................................................................................................................38 Staging Databases.................................................................................................................................. 38 Storage Modes ....................................................................................................................................... 38 Summary .........................................................................................................................39 Chapter 3: SQL Server Analysis Services..............................................................41 Requirements ..................................................................................................................41 Hardware................................................................................................................................................ 41 Virtualization........................................................................................................................................... 43 Software ................................................................................................................................................. 44 Upgrading ............................................................................................................................................... 44 Standard or Enterprise Edition?.............................................................................................................. 44 Architecture .....................................................................................................................46 The Unified Dimensional Model .............................................................................................................. 46 Logical Architecture................................................................................................................................ 49 Physical Architecture.............................................................................................................................. 52 Storage ................................................................................................................................................... 54 Cube Structures in SSAS .................................................................................................59 Data Sources .......................................................................................................................................... 61 Data Source View ................................................................................................................................... 61 The Cube Structure Itself........................................................................................................................ 63 Dimensions............................................................................................................................................. 64 Mining Structures ................................................................................................................................... 65 vi
  8. CONTENTS What’s New in SQL Server 2008......................................................................................65 Performance ........................................................................................................................................... 65 Tools ....................................................................................................................................................... 69 Summary .........................................................................................................................73 Chapter 4: SSAS Developer and Admin Interfaces...............................................75 Business Intelligence Development Studio......................................................................75 BIDS Is Visual Studio? ............................................................................................................................ 75 Panes...................................................................................................................................................... 76 Solution Explorer .................................................................................................................................... 79 Properties Pane ...................................................................................................................................... 80 Creating or Editing a Database Solution................................................................................................. 82 SQL Server Management Studio......................................................................................86 Managing Analysis Services................................................................................................................... 87 Executing MDX Queries .......................................................................................................................... 91 PowerShell.......................................................................................................................92 A Convincing Example ............................................................................................................................ 93 PowerShell for SQL Server ..................................................................................................................... 93 PowerShell with SSAS............................................................................................................................ 94 Summary .........................................................................................................................95 Chapter 5: Creating a Data Source View...............................................................97 Cubes Need Data .............................................................................................................97 Data Sources ...................................................................................................................98 Data Source Views.........................................................................................................105 Designer Tour ....................................................................................................................................... 105 Named Calculations and Queries.......................................................................................................... 110 Summary .......................................................................................................................116 vii
  9. CONTENTS Chapter 6: Creating Dimensions .........................................................................117 Dimensional Analysis.....................................................................................................117 Review of the Dimension Concept........................................................................................................ 118 Star or Snowflake? ............................................................................................................................... 119 Dimensions in SSAS ......................................................................................................127 Creating a Dimension ........................................................................................................................... 127 Analysis Management Objects (AMO) Warnings................................................................................... 135 Dimension Properties ........................................................................................................................... 136 Attributes .......................................................................................................................148 Attribute Relationships ......................................................................................................................... 150 Attribute Properties .............................................................................................................................. 156 Parent-Child Dimensions ...............................................................................................157 The Time Dimension ......................................................................................................159 Summary .......................................................................................................................166 Chapter 7: Building a Cube .................................................................................167 Dimensions and Cubes ..................................................................................................169 Creating Cubes ..................................................................................................................................... 170 Using Measure Group Tables................................................................................................................ 170 Selecting Dimensions ........................................................................................................................... 173 Defining Dimension Usage ................................................................................................................... 179 Measures and Measure Groups.....................................................................................182 Measures.............................................................................................................................................. 182 Measure Groups ................................................................................................................................... 184 Calculated Measures ............................................................................................................................ 185 Summary .......................................................................................................................193 Chapter 8: Deploying and Processing.................................................................195 Deploying a Project........................................................................................................195 Project Properties ................................................................................................................................. 195 viii
  10. CONTENTS Deployment Methods............................................................................................................................ 198 Using the Deployment Wizard........................................................................................198 Running the Wizard .............................................................................................................................. 199 Input Files ............................................................................................................................................. 201 Deployment Scripts .............................................................................................................................. 202 Synchronizing SSAS Databases.....................................................................................202 Processing .....................................................................................................................204 What Processing Does for Us ............................................................................................................... 205 How to Initiate Processing from BIDS................................................................................................... 208 Processing from SQL Server Management Studio................................................................................ 214 Processing via XMLA ............................................................................................................................ 215 Processing with Analysis Management Objects (AMO) ........................................................................ 215 Scheduling OLAP Maintenance......................................................................................215 Summary .......................................................................................................................218 Chapter 9: MDX...................................................................................................219 Why the Need?...............................................................................................................219 Tuples and Sets .............................................................................................................221 Notation ................................................................................................................................................ 222 Tuples ................................................................................................................................................... 223 Sets ...................................................................................................................................................... 228 MDX Queries ..................................................................................................................228 SELECT ................................................................................................................................................. 229 WHERE.................................................................................................................................................. 232 MDX Functions...................................................................................................................................... 233 Categories of Functions........................................................................................................................ 239 Summary .......................................................................................................................249 Chapter 10: Cube Features .................................................................................251 Business Intelligence.....................................................................................................251 ix
  11. CONTENTS Time Intelligence .................................................................................................................................. 252 Account Intelligence ............................................................................................................................. 254 Dimension Intelligence ......................................................................................................................... 255 Operators, Functions, and More ....................................................................................255 Unary Operators.................................................................................................................................... 255 Custom Member Formulas ................................................................................................................... 256 Attribute Ordering................................................................................................................................. 257 Currency Conversion ............................................................................................................................ 257 Calculations Tab ............................................................................................................258 Calculated Measures ............................................................................................................................ 259 Named Sets .......................................................................................................................................... 262 Other Cube Features......................................................................................................262 Key Performance Indicators ................................................................................................................. 263 Actions.................................................................................................................................................. 265 Perspectives ......................................................................................................................................... 270 Translations .......................................................................................................................................... 272 Summary .......................................................................................................................273 Chapter 11: Data Mining .....................................................................................275 Why Mine Data?.............................................................................................................275 Using Data-Mining Algorithms.......................................................................................276 Microsoft Naïve Bayes.......................................................................................................................... 276 Microsoft Clustering ............................................................................................................................. 276 Microsoft Decision Trees ...................................................................................................................... 277 Creating the Accessory Buyers Marketing Campaign....................................................277 Preparing the Data Warehouse......................................................................................278 Creating the Accessory Buyers Views in AdventureWorks................................................................... 278 Creating the Accessory Campaign Data Source View .......................................................................... 281 Finding Accessory Buyers by Using the AdventureWorks EDW .....................................282 x
  12. CONTENTS Using the Data Mining Model Designer .........................................................................289 The Mining Structure View ................................................................................................................... 290 The Mining Models View ...................................................................................................................... 291 The Mining Model Viewer View ............................................................................................................ 292 The Mining Accuracy Chart View.......................................................................................................... 297 The Mining Model Prediction View ....................................................................................................... 299 Finding Accessory Buyers by Using Data Mining Extensions (DMX)..............................303 Use the DMX Development Environment .............................................................................................. 303 Create the Accessory Buyers Mining Structure.................................................................................... 304 Add a Naïve Bayes Mining Model to the Accessory Buyers Campaign................................................. 305 Process the Accessory Buyers Campaign ............................................................................................ 305 View the Accessory Buyers Mining Model............................................................................................ 306 Predict Our Accessory Buyers .............................................................................................................. 308 Summary .......................................................................................................................310 Chapter 12: PowerPivot ......................................................................................311 PowerPivot Support in SQL Server 2008 R2 ..................................................................311 Master Data Services ........................................................................................................................... 311 Excel Writeback.................................................................................................................................... 313 PowerPivot from Excel...................................................................................................320 PowerPivot with SharePoint Server 2010......................................................................326 Summary .......................................................................................................................331 Chapter 13: Administration.................................................................................333 DBA Tasks......................................................................................................................333 Processing a Cube................................................................................................................................ 333 Processing Options............................................................................................................................... 335 Processing Architecture ....................................................................................................................... 336 Profiler.................................................................................................................................................. 337 Performance Monitor............................................................................................................................ 337 xi
  13. CONTENTS Automation ........................................................................................................................................... 339 XML for Analysis................................................................................................................................... 340 Analysis Management Objects ............................................................................................................. 340 PowerShell ........................................................................................................................................... 343 Scheduling............................................................................................................................................ 343 SQL Server Integration Services........................................................................................................... 345 Security..........................................................................................................................348 Authentication ...................................................................................................................................... 348 Authorization ........................................................................................................................................ 349 Performance ..................................................................................................................352 Design................................................................................................................................................... 352 Aggregations ........................................................................................................................................ 359 Scaling.................................................................................................................................................. 367 Virtualization......................................................................................................................................... 369 SharePoint Server 2010........................................................................................................................ 369 Summary .......................................................................................................................371 Chapter 14: User Interfaces ................................................................................373 Excel 2007 .....................................................................................................................373 Data Source Connections ..................................................................................................................... 374 Pivot Tables .......................................................................................................................................... 379 Pivot Charts .......................................................................................................................................... 386 Visio 2007 ......................................................................................................................399 SQL Server Reporting Services......................................................................................401 Reports ................................................................................................................................................. 401 Tablix .................................................................................................................................................... 402 Charts ................................................................................................................................................... 410 Report Builder 2.0................................................................................................................................. 418 MOSS 2007 ....................................................................................................................420 xii
  14. CONTENTS KPI Lists................................................................................................................................................ 421 Excel Services ...................................................................................................................................... 423 PerformancePoint ..........................................................................................................423 Appendix A: Setting Up Adventure Works...........................................................431 Appendix B: Data-Mining Resources ..................................................................435 Index ...................................................................................................................437 xiii
  15. About the Authors Philo Janus is a senior technology specialist with Microsoft. Over the years he has presented Microsoft Office InfoPath to thousands of users and developers, and assisted with enterprise implementations of InfoPath solutions. With that background, he is particularly sensitive to the difficulties users and developers have had with InfoPath. He graduated from the US Naval Academy with a bachelor of science in electrical engineering in 1989 to face a challenging career in the US Navy. After driving an aircraft carrier around the Pacific Ocean and a guided-missile frigate through both the Suez and Panama Canals, and serving in the US Embassy in Cairo, a small altercation between his bicycle and an auto indicated a change of career (some would say that landing on his head in that accident would explain many things). Philo’s software development career started with building a training and budgeting application in Access 2.0 in 1995. Since then he’s worked with Oracle, Visual Basic, SQL Server, and .NET, building applications for federal agencies, commercial firms, and conglomerates. In 2003 he joined Microsoft as a technology specialist, evangelizing Office as a development platform. Guy Fouché is a business intelligence and decision support system consultant in the Dallas, Texas area. Guy spends his evenings playing one of his eight trumpets and expanding his composition skills by using the current generation of music technologies. On the weekend, he puts as many miles as he can on his bright yellow Honda F4i sport motorcycle. Guy and his wife Jodi enjoy taking nine-day trips in their Jeep 4×4, taking photographs and writing travelogs along the way. You can view their photography at http://photography.fouche.ws. xiv
  16. About the Technical Reviewers Fabio Claudio Ferrachiatti is a senior consultant and a senior analyst/developer of Microsoft technologies. He works for Brain Force at its Italian branch (www.brainforce.it). He is a Microsoft Certified Solution Developer for .NET, a Microsoft Certified Application Developer for .NET, and a Microsoft Certified Professional, as well as a prolific author and technical reviewer. Over the past ten years, he’s written articles for Italian and international magazines and coauthored more than ten books on a variety of computer topics. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Dana L. Hoffman often jokes that her name should have been Data. She has always had a sharp eye for detail and an avid desire to create systems that are not just workable, but intuitive and easy to use. She always tries to see things from the user’s point of view, and sees technical reviewing as an excellent opportunity to put her nitpicking skills to good use. With a background in programming and database development, Dana currently works as a data analyst. She lives in Connecticut and is nearly finished raising two sons. xv
  17. INTRODUCTION Acknowledgments I’d like to offer a huge thank-you to everyone at Apress who has had input into these pages! Guy Fouché xvi
  18. Introduction Pro SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services offers an in-depth look into the latest and greatest suite of analytic tools from Microsoft. This book will help you create business intelligence (BI) solutions that improve your company’s analysis and decision making by focusing on practical, solution-oriented application of the technologies available in SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services (SSAS). Using the examples and exercises in this book, you will further your understanding of online analytical processing (OLAP), BI, data mining, and SSAS itself. New SSAS features are also explained, including the Management Data Warehouse (MDW), dynamic management views (DMVs), and Aggregation Designer. Improvements to the Cube and Dimension Designers are also covered. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce you to OLAP, and to the key concepts that are termed cubes, dimensions, and measures. With that foundation laid, Chapters 3 and 4 introduce you to what SQL Server provides. You’ll get your first look at Analysis Services and its administration interface. Chapters 5 through 7 show you how to design and build a cube for analysis. The cube is the focal point of Analysis Services. Once you’ve created a cube, Chapter 8 shows how to deploy it for use. After you’ve deployed a cube, it is available for you and other analyists to query. It is partly through queries that one examines and analyzes the data at one’s disposal. To that end, Chapter 9 is devoted to Multidimensional Expressions (MDX), which is the query language underpinning Analysis Services solutions. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are at the heart of every BI solution. In Chapter 10, you will learn how to define, create, and use these metrics. Chapter 10 also introduces you to perspectives, actions, and calculated members. Data-mining algorithms enable you to sift through huge amounts of historical data, and create predictions based on trends and patterns. Working through Chapter 11, you will learn how to use data mining to create, execute, and validate a prediction model. Chapter 11 will also introduce you to Microsoft’s Data Mining Extensions (DMX) language. PowerPivot is an exciting set of technologies that provide powerful BI abilities to all business users. By integrating with Office 2010, your users can perform complex analysis and data mining on their workstations. Using SSAS language translation and automated currency conversions greatly enhances the usability of your company’s data across the enterprise. Finally, Chapter 13 offers important information for SSAS administrators. To effectively manage SSAS at the server level, you need to understand processing tasks and options, the SQL Server Profiler, the Performance Monitor, scheduling, and security. xvii
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