Reading and Writing

Chia sẻ: Bao Han | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:19

1
225
lượt xem
127
download

Reading and Writing

Mô tả tài liệu
  Download Vui lòng tải xuống để xem tài liệu đầy đủ

The ability to communicate clearly—to read, write, speak, and listen—forms the core of human culture. Reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills are essential tools for learning, for success in the workplace, for enriching and expanding our lives, and for responsible citizenship.

Chủ đề:
Lưu

Nội dung Text: Reading and Writing

  1. Reading and Writing Introduction The ability to communicate clearly—to read, write, speak, and listen—forms the core of Educators, parents, and communities can now focus their attention and energy on human culture. Reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills are essential tools for creating the conditions under which all students can meet these expectations. learning, for success in the workplace, for enriching and expanding our lives, and for Therefore, it is the responsibility of the education community to intervene at the responsible citizenship. earliest point in the student’s formal educational experience where, through careful observation, it becomes apparent that a student is not progressing in a manner that Language skills are particularly critical in the area of education. Through language will lead to the meeting of these standards. abilities, students understand the academic content areas. Success in learning depends on students acquiring solid knowledge and skills in reading, writing, speak- These standards will lead to the development of literate students who are proficient ing, and listening. As with the Colorado Model Content Standards, the proposed in reading, writing, listening, speaking, creativity, problem solving, and researching Denver Public Schools standards set high expectations in these areas for all students. skills. Achievement of these standards gives students the ability to make meaningful connections between life and educational experiences and enables them to enjoy Reading and writing have the power to bridge time and place. We remain in contact personal success. Given the importance of developing literate students, the reading with people who lived before us through literature and other written records of and writing standards cannot be accomplished in isolation. Literacy skills must be human experience. We reach toward our future by knowing how to locate, read, developed in all content areas. Standards that incorporate the academic rigor in comprehend, and make use of an ever-increasing amount of information. these reading and writing standards will help students achieve standards for all These standards express what each student in Denver should know and be able to content areas and perform at expected levels of proficiency. do in order to • become fluent readers, writers, and speakers; • communicate effectively, concisely, coherently, and imaginatively; • recognize the power of language and use that power ethically and creatively; and • communicate with ease in an increasingly technological world. Denver Public Schools page R–2
  2. Standards for Success Developing Literacy The primary goal of the Denver Public Schools is to Reading and Writing Content Standards develop literate students. Students in the Denver Public Schools will learn to read and will be 1. Students read and understand a variety of prepared to participate in society as literate materials. citizens, equipped with the ability to communicate 2. Students write and speak for a variety of effectively in their communities, in the workplace, and in postsecondary education. These reading purposes and audiences. and writing standards set forth clear expectations 3. Students write and speak using formal for student achievement in the areas of reading grammar, usage, sentence structure, and writing and are supported by the district Elementary and Secondary Literacy Plans. The punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. literacy plans provide a framework which will 4. Students apply thinking skills to their support the development of literate students. The reading, writing, speaking, listening, and literacy plans include these strategies: viewing. • providing effective reading instruction for all 5. Students read to locate, select, and make students; use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference, and technological sources. • providing professional development which includes content and process strategies to 6. Students read and recognize literature as a implement effective, necessary reading and record of human experience. writing instruction for all students; 7. Students use appropriate technologies to • supporting schools in acquiring appropriate and extend comprehension and communication quality materials for all students; skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing. • monitoring the use of appropriate assessments that measure student achievement in reading and writing; and • monitoring the implementation of content standards for reading and writing instruction. page R–3 Content Standards
  3. Reading and Writing STANDARD 1: Students read and understand a variety of materials. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, students will In grades K-4, what the students know and are able to do includes 1.1 use comprehension strategies such as using prior knowledge; previewing; predicting; inferring; comparing and contrasting; rereading and self-monitoring; summarizing; identifying the author’s purpose, i.e., reason for • using a full range of strategies to comprehend writing; determining the main idea; and applying knowledge of foreshadowing, metaphor, simile, symbolism, materials such as directions, nonfiction material, and other identified figures of speech; poetry, plays, and stories. 1.2 make connections between prior knowledge and what they need to know about a topic before reading about it; 1.3 adjust reading strategies for a variety of purposes such as reading carefully, skimming and scanning, fitting materials into an organizational pattern, reading a variety of literature chronologically, finding information to support particular ideas, and finding the sequence of steps in publications including textbooks and technical articles; 1.4 use word recognition skills, strategies, and resources such as phonics, context clues, picture clues, word origins, and word order clues; reference guides; roots, prefixes, and suffixes of words for comprehension; and 1.5 use information from their reading to increase vocabulary and language usage. Rationale. The goal for students at all levels is that they know and can use strategies—various ways of unlocking the meaning of words and larger blocks of text—to become successful life-long readers. The strategies are applied in increasingly difficult reading material at each grade level. At all levels, students should be challenged to read literature and other materials that stimulate their interests and intellectual abilities. Reading from a wide variety of texts, both assigned and student selected, provides experience in gaining information and pleasure from diverse forms and perspectives. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–4
  4. Standards for Success STANDARD 1: Students read and understand a variety of materials. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes what they know and are able to do includes • using a full range of strategies to comprehend • using a full range of strategies to comprehend technical writing, newspapers, magazines, essays, speeches, biographies, autobiographies, poetry, short stories, plays, and novels in and first person historical documents in addition addition to the types of reading material to the types of literature mentioned in previous mentioned in the K-4 benchmarks. Students grade level benchmarks. extend their thinking and understanding as they read stories about people from diverse backgrounds. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–5 Content Standards
  5. Reading and Writing STANDARD 2: Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, students will In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes 2.1 expand vocabulary development using a variety of methods such as synonyms, antonyms, metaphors, similes; • generating topics and developing ideas for a variety of writing and speaking purposes (for 2.2 write and speak for a variety of purposes such as telling stories, presenting analytical responses to example, telling a sequential story, publishing a literature, conveying technical information, explaining concepts and procedures, and persuading; class newsletter, writing a letter to an adult, 2.3 write and speak to peers, teachers, and the community; writing or orally presenting a book report, creating and producing a play, introducing a 2.4 plan, draft, revise, proofread, edit, and publish written communications; speaker or an event, narrating a presentation, 2.5 use a variety of literary devices such as figurative language, symbolism, dialect, and precise researching, writing, and presenting a report); vocabulary to convey meaning; • organizing their speaking and writing; 2.6 prepare written and oral presentations using strategies such as lists, outlining, cause/effect relationships, • choosing vocabulary that communicates their comparison/contrast, problem/solution, and narration; and messages clearly and precisely; 2.7 use the most appropriate method, handwriting or word processing, to produce a product that is • revising and editing speech and writing; legible. • editing the written work of others; and • creating readable documents with legible Rationale. Writing and speaking are essential tools for learning, for success in the workplace, and for responsible handwriting or word processing as citizenship. Developing a range of writing and speaking abilities requires extensive study, practice, and thinking. developmentally appropriate. Students need frequent opportunities to write and speak for different audiences and purposes, and they need to be able to communicate creatively, expressively, informatively, and analytically. Growth in writing and speaking abilities occurs by applying skills to increasingly challenging communication tasks. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–6
  6. Standards for Success STANDARD 2: Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and audiences. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, • writing and speaking for various audiences in what they know and are able to do includes what they know and are able to do includes specialized fields such as career and academic interest areas (for example, scientific, technical, • telling and writing stories, reports, and letters • creating and presenting complex written and business, and electronic communication video); with greater detail and supporting material; spoken works; and • choosing vocabulary and figures of speech that • using fictional, dramatic, and poetic techniques in • experimenting with stylistic elements such as communicate clearly in writing and speaking; writing; voice, tone, style, and audience in writing. • drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading for a • conveying technical information in a written and legible final copy; spoken form appropriate to the audience; • critiquing and editing the written work of others; • supporting an opinion using various forms of persuasion (factual or emotional) in speaking and • applying skills in explanation, analysis, synthesis, writing; and evaluation in their writing and speaking; • incorporating material from a wider range of • incorporating source materials into their sources (for example, newspapers, magazines, speaking and writing (for example, interviews, interviews, technical publications, books) in their news articles, encyclopedia information); writing and speaking; • writing and speaking in the content areas, using • selecting a focused topic and drafting, revising, the technical vocabulary of the subject editing, and proofreading a legible final copy; accurately; and • recognizing and using stylistic elements such as voice, tone, and style in reading, writing, and speaking. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–7 Content Standards
  7. Reading and Writing STANDARD 3: Students write and speak using formal grammar, usage, sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, students will In grades K-4, what the students know and are able to do includes 3.1 recognize, understand, and use formal grammar in speaking and writing; • recognizing, understanding, and using subject- 3.2 apply formal usage in speaking and writing; verb agreement; 3.3 use correct sentence structure in writing; • recognizing, understanding, and using correct 3.4 demonstrate correct punctuation, capitalization, and spelling; and modifiers; 3.5 recognize and know when it is appropriate to use dialectical, idiomatic, and colloquial language, • recognizing, understanding, and using correct including awareness and appreciation of cultural and dialectic variance. capitalization, punctuation, and abbreviations; • spelling frequently used words correctly using phonics rules and exceptions; and Rationale. Recognition, understanding, and use of formal English is essential to effective communication. Students recognize, understand, and use formal English. Proficiency in this standard plays an important role in how the writer • using spoken and written language situationally. or speaker is understood and perceived. All skills in this standard are reinforced and practiced at all grade levels and should be monitored by the teacher, student, and parents to develop lifelong learning skills. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–8
  8. Standards for Success STANDARD 3: Students write and speak using formal grammar, usage, sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, • expanding spelling skills to include a variety of As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes complex words; what they know and are able to do includes • identifying and using correctly the parts of • demonstrating use of conventional spelling in • using pronoun reference correctly in writing and speech such as nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, their published works; speaking; adjectives, conjunctions, prepositions, and • using resources such as spell checkers, • using phrases and clauses for purposes of interjections; dictionaries, and charts to monitor their spelling modification and parallel structure in writing and • using correct pronoun case, regular and irregu- accuracy; and speaking; lar noun and verb forms, and subject-verb • recognizing the appropriate use of colloquial • using internal capitalization and punctuation of agreement in writing and speaking; language in daily conversation. secondary quotations in writing; • recognizing and manipulating parts of a • using manuscript forms specified in various style sentence; manuals for writing (for example, indenting for • using modifiers, homonyms, and homophones in extended quotations, precise placement and writing and speaking; form, page numbers, appropriate line spacing); • using simple, compound, complex, and com- • refining spelling, grammatical skills, and syntax, pound/complex sentences in writing and and becoming self-evaluators of their writing speaking; and speaking; • punctuating and capitalizing titles and direct • applying formal verb tense; and quotations, using possessives, and formal • refining the use of increasingly complex paragraphing in writing; sentence patterns. • using prefixes, root words, and suffixes correctly in writing and speaking; Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–9 Content Standards
  9. Reading and Writing STANDARD 4: Students apply thinking skills to their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, students will In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes 4.1 make predictions, analyze, draw conclusions, and discriminate between fact and opinion in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing; • recognizing an author’s/playwright's point of view; 4.2 use reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing to gather data, define the problem, and apply problem-solving skills; • predicting and drawing conclusions about stories and plays; 4.3 recognize, express, and defend points of view orally and in writing; • differentiating between fact and opinion in 4.4 identify the purpose, perspective, and historical and cultural influences of a speaker, author, or written and spoken forms; director; and • using reading, writing, speaking, listening, and 4.5 evaluate the reliability, accuracy, and relevancy of information. viewing to gather data, define the problem, and apply problem-solving skills; Rationale. Students use reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing to think and learn. By moving beyond a • responding to written and oral presentations as literal interpretation of text to an analysis of an author’s, playwright's, speaker’s, or director’s purpose and a reader, listener, actor, and articulate speaker; perspectives, students practice and improve their higher-level thinking skills. Students need to recognize and • formulating questions about what they read, evaluate different points of view and to follow a line of reasoning to its logical conclusion. Students need to write, hear, and view; and evaluate their writing and reading skills and work toward improvement. • using listening, reading, speaking, writing, and viewing skills to understand directions. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–10
  10. Standards for Success STANDARD 4: Students apply thinking skills to their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes what they know and are able to do includes • recognizing an author’s, playwright's or speaker’s • recognizing an author’s/playwright's point of point of view and purpose, separating fact from view, purpose, and historical and cultural opinion; context; • using reading, writing, speaking, listening, and • using reading, writing, listening, articulate viewing skills to solve problems and answer speaking, and viewing to solve problems and questions; discern meaning; • making predictions, drawing conclusions, and • critiquing the content of written, oral, and visual analyzing what they read, hear, and view; presentations; and • recognizing, expressing, and defending a point • applying principles of formal logic to written and of view, in both writing and speaking in an oral texts. articulate manner; and • determining literary quality based on elements such as the author’s/playwright's use of vocabu- lary, character development, plot development, description of setting, and realism of dialogue. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–11 Content Standards
  11. Reading and Writing STANDARD 5: Students read to locate, select, evaluate, and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference, and technological sources. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, students will In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes 5.1 select relevant material for reading, writing, and speaking purposes; • using organizational features of printed text (for 5.2 understand the structure, organization, and use of various media, reference, and technological sources example, page numbering, alphabetizing, as they select information for their reading, writing, and speaking purposes; glossaries, chapter headings, tables of contents, 5.3 paraphrase, summarize, organize, evaluate, and synthesize information; indexes, captions); 5.4 cite others’ ideas, images, or information from primary, print, and electronic resources; and • recognizing and using organizational features of electronic information; 5.5 use information to produce a quality product in an appropriate format. • gathering and recording, organizing, and identifying main ideas or key concepts in Rationale. In this age of information and technology, people need reading and information-retrieval skills that will resource materials; enable them to access facts, images, and text from many sources. The sheer volume of data makes it necessary for • sorting information as it relates to a specific information seekers to be able to navigate through a maze of facts, figures, and images, and to identify what is topic or purpose; useful and relevant. • collecting, storing, organizing, and retrieving Knowing how to locate, evaluate, and make use of an ever-increasing amount of information demands a broader electronic data; and repertoire of reading strategies. This implies an expanded definition of literacy that includes reading for information in a technological age. Students need to become discerning consumers of information in the workplace as well as in • citing information utilized by telling or listing sources. civic life. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–12
  12. Standards for Success STANDARD 5: Students read to locate, select, evaluate, and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference, and technological sources. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, • producing a carefully documented product using what they know and are able to do includes what they know and are able to do includes available technology to access information and conduct research; • using organizational features of printed text such • using organizational features of printed text such as prefaces, afterwords, and appendices; as citations, end notes, and bibliographic • locating information appropriate for their references to locate relevant information; reading and writing purposes such as career • using organizational features of electronic and academic interest, leisure time, and self- information and library catalog databases; • evaluating information in light of what they improvement; and know and their specific needs; • locating, evaluating, and selecting relevant • synthesizing information from a variety of information to be used in writing and speaking; • using organizational features of electronic text sources to demonstrate understanding of a to locate information with available technology; • refining skills in collecting, storing, organizing, subject. and retrieving electronic data; • using strategies to gain information from jour- nals, research studies, and technical documents; • using available technology to research and produce an end-product that is accurately • giving precise, formal credit for others' ideas, documented; and images, or information in a standard reference format; • citing information utilized in a recognized bibliographic format. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–13 Content Standards
  13. Reading and Writing STANDARD 6: Students read and recognize literature as a record of human experience. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, students will In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes 6.1 know and use literary terminology; • reading, viewing, listening, responding to, and 6.2 read literature to investigate common issues and interests in relation to self and others; discussing a variety of literature such as fables, 6.3 read literature to understand places, people, events, and vocabulary, both familiar and unfamiliar; folk tales, legends, myths, rhymes and poems, fiction, nonfiction, and content area reading; 6.4 read literature that reflects the uniqueness, diversity, and integrity of the American experience; • reading, responding to, and discussing literature 6.5 read classic and contemporary literature of the United States about the experiences and tradi- and the fine arts as a way to explore the tions of diverse ethnic groups; and similarities and differences among stories and 6.6 read classic and contemporary literature, representing various cultural and ethnic traditions from the ways in which those stories reflect the ethnic throughout the world. background of the authors, poets, playwrights, and artists, and the culture in which they were written; Rationale. Literature records human expression in such forms as speeches, poems, novels, stories, nonfiction, essays, • recognizing the concept of classic or enduring plays, films, biographies, and autobiographies by male and female speakers and writers. The study of literary literature, and reading and listening to classic traditions offers a perspective on enduring questions, a glimpse into human motives and conflicts, and a sense of the works; beauty and power of spoken and written language. In addition, literature transmits and transforms culture; it also enables students to think, communicate, and participate in society. The study of literature and writers of the United • using literary terminology such as setting, plot, States honors the heritage and cultures of all people who live or have lived in this country, and helps students character, problem/solution, and point of view; develop an understanding of the national experience. The study of classic and contemporary literature from through- • using new vocabulary from literature in other out the world broadens students’ perspectives of the human experience. A comprehensive literature program fosters contexts; and habits of reading that carry over into adult life. • developing skills to beome an effective audi- ence member or performer. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–14
  14. Standards for Success STANDARD 6: Students read and recognize literature as a record of human experience. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, • analyzing events or actions in a reading selec- As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes tion and reflecting on these events or actions in what they know and are able to do includes writing and speaking; and • reading, viewing, listening, responding to, and • reading, viewing, listening, responding to, and discussing a variety of novels, poetry, plays short • continuing to develop skills as an effective discussing novels, poetry, short stories, nonfiction, stories, nonfiction, content area and technical audience member or performer. content area and technical material, plays, material, and building upon previously studied essays, speeches, and fine arts; literature; • using literary terminology accurately, such as • reading, responding to, and discussing literature theme, mood, diction, idiom, perspective, style, and fine arts that represent points of view from and point of view in oral and written discussions places, people, and events that are familiar and of literature; unfamiliar; • identifying recurrent themes in United States and • distinguishing the elements that characterize and world literature; define a literary “classic”; • understanding the common themes in the • comparing the diverse voices of our national literature of the United States and in relationship experience as they read a variety of United to world literature; States literature; • developing and supporting a thesis about the • using literary terminology accurately, including craft and significance of particular works of setting, character, conflict, plot, resolution, theme, literature, both classic and contemporary, foreshadowing, and figurative language; including a variety of ethnic writers; and • using new vocabulary from literature in other • refining skills as an effective audience member contexts; or performer. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–15 Content Standards
  15. Reading and Writing STANDARD 7: Students use appropriate technologies to extend comprehension and communication skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing. GRADES K-4 In order to meet this standard, a student will In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes 7.1 use appropriate technologies to increase literacy through a variety of formats (for example, textual, graphic, audio, video, electronic, multimedia); • using appropriate technologies to refine lan- guage skills and support the writing process, 7.2 use appropriate technologies to access, process, and communicate information for a variety of including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, purposes; and and publishing; 7.3 demonstrate problem solving skills through the use of appropriate technologies. • using appropriate technologies to produce a quality product; and Rationale. The wide variety of technologies available today enables us to access more information at a faster rate • communicating information by using a form of than has previously been possible. To be literate in today’s world, students must be able to determine information multimedia technology. needs and to utilize skills and appropriate technologies. However, technology goes beyond the acquisition of information. Various types of technologies allow us to improve the manner in which we disseminate information. In both the acquisition and dissemination of information, appropriate technologies are used as tools to extend and enhance student literacy. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Denver Public Schools page R–16
  16. Standards for Success STANDARD 7: Students use appropriate technologies to extend comprehension and communication skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing. GRADES 5-8 GRADES 9-12 As students in grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, As students in grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes what they know and are able to do includes • using appropriate technologies to support the • using appropriate technologies to support the writing process; writing process; • using appropriate technologies to access and • using appropriate technologies to access, evaluate information about literary works; process, manipulate, and store information; • accessing facts, images, and text from a variety • using appropriate technologies to enhance the of electronic reference sources (electronic quality of a presentation; database, content-specific electronic references, • enhancing the comprehension of literature by electronic network—both locally and globally); experiencing a literary or dramatic work through and media other than written text (for example, audio • using multimedia technologies to gather material recording, videotape, filmed dramatic to be used in the production of written, spoken, presentation); and or visual presentations. • using technology to create real-world reading, writing, and oral products. Note: A reference list of sources of book lists can be found at the end of the Reading and Writing Standards. None of these book lists has been endorsed by the Colorado State Board of Education. page R–17 Content Standards
  17. Reading and Writing GLOSSARY Appropriate technology creates a condition that will Formal grammar is the language that is used for and communicate with others" (International Reading help a student meet the expectations of a standard. serious speaking occasions and most writing. It is the Association, 1995). Based on this expanded definition For example, a computer or word processor can words, expressions, grammar, and usage found in of literacy, the Reading/Writing standards address not provide valuable support to a student's progression formal essays, scholarly writing, and speeches. Formal only reading and writing, but also speaking, listening, through the writing standards. Scientific and graphing English uses extensive vocabulary, few contractions, viewing and visually representing. P Freire (1970) . calculators provide a valuable tool to many areas of and almost no slang. Formal English is used for most states, and we agree, that literacy is "a strategy of math and scientific inquiry. The power of networks school work, personal interviews, and letters for liberation [that] teaches people to read not only the such as the Internet support research communication in college or employment. Formal English helps to insure word but also the world." all areas of the curriculum. that a message is understood and received with Pragmatic use of language is the ability to use the respect. (Adapted from Houghton-Mifflin English Level Colloquial language is characterized by a conversa- appropriate level (formal, conventional, colloquial, 12, 1990.) tional tone, the use of first and second person idiomatic) of language for any given situation. pronouns, and informal language used in everyday Formal logic is the clear and organized thinking that Prior knowledge refers to personal understanding conversation but not in formal writing and speaking. leads to a reasonable conclusion. acquired through one's life experiences. Conventional grammar is a widely used and Full range of strategies refers to a variety of Publish refers to producing or presenting a work for accepted style of speaking and writing. It is often used techniques and skills used before, during, and after an audience. It may take many forms, such as reading, in less formal situations, particularly in conversation or reading to comprehend text. mailing, performing, printing, submitting, binding, and when writing personal letters or notes to friends or Idiomatic language refers to expressions that have displaying. family. meanings that cannot be understood in isolation. It is a Storing information refers to gathering facts and Correct refers to conforming to the recognized way of speaking and writing that is particular to a data which can be set aside, reserved, and saved for convention. language. future use. Craft refers to the artistry, i.e., skills and proficiencies Legible is distinct, clear, able to be read. Skills are abilities acquired by observation, study, or of writing, speaking, listening, and viewing. Literacy. "...Being literate in contemporary society experiences basic to the mastery of schoolwork or Dialect is language used in particular locales or by means being active, critical, and creative users of print other activities. specific ethnic groups. and spoken language as well as the visual language Synthesize refers to combining separate elements in of film and television, commercial and political Fine arts is a general term for any works that provide new ways to form a logical and understandable advertising, photography, and more. It also means for creative expression and aesthetic enjoyment. (From whole. (Houghton-Mifflin English, Level 10, 1990.) being able to use technologies to gather information The Facts on File Dictionary of Education, 1988.) Denver Public Schools page R–18
  18. Standards for Success REFERENCES Transformational generative grammar is a theory of Cianciolo, Patricia. Picture Books for Children. 3rd Hirsch, E. D. Cultural Literacy: What Every American syntactic construction which postulates that humans edition. Chicago: American Library Association, 1990. Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. learn linguistic constructions by manipulating language. Criscoe, Betty L. Award-Winning Books for Children Horn Book Guide to Children’s and Y oung Adult It is descriptive of how language is put together in the and Young Adults: An Annual Guide. Metuchen, NJ: Books, The. Boston: The Horn Book. Published twice real world and helps students understand the logic of Scarecrow Press, 1990. yearly. English. The pure theorist associated with these ideas is Noam Chomsky. Practical work in classrooms has been Estell, Douglas, Michele L. Satchwell, and Patricia S. Kennedy, Day Ann, et al. Science and Technology in done by Strong and Christiansen. Wright. Reading Lists for College-Bound Students. Fact and Fiction: A Guide to Children’s Books. New New York: Prentice Hall, 1993. York: Bowker, 1990. Viewing means examining, observing, surveying, seeing, and inspecting. Friedbert, Joan Brest, June B. Mullins, and Adelaide Kobrin, Beverly. Eyeopeners! How to Choose and Use Weir Sukiennik. Portraying the Disabled: A Guide to Children’s Books about Real People, Places, and Workplace competencies refer to the skills that Juvenile Non-Fiction. New York: Bowker, 1991. Things. New York: Penguin, 1988. should be taught from kindergarten through grade 12 to enable graduates to perform effectively in the Fry, Edward Bernard, Jacqueline E. Kress, and Dona Kruse, Ginny Moore, Kathleen T. Horning, Merri V. workplace, as established by the Secretary's Commis- Lee Fountoukidis. The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists. Lindgren and Katherine Odahowski. Multicultural sion on Achieving Necessary Skills. The Commission 3rd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993. Literature for Children and Young Adults: A Selected was comprised of representatives from education, Listing of Books, 1980-1990, by and about People of Gillespie, John T., and Corinne J. Naden, eds. Best business, unions, and government and was charged to Color. 3rd edition. Madison, WI: Cooperative Books for Children: Preschool through Grade 6. 4th examine changes in the world of work and the Children’s Book Center, University of Wisconsin at edition. New York: Bowker, 1990. implications of those changes for learning. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Gillespie, John T., ed. Best Books for Junior High 1991. Readers. New Providence, NJ: Bowker, 199 1. Lipson, Eden Ross. The New York Times Parent’s Guide Gillespie, John Thomas, ed. Best Books for Senior High to the Best Books for Children. Rev. edition. New York: Readers. New Providence, NJ: Bowker, 199 1. Times Books, 1991. Miller Lachmann, Lyn. Our Family, Our Friends, Our World: An Annotated Guide to Significant Multicultural Books for Children and Teenagers. New Providence, NJ: Bowker, 1992. page R–19 Content Standards
  19. Reading and Writing Minneapolis Public Library, Children’s Services Dept. Rainbow Collection: Multicultural Children’s Books. 2nd edition. Minneapolis: The Library, 1992. Nilsen, Alleen Pace, ed., and the Committee on the Junior High and Middle School Booklist of the National Council of Teachers of English. Y Reading: A Booklist our for Junior High and Middle School Students. 8th edition. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1991. Wilson, George, and Joyce Moss. Books for Children to Read Alone: A Guide for Parents and Librarians. New York: Bowker, 1988. Wilson, George, and Joyce Moss. Tried and True: 500 Nonfiction Books Children Want to Read. New York: Bowker, 1992. Wurth, Shirley, ed., and the Committee on the Senior High School Booklist of the National Council of Teach- ers of English. 1 edition. Books for You: A Booklist for 1th Senior High Students. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1992. Available from American Library Association, 50 E. Huron, Chicago, IL 6061 Notable Books for Children 1: (pamphlet); Best Books for Young Adults (pamphlet); Recommended Books for the Young Adult Reader (pamphlet). Available from Children’s Book Council, 568 Broadway, Suite 404, New York, NY 10012: Annual Book List. Denver Public Schools page R–20
Đồng bộ tài khoản