Recognizing argumentation

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Recognizing argumentation

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Purposes of argumentation: Attempts to convince others setting up an argumentation of your own; criticizing somebody’s argumentation; Solving disputes; Analyze other people’s argumentation and account for you decisions

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Nội dung Text: Recognizing argumentation

  1. Lecture 14. Recognizing argumentation: Basic notions, Forms and ways of analysis, Non-argumentative elements 1 Purposes of argumentation 0. • Attempts to convince others – 0. – setting up an argumentation of your own; 1. – criticizing somebody’s argumentation 1. • Solving disputes • • Analyze other people’s argumentation and account for you decisions 2 Logic in Writing What logic in NOT: 0. • An absolute law which governs the Universe 1. • A set of rules which govern human behavior You must decide whether logic is the right tool for the job. If not, discuss and debate Settling Solving a dispute ==a dispute
  2. 3 To Argue = try to prove that a statement is correct by means of one or more other statements An Argumentation is a combination of statements of which one (opinion or conclusion) is supported by one or more other statements 4 Opinion Statement argument (Neutral) not argumentation 5
  3. Opinion or conclusion is a view of reality that is not shared by everyone and may be disputed Argument or premise is a statement which is offered in support of the opinion/conclusion Opinion and argument can be either true or false 6 By arguing one admits: - there is a disagreement (a dispute), or it may occur; - the partner is a person who can be convinced by means of arguments 7 Two types of dispute: - the statement is doubted and the author of the opinion gives arguments to support it. - the person not only casts doubt but sets his own opinion against it. *** A: I think it is beginning to get more difficult for University IBA graduates to get job. B: Why? A: Well, in the past few years there has been an
  4. explosion of IBA graduates. *** A: I think it is beginning to get more difficult for University IBA graduates to get job. B: In my opinion, it is getting easier. A: Where did you get this idea from? B: Well, the demand for IBA graduates is increasing because everyone knows by now what to expect from an IBA graduate. 8 An argumentation is a connected series of statements (arguments/ premises) to establish a definite proposition (opinion). Once the premises have been agreed, the argument proceeds via a step-by-step process called inference. 9 Example of an argumentation 0. • Premise: ‘Every event has a cause.’ 1. • Premise: ‘The universe has a beginning.’ 2. • Premise: ‘All beginnings involve an event.’ 3. • Inference: ‘This implies that the beginning of the universe involved an event.’ 4. • Inference: ‘Therefore the beginning of the universe had a cause.’ 5. • Conclusion: ‘The universe had a cause.’ 10 Two types of argumentation
  5. deductive inductive Deductive arguments move from general statements (called premises) to specific conclusions: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Can be valid (meaning they hold true) or invalid (not hold true). Inductive arguments begin with specific observations, data, or details, from which derive generalized conclusions: Yesterday I saw three black bears near my house. Today I saw three black bears near my house. Therefore, tomorrow it is likely I’ll see three black bears near my house. Can be valid (meaning they hold true) or invalid (not hold true). 11 Simple argumentation: He probably earns quite a lot of money, because he owns an advertising agency Multiple argumentation: He probably earns quite a lot of money, because he owns an advertising agency. Besides he is a senior lecturer.
  6. Subordinate argumentation: He probably earns quite a lot of money, because he is a senior lecturer. I attended one of his lectures in London. 12 Decimal notation system 1. He probably earns quite a lot of money, 1.1 Because he owns an advertising agency. 1.2 Besides he is a senior lecturer. 1.2.1 I attended one of his lectures in London. 13 Graphic notation system 1.He … money, 1.1 because 1.2 Besides … agency. …lecturer. 1.2.1 I …in London. 14 Simple argumentation 0. • John will probably drop out of the course, (opinion)
  7. 1. •He hasn’t done a thing. (argument) ******** Surely Becker must be able to beat Agassi (opinion). Agassi was defeated in the semi-finals by Chang last Sunday. And everyone remembers that only three weeks ago Becker beated Chang hollow. (argument) 15 Multiple argumentation 6. • John will probably drop out of the course, (opinion) 7. • He hasn’t done a thing, (argument) 8. • His first-semester marks were insufficient, (argument) 9. • And he has cut at least half of the classes, (argument) 16 Subordinate argumentation I always buy branded clothes. (1.) After all, you get value for money (1.1), because branded clothes keep their shape longer than an obscure brand (1.1.1). For example, look at this Portobello sweater of mine: I have had it for four years and it is still beautiful. Another sweater that had been worn as often
  8. as this would have been worn out by now (1.1.1.1) 17 Analysis: for/so test 2. • To determine support relations: I quit, I have done enough for one day. Opinion, for argument argument, so Opinion Most dog owners are highhanded people: they enjoy giving orders 18 Signals 0. • Signals of opinions 1. • Signals of arguments 2. • Signals of multiple and subordinate argumentation 19 Signals of opinion
  9. MACRO SIGNALS MICRO SIGNALS I will first outline the facts, It follows that… and then draw a We may conclude from conclusion. this that… This leads to the following That is why… conclusion… So,… These arguments justify Contrary to what A has the conclusion that … said… According to me… 20 Signals of argument and subordinate argumentation MACRO SIGNALS MICRO SIGNALS I have three arguments for Some arguments for this this, the first of which is are… … This follows from… The conclusion is based on This conclusion is justified four arguments. by … I have demonstrated in For… succession… Because… As… After all…; colon 21 Signals of multiple argumentation
  10. MICRO SIGNALS Besides…/ Furthermore … Also… Apart from that … All the more since/ because… All the more reason for/ to … Another What is even more important… 22 Complications: variants of the basic form 10. • John will probably drop out of the course, for he hasn’t done a thing. 11. • John will probably drop out of the course, for if you don’t do a thing, you are bound to drop out of the course. 12. • John hasn’t done a thing, and we both know that if you don’t do a thing, you are bound to drop out of the course. 23 Complete underlying argumentation John will probably drop out of the course, for he hasn’t done a thing. if you don’t do a thing, you are bound to drop out of the course. Variants: 1. John will probably drop out of the course, for he hasn’t done a thing. [if you don’t do a thing, you are bound to drop out of the course.] *** 2. John will probably drop out of the course,
  11. for if you don’t do a thing, you are bound to drop out of the course. [John hasn’t done a thing.] *** 3. John hasn’t done a thing, And we both know that if you don’t do a thing, you are bound to drop out of the course. [John will probably drop out of the course.] 24 Condensed argumentation 3. • You, a seventeen-year-old, are not yet allowed to vote. You are not allowed to vote, (1.) For you are not eighteen yet (1.1) 25 Implicit elements in argumentation 3. • A cold front was forecast for Christmas, so I think I will go round to the bank after all. 4. At a dress hire shop: • Shop assistant: Where will the ceremony take place? A Ph.D. Student: In Leiden. Shop assistant: So you will need a black waistcoat. A Ph.D. Student: ??????????? 26
  12. Masked argumentation 13. • (at dinner) Do use your napkin! Or would you rather go on spilling food all over your shirt? 14. • (at an illegal consult during a written exam) Gentlemen, would you please take care? Or would you prefer my taking receipt o your sheets now? 15. • Knowledge is power! Why don’t you attend a written course? How to check: 1. 1. Rephrase 2. 2. Apply the for/so test 16. • You should use your napkin, for if you don’t you will go on spilling food all over your shirt. 17. • Gentlemen, you must take care, for if you don’t I will take receipt o your sheets now. • • Knowledge is power! So you should attend a written course. 27 Non-argumentative elements 4. • Redundancy 5. • Digressions or asides 6. • Concessions 2. – In spite of the fact that all the players gave it all they got, the Dutch team deservedly lost the football match (opinion): the Germans simply were the better team (argument)
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