Signaling System No.7 Protocol Architecture And Sevices part 59

Chia sẻ: Dasdsadqwe Dsadasdsadsa | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:19

0
40
lượt xem
3
download

Signaling System No.7 Protocol Architecture And Sevices part 59

Mô tả tài liệu
  Download Vui lòng tải xuống để xem tài liệu đầy đủ

MTP3: Management Messages These messages are generated by the MTP3 level to maintain the signaling service and to restore normal signaling conditions in the case of failure, either in signaling links or signaling points. MTP3 is explained in Chapter 7, "Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3)." MTP3 messages carrying relevant information that can affect the network if abused and can be split into two categories

Chủ đề:
Lưu

Nội dung Text: Signaling System No.7 Protocol Architecture And Sevices part 59

  1. MTP3: Management Messages These messages are generated by the MTP3 level to maintain the signaling service and to restore normal signaling conditions in the case of failure, either in signaling links or signaling points. MTP3 is explained in Chapter 7, "Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3)." MTP3 messages carrying relevant information that can affect the network if abused and can be split into two categories: • Messages communicating unavailability (such as COO, COA, ECO, ECA, TFP, TFR, and TFC) • Messages communicating availability (such as CBD and TFA) A higher degree of risk is associated with the first category, because they diminish available resources. As such, care should be given to the screening of such messages. For example, the Transfer Restricted (TFR) message is involved in routing reconfiguration and traffic diversion. Therefore, a degree of risk is involved in receiving or sending this message if it is propagated unintentionally or with malicious intent. Unintentional transmission is likely to be caused by software or configuration errors. Malicious intent is because someone with physical access (an insider) sends the message intentionally with the use of a protocol analyzer, for example. Table 15-1 lists the main MTP3 messages that should be screened. Table 15-1. MTP3 Messages to Be Screened Message Parameter Reason for Screening MSU (in case of an OPC Verifies that the originating node is known (is STP) present in the routing tables). This provides a degree of protection against unauthorized access to the network. DPC Verifies that the message is destined for a valid node (a node to which the originating point is allowed to route). Changeover, OPC Verifies that the message is received from an Changeback, and adjacent node that is allowed to send this
  2. Emergency message type. Changeover DPC Verifies that the message is destined for itself. Transfer Prohibited OPC Verifies that the message is received from a node allowed to send these types of messages. Transfer Restricted Management OPC Verifies that the message is received from an Inhibiting adjacent node allowed to send this type of message. Transfer Control OPC Verifies that the message is received from a node allowed to send this type of message. The operator should choose the allowed node list according to their network topology and routing. DPC Verifies that the message is destined for a node to which the originating node can route traffic. It should be verified that all messages' MSUs are received on a valid linkset—that is, the originating point is allowed to use that particular linkset. The primary MTP3 parameters that should be screened are the originating and destination point code. These are described next. Originating Point Code This parameter is the address of the originating node and forms part of the routing label. The OPC should be verified, as well as the rights that the node sending the message can route via the STP. This can be done by checking that the node is present in routing tables. Note that no mechanisms prove that the node is the one claimed. Instead, the OPC simply acts as a check that the node at least claims to be the correct node. Destination Point Code This parameter is the address of the destination node, and it forms part of the routing label. The DPC should be analyzed to verify the following:
  3. • MSUs coming from an external node are addressed to a node inside your own network (to keep the STP from being used as a transit node of unwarranted traffic). • MTP3 management messages coming from an external node are addressed only to the STP and not to a node inside your own network. (Management messages should involve interconnecting only nodes at the interface with other networks, not other parts of the signaling network itself.) < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >
  4. SCCP This section describes typical SCCP screening considerations. SCCP is explained in Chapter 9, "Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)." SCCP User Messages These messages come from above SCCP via Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) and are related to the applications running on TCAP (for example, intelligent network services, mobility services, and value-added services). These messages typically use GTT functionality. Some STPs offer the functionality to screen so that only permitted nodes may request translations, the translations themselves are valid, and the translations themselves are permitted. Management Messages Management messages are generated by the SCCP level to maintain network performance by rerouting or throttling traffic in the event of failure or congestion. The messages that can reroute the traffic constitute the means by which the integrity of the signaling network at SCCP level can be penetrated and endangered. These messages are discussed in the following sections. Subsystem Prohibited (SSP) A Subsystem Prohibited (SSP) message is sent to concerned destinations to inform SCCP Management (SCMG) at those destinations of the failure of a subsystem. The receiving end of an SSP message updates its translation tables; therefore, traffic could be rerouted to a backup subsystem if available. If not, an SCCP user might no longer be able to offer a particular service. It is imperative that verification takes place to ensure that this message is received from a permitted node. The only means of verification is to check the OPC from which the message is received. Subsystem Allowed (SSA) A Subsystem Allowed (SSA) message is sent to concerned destinations to inform them that a subsystem that was formerly prohibited is now allowed or that an SCCP that was formerly unavailable is now available. The node receiving the SSA, therefore, updates its translation tables. Because the message indicates availability,
  5. less risk is associated with it. Subsystem Status Test (SST) The Subsystem Status Test (SST) message is sent to verify the status of a subsystem that is marked prohibited or the status of an SCCP marked unavailable. The receiving node checks the status of the named subsystem. If the subsystem is allowed, an SSA message is sent in response. If the subsystem is prohibited, no reply is sent. The originating node should be verified by checking the OPC to make sure that it has the necessary rights. < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >
  6. Parameters To provide screening, you do not need to read every field comprising a message. Instead, you read only the fields (parameters) that can cause a security threat. The parameters that contain the message's origin and destination and those used in GTT have particular security importance. Table 15-2 lists the main SCCP messages that should be screened. Table 15-2. SCCP Messages to Be Screened Message Parameter Reason for Screening UDT and Calling Party Verifies that the message is received from a XUDT Address specified remote subsystem (such as a specified combination of SSN+SPC). Called Party For routing on SSN, verifies that the message is Address destined for a local subsystem. For routing on GT, verifies that the message uses a valid translation table (such as a table allowed for the origin). Results of the Verifies that the new values of DPC and SSN translation match values allowed by the originating node. SSP and Calling Party Verifies that the message is received from a SSA Address specified remote subsystem (such as a specified combination of SSN+SPC). Called Party Verifies that the message is destined for the Address management of SCCP (SSN = 1). Affected point Verifies that the affected node is inside the code originating network. Affected Verifies that the affected subsystem is known. subsystem number SST Calling Party Verifies that the message is received from a valid Address remote subsystem (such as a valid SSN+SPC).
  7. Called Party Verifies that the message is destined for the Address management of SCCP (SSN=1). < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >
  8. Traffic Monitoring Monitoring signaling traffic is the simplest method of revealing accidental (because of misconfiguration, for example) or intentional abuse of the SS7 network. Because signaling is the nervous system of the telecommunications network, it should be clear that if the SS7 network goes down, so does the entire telecommunications network it supports. Intentional or other acts that cause impairments in signaling performance can cause all kinds of critical failure scenarios, including incorrect billing, lack of cellular roaming functionality, failure of Short Messaging Service (SMS) transfer, unexpected cutoff during calls, poor line quality, poor cellular handovers, nonrecognition of prepay credits, multiple tries to set up calls, ghost calls, and the inability to contact other subscribers on certain other networks. The SS7 network's quality of service (QoS) directly relates to the lack of QoS to subscribers. Thus, it is vital to monitor the SS7 network sufficiently to ensure that impairments, whatever their origin, are realized as soon as possible. Monitoring is specified in ITU-T recommendation Q.752 [71]. Further useful ITU-T references are provided in Q.753 [72]. Monitoring entails measuring the traffic in terms of messages, octets, or more detailed information, such as counts of certain message types or GTTs requested. Monitoring can be applied to any set of links, but it is considered essential at links that interconnect with other networks (for example, those crossing an STP or certain switches). In fact, monitoring systems tend to connect with a multiple number of links throughout the SS7 network, in effect, producing an overlay monitoring network. The monitoring points simply consist of line cards that are tapped onto the links to unobtrusively gather and process real-time data. The information obtained from the multiple points is then aggregated and analyzed at a central point (common computing platform). The processing platform is likely to vary in power and complexity, depending on the scale of the purchase. Higher-end systems provide intelligent fraud and security monitoring, and lower-end systems simply provide statistics and alerts when performance thresholds are crossed. The values measured are compared to a predetermined threshold for "regular traffic." When a value exceeds the predetermined threshold, an alarm normally is generated, and a notification might be sent to maintenance personnel. In this way, SS7 network monitoring helps the network operator detect security breaches. Some examples of high-level measurements are Answer Seizure Ratio (ASR), Network Efficiency Ratio (NER), and Number of Short Calls (NOSK). ASR is normal call
  9. clearing divided by all other scenarios. NER is normal call clearing, plus busy, divided by all other call-clearing scenarios. NOSK is simply the number of calls with a hold time less than a prespecified value. To reflect a high QoS, a high NER and ASR are desired as well as a low NOSK. SS7 monitoring systems are changing to reflect the convergence taking place. Many can show the portions of the call connected via SS7, and other portions of the call connected via other means, such as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). As convergence takes hold, a call has the possibility of traversing multiple protocols, such as SIGTRAN, SIP, H.323, TALI, MGCP, MEGACO, and SCTP. Monitoring systems that support converged environments allow the operator to perform a call trace that captures the entire call. SIGTRAN is explained in Chapter 14, " SS7 in the Converged World." It should also be mentioned that monitoring the signaling network has other advantages in addition to being a tool to tighten up network security: • Customer satisfaction— Historically, information was collected at the switches, and operators tended to rely on subscriber complaints to know that something was wrong. QoS can be measured in real time via statistics such as, call completion rates, transaction success rates, database transaction analysis, telemarketing call completion (toll free, for example), and customer-specific performance analysis. The captured data is stored in a central database and, therefore, can be used for later evaluation—for example, by network planning. • Billing verification • Business-related opportunities— Data mining for marketing data, producing statistics such as how many calls are placed to and from competitors. • Enforcing interconnect agreements— Ensure correct revenue returns and validate revenue claims from other operators. Reciprocal compensation is steeply rising in complexity. Presently, the most common security breach relates to fraud. The monitoring system may be connected to a fraud detection application. Customer profiles are created based on the subscriber's typical calling patterns and can detect roaming fraud, two calls from the "same" mobile (for example, SIM cloning), subscription fraud, and so on. The real-time nature of monitoring allows active suspicious calls to be released before additional operator revenue is lost. Monitoring systems should be capable of most of the measurements defined in
  10. ITU-T recommendation Q.752 [71]. The rest of this section lists the bulk of these measurements for each level in the SS7 protocol stack. Q.752 Monitoring Measurements The number of measurements defined in Recommendation Q.752 [71] is very large. They are presented in the following sections. Note that most of the measurements are not obligatory, and that many are not permanent but are on activation only after crossing a predefined threshold. The obligatory measurements form the minimum set that should be used on the international network. MTP: Link Failures Measurements: • Abnormal Forward Indicator Bit Received (FIBR)/Backward Sequence Number Received (BSNR) • Excessive delay of acknowledgment • Excessive error rate • Excessive duration of congestion • Signaling link restoration MTP: Surveillance Measurements: • Local automatic changeover • Local automatic changeback • Start of remote processor outage • Stop of remote processor outage • SL congestion indications • Number of congestion events resulting in loss of MSUs • Start of linkset failure • Stop of linkset failure • Initiation of Broadcast TFP because of failure of measured linkset • Initiation of Broadcast TFA for recovery of measured linkset • Start of unavailability for a routeset to a given destination • Stop of unavailability for a routeset to a given destination • Adjacent signaling point inaccessible • Stop of adjacent signaling point inaccessible
  11. • Start and end of local inhibition • Start and end of remote inhibition Additional measurement may be provided to the user for determining the network's integrity. Measurements: • Local management inhibit • Local management uninhibit • Duration of local busy • Number of SIF and SIO octets received • Duration of adjacent signaling point inaccessible MTP: Detection of Routing and Distribution Table Errors Measurements • Duration of unavailability of signaling linkset • Start of linkset failure • Stop of linkset failure • Initiation of Broadcast TFP because of failure of measured linkset • Initiation of Broadcast TFA for recovery of measured linkset • Unavailability of route set to a given destination or set of destinations • Duration of unavailability in measurement • Start of unavailability in measurement • Stop of unavailability in measurement • Adjacent SP inaccessible • Duration of adjacent SP inaccessible • Stop of adjacent SP inaccessible • Number of MSUs discarded because of a routing data error • User Part Unavailable MSUs transmitted and received MTP: Detection of Increases in Link SU Error Rates Measurements: • Number of SIF and SIO octets transmitted • Number of SIF and SIO octets received • Number of SUs in error (monitors incoming performance) • Number of negative acknowledgments (NACKS) received (monitors
  12. outgoing performance) • Duration of link in the in-service state • Duration of link unavailability (any reason) MTP: Detection of Marginal Link Faults Measurements: • SL alignment or proving failure (this activity is concerned with detecting routing instabilities caused by marginal link faults) • Local automatic changeover • Local automatic changeback • SL congestion indications • Cumulative duration of SL congestions • Number of congestion events resulting in loss of MSUs MTP: Link, Linkset, Signaling Point, and Route Set Utilization Measurements by link: • Duration of link in the in-service state • Duration of SL unavailability (for any reason) • Duration of SL unavailability because of remote processor outage • Duration of local busy • Number of SIF and SIO octets transmitted • Number of octets retransmitted • Number of message signal units transmitted • Number of SIF and SIO octets received • Number of message signal units received • SL congestion indications • Cumulative duration of SL congestions • MSUs discarded because of SL congestion • Number of congestion events resulting in loss of MSUs Measurements by linkset: • Duration of unavailability of signaling linkset Measurements by signaling point:
  13. • Number of SIF and SIO octets received: - With given OPC or set of OPCs - With given OPC or set of OPCs and SI or set of SIs • Number of SIF and SIO octets transmitted: - With given DPC or set of DPCs - With given DPC or set of DPCs and SI or set of SIs • Number of SIF and SIO octets handled: - With given SI or set of SIs - With given OPC or set of OPCs, DPC or set of DPCs, and SI or set of SIs • Number of MSUs handled with given OPC set, DPC set, and SI set Measurements by signaling route set: • Unavailability of route set to a given destination or set of destinations • Duration of unavailability in measurement 4.9 • Duration of adjacent signaling point inaccessible • MSUs discarded because of routing data error • User Part Unavailability MSUs sent and received • Transfer Controlled MSU received MTP: Component Reliability and Maintainability Studies These studies are aimed at calculating the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) for each type of component in the SS7 network. Measurements: • Number of link failures: - All reasons
  14. - Abnormal FIBR/BSNR - Excessive delay of acknowledgment - Excessive error rate - Excessive duration of congestion - Duration of SL inhibition because of local management actions - Duration of SL inhibition because of remote management actions - Duration of SL unavailability because of link failure - Duration of SL unavailability because of remote processor outage - Start of remote processor outage - Stop of remote processor outage - Local management inhibit - Local management uninhibit SCCP: Routing Failures Measurements: • Routing failure because of: - No translation for address of such nature - No translation for this specific address - Network failure (point code unavailable) - Network congestion - Subsystem failure (unavailable) - Subsystem congestion
  15. - Unequipped user (subsystem) - Reason unknown - Syntax error detected In addition, the following measurements can be used as a consistency check or a network protection mechanism: • Hop counter violation (indicates a possible SCCP circular route) • UDTS messages sent • XUDTS messages sent • LUDTS messages sent • UDTS messages received • XUDTS messages received • LUDTS messages received SCCP unavailability and congestion: Local SCCP unavailable because of • Failure • Maintenance made busy • Congestion A remote SCCP measurement is • SCCP/subsystem congestion message received SCCP: Configuration Management Measurements: • Subsystem out-of-service grant message received • Subsystem out-of-service request denied SCCP: Utilization Performance Measurements: SCCP traffic received:
  16. • UDTS messages • UDT messages • XUDT messages • XUDTS messages • LUDT messages • LUDTS messages • DT1 messages/SSN • DT2 messages/SSN • ED messages/SSN • Total messages (connectionless classes 0 and 1 only) per SSN SCCP traffic sent: • UDTS messages • UDT messages • XUDT messages • LUDT messages • XUDTS messages • LUDTS messages • DT1 messages/SSN • DT2 messages/SSN • ED messages/SSN • Total messages (connectionless classes 0 and 1 only) per SSN General: • Total messages handled (from local or remote subsystems) • Total messages intended for local subsystems • Total messages requiring global title translation • Total messages sent to a backup subsystem SCCP: Quality of Service The SCCP quality of service can be estimated using the following measurements: Connectionless outgoing traffic: • UDT messages sent • XUDT messages sent • LUDT messages sent • UDTS messages received
  17. • XUDTS messages received • LUDTS messages received Connectionless incoming traffic: • UDT messages received • XUDT messages received • LUDT messages received • UDTS messages sent • XUDTS messages sent • LUDTS messages sent Connection-oriented establishments: • Outgoing: - CR messages sent - CREF messages received • Incoming: - CR messages received - CREF messages sent Connection-oriented syntax/protocol errors: • RSR messages sent/received • ERR messages sent/received Congestion: • SCCP/subsystem congestion • SSC messages received ISUP: Availability/Unavailability Measurements: • Start of ISDN-UP unavailable because of failure • Start of ISDN-UP unavailable because of maintenance
  18. • Start of ISDN-UP unavailable because of congestion • Stop of ISDN-UP unavailable (all reasons) • Total duration of ISDN-UP unavailable (all reasons) • Stop of local ISDN-UP congestion • Duration of local ISDN-UP congestion • Start of remote ISDN-UP unavailable • Stop of remote ISDN-UP unavailable • Duration of remote ISDN-UP unavailable • Start of remote ISDN-UP congestion • Stop of remote ISDN-UP congestion • Duration of remote ISDN-UP congestion ISUP: Errors Measurements: • Missing blocking acknowledgment in CGBA message for blocking request in previous CGB message • Missing unblocking acknowledgment in CGUA message for unblocking request in previous CGU message • Abnormal blocking acknowledgment in CGBA message with respect to previous CGB message • Abnormal unblocking acknowledgment in CGUA message with respect to previous CGU message • Unexpected CGBA message received with an abnormal blocking acknowledgment • Unexpected CGUA message received with an abnormal unblocking acknowledgment • Unexpected BLA message received with an abnormal blocking acknowledgment • Unexpected UBA message received with an abnormal unblocking acknowledgment • No RLC message received for a previously sent RSC message within timer T17 • No GRA message received for a previously sent GRS message within timer T23 • No BLA message received for a previously sent BLO message within timer T13 • No UBA message received for a previously sent UBL message within timer T15
  19. • No CGBA message received for a previously sent CGB message within timer T19 • No CGUA message received for a previously sent CGU message within timer T21 • Message format error • Unexpected message received • Released because of unrecognized information • RLC not received for a previously sent REL message within timer T5 • Inability to release a circuit • Abnormal release condition • Circuit blocked because of excessive errors detected by CRC failure ISUP: Performance Measurements: • Total ISDN-UP messages sent • Total ISDN-UP messages received TCAP Fault Management • Protocol error detected in transaction portion • Protocol error detected in component portion • TC user generated problems TCAP Performance Measurements: • Total number of TC messages sent by the node (by message type) • Total number of TC messages received by the node (by message type) • Total number of components sent by the node • Total number of components received by the node • Number of new transactions during an interval • Mean number of open transactions during an interval • Cumulative mean duration of transactions • Maximum number of open transactions during an interval  
Đồng bộ tài khoản