Tài liệu chuyên nghành điện hạt nhân - 1

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  1. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El LWR Plant System-1 System - BWR Development, ABWR Systems - July 27, Third Period 27 Third Period Takashi SUMIKAWA SUMIKAWA Kazuhiro YOSHIKAWA Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. Nuclear Energy, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 1
  2. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El Quiz 1 Q: What does “BWR” stand for? Boiling Ans.: B: Water W: Reactor Reactor R: What is the merit of boiling water “in” the Reactor? Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 1(1).Steam is generated in BWR Reactor BWR PWR PCV PCV Steam Generators Pressurizer Steam Steam Recirculation 1 loop 2 loops Control Rod Demineralizer Turbine Generator Pump Fuel Turbine Generator Control Rod Water Water (CR) Condenser Fuel Suppression Pool Condenser Demineralizer Reactor Circ. Water Pump Circ. Water Pump Reactor Feed water Pump Feed water Pump PCV: Primary Containment Vessel Merits of boiling water in the Reactor are …  Compact PCV; No Steam Generators  Simple Configuration; Direct cycle (only 1 loop)  Easy Control; Void Effect can be used for Power Control Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 1(2).Features of BWR Allowance of Boiling in Reactor Pressure Vessel Small size ・No Steam Generators in PCV Reactor Pressure ・Suppression Pool Vessel Simple configuration ・Direct cycle (only 1 loop) Easy operation ・Void Effect is used for the Power Control Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 2(1). Evolution of BWR We want BWR plant to be … • Extremely safe • Competitive in costs How should we improve BWR to achieve those? 1. Simpler configuration 2. Enhancing output Reduce trouble risk power power ⇒Extremely safe Reduce material ⇒ Competitive in costs Shorten construction period ⇒Competitive in costs Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 2(2). History of BWR (Sweden) Oskarshamn‐1,2 Forsmark‐1,2 Forsmark‐3 Oskarshamn‐3 Europe (West Germany) (Wurgassen) Philippsburg‐1 Gundremmingen‐B,C Isar‐1 Krunmmel‐1 United  States Dresden‐1 Oyster  Dresden Vermont  LaSalle‐2 Grand Gulf‐2 Creek ‐2 Yankee Japan Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 2(3).BWR Reactor is being simpler. Safer and More cost‐effective BWR‐1 BWR‐2  ABWR BWR‐3/4/5 Steam Drum ABWR:Advanced Boiling  Water Reactor ? ? ? Jet Pump 6 Recirculation loops 2 Recirculation Internal Pump Steam Generator loops Reduction of  Deleted Steam Generators and  Multiple Circles Deleted Recirculation  Recirculation loops using  a Steam Drum loops using Internal  (Boiler&Steam Jet Pumps Pumps Generator) Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 2(4).BWR is enhancing its output power while keeping its containment size. More cost‐effective MARK‐Ⅰ MARK‐Ⅱ RCCV PCV type (BWR‐3/4) (BWR‐5) (ABWR) RCCV:Reinforced Concrete  Containment Vessel ? ? 61m 70m 58m 57m 55m 52m Output 780MWe 1100MWe 1300MWe(ABWR) power Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 2(5).BWR is enhancing its output power ABWR OUTPUT(MWe) BWR-5 1000 BWR-4 BWR-3 BWR-2 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 YEAR Now let’s see the system of ABWR, the the latest type of BWR in commerce. Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El Overview of ABWR Systems ABWR Power Safety Systems Auxiliary Generation Systems Systems Next period Next period 10 Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
  11. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? (RPV) 3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR? (MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW) 3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR? (CRD, RRS) Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? (RPV) 3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR? (MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW) 3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR? (CRD, RRS) Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Two Two functions of RPV are … Main Steam Normal Water Level Feed Water Core (Nuclear Fuel) (Nuclear Fuel) Steam Generator Reactor Extracts heat from the core heat from the core Different from PWR Same as PWR (PWR has some Steam Generators) Generators) RPV (Reactor Pressure ©Vessel)Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2011 Hitachi-GE 13
  14. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Two Two functions of RPV are … Main Steam Normal Water Level Feed Water Core (Nuclear Fuel) (Nuclear Fuel) Steam Generator Reactor Extracts heat from the core heat from the core RPV (Reactor Pressure ©Vessel)Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2011 Hitachi-GE 14
  15. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Water is boiled in the Core. Normal Water Level Steam and Hot water Boiling Let’s check out the Core (Nuclear Fuel) Core (Nuclear Fuel) detail of the Core! Cool water RPV (Reactor Pressure ©Vessel)Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2011 Hitachi-GE 15
  16. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Bundles Bundles of Fuel and Control Rods are located in the Core. Cross-section view of Fuel Bundles Bundles and Control Rod Core Cross-section view of the Core □ Fuel Bundle × 872 + Control Rod × 205 Neutron Monitor : ○ Power Range ■Startup Range Fuel Control △ Neutron Source Bundle Rod RPV Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Two Two functions of RPV are … Main Steam Normal Water Level Feed Water Core (Nuclear Fuel) (Nuclear Fuel) Steam Generator Reactor Extracts heat from the core heat from the core RPV (Reactor Pressure ©Vessel)Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2011 Hitachi-GE 17
  18. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Water/Steam flow in RPV Pressure: 7MPa Temperature:  280℃ Steam Dryer removes moisture from moisture from Main Steam 7,600t/h steam from the Remove separators. droplet from Feed Water steam steam Steam 7,600t/h Droplets damage the Separator turbine blades. Feed Water separates steam and nozzle water from the core. Core Flow (Water and Steam) 52,200t/h Separate Core Flow Core Flow Shroud and separates Core Downcomer Flow and Downcomer Flow Flow Downcomer Flow. (Water) Feed Water nozzle 52,200 t/h RPV cannot be located at ※Each numerical value is based on ABWR. the bottom of RPV. Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 18
  19. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Shroud Shroud separates Downcomer flow and Core flow Steam Dryer 8m Steam Separator Shroud Core (Fuel) Shroud Downcomer Core flow flow Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University El 3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR? Steam Separator separates steam from water. Steam Water Steam (still wet) Steam Dryer Water level Steam Steam and Water Two phase Water flow Separator Separator Core (Fuel) 5m Vanes Standpipe Water Steam Separators Steam Separator Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 20
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