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Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El




LWR Plant System-1
System
- BWR Development, ABWR Systems -
July 27, Third Period
27 Third Period




Takashi SUMIKAWA
SUMIKAWA
Kazuhiro YOSHIKAWA
Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd.
Nuclear Energy, Ltd.

Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 1
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El

Quiz 1
Q: What does “BWR” stand for?

Boiling
Ans.: B:
Water
W:
Reactor
Reactor
R:


What is the merit of boiling water
“in” the Reactor?

Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
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1(1).Steam is generated in BWR Reactor
BWR PWR
PCV
PCV Steam
Generators
Pressurizer
Steam Steam
Recirculation




1 loop 2 loops
Control
Rod
Demineralizer


Turbine Generator
Pump




Fuel Turbine Generator

Control Rod




Water
Water




(CR)
Condenser
Fuel
Suppression Pool Condenser




Demineralizer
Reactor
Circ. Water Pump
Circ. Water Pump
Reactor
Feed water Pump
Feed water Pump
PCV: Primary Containment Vessel


Merits of boiling water in the Reactor are …
 Compact PCV; No Steam Generators
 Simple Configuration; Direct cycle (only 1 loop)
 Easy Control; Void Effect can be used for Power Control
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 3
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1(2).Features of BWR
Allowance of Boiling in Reactor
Pressure Vessel



Small size
・No Steam Generators in PCV
Reactor Pressure
・Suppression Pool
Vessel


Simple configuration
・Direct cycle (only 1 loop)

Easy operation
・Void Effect is used for the Power Control


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2(1). Evolution of BWR
We want BWR plant to be …
• Extremely safe
• Competitive in costs

How should we improve BWR to achieve those?

1. Simpler configuration 2. Enhancing output
Reduce trouble risk power
power
⇒Extremely safe

Reduce material ⇒ Competitive in costs
Shorten construction
period
⇒Competitive in costs

Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 5
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2(2). History of BWR


(Sweden)
Oskarshamn‐1,2 Forsmark‐1,2 Forsmark‐3
Oskarshamn‐3
Europe (West Germany)
(Wurgassen) Philippsburg‐1 Gundremmingen‐B,C
Isar‐1 Krunmmel‐1



United 
States Dresden‐1 Oyster  Dresden Vermont  LaSalle‐2 Grand Gulf‐2
Creek ‐2 Yankee


Japan




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2(3).BWR Reactor is being simpler.
Safer and More cost‐effective
BWR‐1 BWR‐2  ABWR
BWR‐3/4/5
Steam Drum ABWR:Advanced Boiling 
Water Reactor




? ? ?
Jet Pump




6 Recirculation
loops 2 Recirculation Internal Pump
Steam Generator
loops

Reduction of 
Deleted Steam Generators and 
Multiple Circles Deleted Recirculation 
Recirculation loops using 
a Steam Drum loops using Internal 
(Boiler&Steam
Jet Pumps Pumps
Generator)
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 7
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2(4).BWR is enhancing its output power
while keeping its containment size.
More cost‐effective
MARK‐Ⅰ MARK‐Ⅱ RCCV
PCV type
(BWR‐3/4) (BWR‐5) (ABWR)
RCCV:Reinforced Concrete 
Containment Vessel




? ?
61m 70m
58m




57m
55m 52m
Output 780MWe 1100MWe 1300MWe(ABWR)
power Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 8
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2(5).BWR is enhancing its output power


ABWR
OUTPUT(MWe)




BWR-5
1000
BWR-4


BWR-3

BWR-2


1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
YEAR
Now let’s see the system of ABWR, the
the
latest type of BWR in commerce.
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 9
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Overview of ABWR Systems

ABWR



Power Safety Systems Auxiliary
Generation Systems
Systems




Next period Next period
10
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El

3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR
3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
(RPV)

3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
(MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW)

3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
(CRD, RRS)




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 11
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
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3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR
3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
(RPV)

3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
(MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW)

3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
(CRD, RRS)




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 12
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Two
Two functions of RPV are …


Main Steam
Normal Water Level
Feed Water


Core (Nuclear Fuel)
(Nuclear Fuel)

Steam Generator
Reactor
Extracts heat from the core
heat from the core
Different from PWR
Same as PWR (PWR has some Steam
Generators)
Generators)
RPV
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Two
Two functions of RPV are …


Main Steam
Normal Water Level
Feed Water


Core (Nuclear Fuel)
(Nuclear Fuel)

Steam Generator
Reactor
Extracts heat from the core
heat from the core



RPV
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Water is boiled in the Core.



Normal Water Level
Steam and Hot water
Boiling
Let’s check out the
Core (Nuclear Fuel)
Core (Nuclear Fuel)
detail of the Core!

Cool water




RPV
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Bundles
Bundles of Fuel and Control Rods are
located in the Core.
Cross-section view of
Fuel Bundles
Bundles
and Control Rod




Core




Cross-section view of the Core
□ Fuel Bundle × 872 + Control Rod × 205
Neutron Monitor : ○ Power Range ■Startup Range
Fuel Control
△ Neutron Source
Bundle Rod
RPV Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 16
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Two
Two functions of RPV are …


Main Steam
Normal Water Level
Feed Water


Core (Nuclear Fuel)
(Nuclear Fuel)

Steam Generator
Reactor
Extracts heat from the core
heat from the core



RPV
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Water/Steam flow in RPV
Pressure: 7MPa
Temperature:  280℃
Steam Dryer
removes moisture from
moisture from
Main Steam 7,600t/h
steam from the
Remove separators.
droplet from
Feed Water
steam
steam Steam 7,600t/h
Droplets damage the
Separator
turbine blades.
Feed Water
separates steam and
nozzle
water from the core.

Core Flow
(Water and Steam)
52,200t/h
Separate
Core Flow
Core Flow
Shroud
and separates Core
Downcomer Flow and
Downcomer Flow
Flow Downcomer Flow. (Water)
Feed Water nozzle 52,200 t/h

RPV
cannot be located at
※Each numerical value is based on ABWR.
the bottom of RPV.
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 18
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Shroud
Shroud separates Downcomer flow and
Core flow


Steam Dryer
8m
Steam
Separator
Shroud
Core (Fuel)
Shroud

Downcomer Core flow
flow
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 19
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Steam Separator separates steam from
water. Steam



Water
Steam (still wet)
Steam Dryer
Water level

Steam Steam and Water Two phase
Water flow
Separator
Separator
Core (Fuel)
5m
Vanes


Standpipe
Water
Steam Separators
Steam Separator
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Steam
Steam Dryer removes moisture from
steam.
Steam
Dry Steam
Dryer
Wet Steam
Steam
Separator

Drain
Core (Fuel)
2m
Steam Flow



Drain
Steam Dryer Steam Dryer
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 21
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3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
Reactor Internals
7.1m 1 Vent and Head Spray
2 Steam Dryer
1
3 Steam Outlet Flow Restrictor
4 Steam Separators
Separators
5 RPV Stabilizer
6 Feedwater Sparger
Steam
7 Shutdown Cooling Outlet
8 Low Pressure Flooder (LPFL) and
2
Dryer
Shutdown Cooling Flooder
3
9 High Pressure Core Flooder (HPCF) Sparger
10 HPCF Coupling
4 5
11 Top Guide
21m 12 Fuel Assemblies
6
13 Core Shroud
8
7 9
14 Control Rod
Steam
11 15 Core Plate
10
16 In-Core Instrument Guide
Separator
12 17 Control Rod Guide Tubes
14
18 Core Differential Pressure Line
13
19 Reactor Internal Pumps (RIP)
15
18
20 Thermal Insulation
16 19
21 Control Rod Drive Housings
17
22 Fine Motion Control Rod Drives
23 RIP Motor Casing
Core
20
24 Local Power Range Monitor
21 23

Shroud
22
出典:社団法人 火力原子力発電技術協会 「火原協会講座28 原子力発電所-全体計画と付属設備- (改訂版)」
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 22
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El

3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR
3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
(RPV)

3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
(MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW)

3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
(CRD, RRS)




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 23
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El
3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
System around Turbine side
MS: transfers steam from Reactor to Turbine.
Turbine: extracts rotational energy from steam
rotational energy from steam
Generator:converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
Condenser: condenses steam into water.
nanka FDW: heats and transfers water to the Reactor.




ABWR




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 24
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El
3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
Functions of Main Steam System (MS)
1. Transfers steam from the Reactor to the Turbine.
How?
2. Isolates the steam source, RPV, from the Turbine.
the steam source RPV from the Turbine
3. Protect RPV from its overpressure.
PCV Main Steam System (MS)
Steam
Steam




RPV (Steam source)

Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 25
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3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
MSIV isolates RPV from the Turbine.
Safety Relief
PCV Valve (SRV)
Valve (SRV) In case of MS line break, 
radioactive steam leaks to the 
outside of PCV.
Steam
MS line
To Turbine
Core

MSIVs get closed to isolate 
RPV
RPV.

Main Steam
Isolation Valve
Isolation Valve
(MSIV)
Suppression Pool Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 26
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3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
Turbine
Turbine Turbine of BWR treats radioactive 
steam, but it is not high‐radioactive 
polluted. 


PCV
reason

The radioactive substance 
contained in the steam is mainly 
N16 (of course, no uranium) whose 
half period is only 7 seconds.

The turbine is radiation‐shielded in 
operation time.

Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 27
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El
3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
Moisture Separation Heater (MSH)

It is located between the high
pressure stage and the low
pressure stage of the turbine,
to provide some reheating to
the steam entering the low
pressure stage and to remove
some of the moisture.
th
This increases steam cycle
efficiency and reduces erosion
of the turbine blades
of the turbine blades.




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 28
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El
3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
Condenser
low-pressure feed-
water heater
heater




Condenser is a device to
20m
condense water from its
gaseous state to its liquid state
by cooling it.



Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 29
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El

3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR
3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
(RPV)

3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
(MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW)

3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
(CRD, RRS)




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 30
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How do you control the output power?


Output power




Heat source

Core heat in 
ABWR
It is necessary to control the strength of fire (heat source).

Core heat is controlled in ABWR.
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 31
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3-3. How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
Core heat is controlled by 2 ways in ABWR.
RPV
2. RIP Rotating
RIP Rotating
1. CR Position
CR Position
Speed Control
Control
Flow


Core
CR: Control Rod
Absorb the neutrons
Core flow
flow
RIPs

RIP: Reactor Internal Pump
Control the amount of the Core flow
the amount of the Core flow
CR


Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 32
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3-3. How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
Core heat is controlled by the position of
the CR.
RPV
2. RIP Rotating
RIP Rotating
1. CR Position
CR Position
Speed Control
Control
Low 
Core heat
Core
CR: Control Rod
Absorb the neutrons

High
Core heat
RIP: Reactor Internal Pump
Control the amount of the Core flow
the amount of the Core flow
CR
CR

Why did the Core get hot?
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 33
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3-3. How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
Control Rods absorb neutrons. Nuclear
Fission

Energy
Neutron can be  Moderator
eliminated by  Nuclear (Light Water)
Fission
the CRs. Product Fission U-235
U-235
Thermal Neutron
(Low Energy)
Thermal
Core heat (the  Moderator(Light Water)
Neutron
number of  (Low Energy) Energy
nuclear  Absorption
fission) can be  Control Rods
controlled by  U-238
absorb Neutrons.
the CRs.


Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 34
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El
3-3. How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
Core heat is also controlled by the rotating
speed of RIP.
RPV
2. RIP Rotating
RIP Rotating
1. CR Position
CR Position
Speed Control
Control
Low  Flow
Core heat
Core
CR: Control Rod
Absorb the neutrons High
Core flow
flow
Core flow
High RIPs
Core heat
RIP: Reactor Internal Pump
Control the amount of the Core flow
the amount of the Core flow

Why did the Core get hot?
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 35
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Void Effect
•Moderator Efficiency depends on its Void Void Fraction
Fraction.
Ug
R=
•When Void Fraction is low, Reactor Power
Ug + Uf
will be reduced.
Ug : Volume of Gas
•Water Density has similar feature, but Void
Uf : Volume of Liquid
Effect has larger impact on Reactor Power.
Moderator
Fast Neutron Thermal Neutron U-235
(High Energy) (Low Energy)


Void Fraction; Low Slow down Nuclear Fission
Moderator
Fast Neutron
Fast Neutron
(High Energy) U-235
(High Energy)

No Interaction
Void Fraction; High Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 36
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3-3. How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
RIP Rotating Speed controls the Core heat.
RIP rotating
Core flow
flow Void quantity
quantity Core heat
heat
speed
(F) (V) (Q)
(A)

A1 F1 V1 Q1

Q Core
V
Decrease
Speed up More flow Slow down
F
A1+ΔA F1+ΔF
void quantity
void quantity neutron speed
neutron speed

V1-ΔV A
More Core heat

Q1+ΔQ RIP
RPV
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Nuclear Power Engineering at Electric Power University
El




Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
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100% Power


100% Rod Line




100% Core Flow
Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
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El

Summary (key words)
1.What is BWR?
BWR, PWR

2.Evolution of BWR
ABWR

3.Power Generation Systems of ABWR
3-1 How is steam generated in ABWR?
RPV
3-2 How is electricity generated with steam in ABWR?
MS, Turbine, MSH, Condenser, FDW
3-3 How is the output power controlled in ABWR?
CRD, RRS


Copyright © 2011 Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 40
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