Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days- P6

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Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days- P6

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Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days- P6: Welcome to Sams Teach Yourself PL/SQL in 21 Days, Second Edition. The fact that you purchased this book indicates that you have an interest in learning the PL/SQL language, which is Oracle’s relational database procedural programming language. It allows you to develop powerful and complex programs to access and manipulate data in the Oracle8i database. We have attempted to include as many examples of PL/SQL code as possible to illustrate PL/SQL features....

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  1. Using SQL 227 TABLE 8.1 The Employee Table After Inserting emp_id emp_name supervised_by pay_rate pay_type 8 1 Jessica Loraine 2 8.50 H 2 Kurt Roberts 5 100.00 S This insert statement simply created two records in the employee table. The statement provided the data to be used in the record creations. Note that there were no column_name references in the INSERT statement. The reason is that SQL will make a one-to-one match of the column_name to the data included in the INSERT statement. If you want, you can insert data into selected columns as shown in the second example. It is advisable to always include the column list to ensure clarity to others. Tip The column list will come in handy whenever you have to debug your code. Likewise it is advisable to use a sequence number for any of the table’s pri- mary key values. Here’s the second example: INSERT into employee (emp_id, emp_name) values INPUT ( 1, ‘ Jessica Loraine’, 2, ‘ Kurt Roberts’); ANALYSIS In the second example, you only placed data in the emp_id and emp_name columns. All other columns would be blank, as seen in Table 8.2. TABLE 8.2 Inserting with Named Columns emp_id emp_name supervised_by pay_rate pay_type 1 Jessica Loraine 2 Kurt Roberts Inserting Some Data You will now insert data into the employee table for use in the remainder of the book. Type in the PL/SQL block shown in Listing 8.4, and then compile and execute it. When you run this block of code, it will ask you for an employee’s name and related informa- tion and in turn insert this data into the Employee table. Run this anonymous PL/SQL
  2. 228 Day 8 block multiple times in order to end up with roughly 10 employees’ worth of data loaded. Your goal here is to input data that represents the typical organizational chart shown in Figure 8.4. You want data loaded for all levels of the organizational chart. While inserting data, feel free to use any names you like. FIGURE 8.4 Tom Key: employee name 1 emp. number Organization chart. Sarah Matt Jon 2 6 3 Jenny Melinda Richard Mike William Joe 2 2 2 3 3 3 Jack Andrew Lauren 2 2 3 Department 1 Department 2 Department 3 Listing 8.4 shows the PL/SQL anonymous block that you can run to insert the necessary data. INPUT LISTING 8.4 Inserting Records with PL/SQL Code DECLARE -- insert department data first i_dept_id INTEGER, i_dept_name, BEGIN INSERT into department values (&i_dept_id,’&dept_name’); END; / COMMIT; -- save the department data DECLARE -- insert employee and emp_dept data i_id INTEGER; e_id INTEGER; i_name VARCHAR2(32); i_super INTEGER; i_rate NUMBER(9,2); i_type CHAR; i_emp_dept INTEGER;
  3. Using SQL 229 e_emp_dept INTEGER; BEGIN e_id:=&employee_id; 8 e_emp_dept:=&employee_department_id; INSERT into employee values (e_id, ‘&i_name’,&i_super,&i_rate,’&i_type’); INSERT into emp_dept values (e_id,e_emp_dept); END; / COMMIT; -- save employee and emp_dept datadata The code in Listing 8.4 is used to insert data first into the Department table, and ANALYSIS then the Employee table, and finally the Emp_Dept table. Singleton SELECT Statement The SELECT statement is one of the ways to get data out of the database. In order to use the SELECT statement, you must have SELECT system privileges. Depending on how you design and use the SELECT statement, you can retrieve a single (singleton) row or multi- ple rows of data from the database. Sometimes you’ll only want a single row returned; otherwise, you want your PL/SQL block to handle the multiple rows without terminating. The syntax for the SELECT statement is as follows. SELECT column_name , SYNTAX from table_name WHERE condition ORDER BY expression In this syntax, column_name is the name of the column or columns from which you want data. table_name is the name of the table or tables in which the previous columns belong. The condition statement is used to specify the criteria to retrieve specific rows. The ORDER BY clause enables you to define the order in which to display the retrieved rows. For example, you might want to display the rows in alphabetical order or in numer- , ic sequence. Both the WHERE and the ORDER BY clauses are optional. Some SELECT Command Examples The first example is a simple SELECT statement to retrieve all the rows from the INPUT Employee table: SELECT emp_id, emp_name, supervised_by, pay_rate, pay_type from employee ORDER BY emp_name
  4. 230 Day 8 This statement will return all rows from the Employee table sorted in ascending ANALYSIS order by the employee name. Because this statement grabs all columns and rows from the table, you could use the wildcard * to achieve the same result. The following example is synonymous with the previous example as it will select all rows and columns from the Employee table. INPUT SELECT * from employee ORDER BY emp_name A more complex, but realistic, example would be SELECT * from employee WHERE pay_type = ‘S’ ORDER BY pay_rate desc This SELECT statement will return all rows from the table that have the pay_type ANALYSIS equal to ‘S’. The returned rows will be in pay_rate descending order. Finally, Listing 8.5 is an example of a singleton SELECT. An assumption is made here that you only have one employee with the name of Jack Richards. You might want your pro- gram to indicate to you if you have multiple occurrences of a specific employee. The bottom line is that you don’t want processing to halt if this happens. INPUT LISTING 8.5 Multiple-Row SELECT Command DECLARE v_emp_id INTEGER; BEGIN SELECT emp_id -- select statement into v_emp_id from employee WHERE emp_name = ‘Jack Richards’; -- where clause exception when too_many_rows THEN -- type of exception Null; --exception logic can go here as needed END; ANALYSIS In this example, an exception is raised when more than one row is returned by the SELECT statement. Exploring the UPDATE and DELETE Statements The next two SQL DML statements to cover are the UPDATE and the DELETE statements. You can use these in any PL/SQL block as necessary. The purpose of these commands is synonymous with their names. The UPDATE command enables the user to change the
  5. Using SQL 231 values of an existing row. The DELETE command provides the means to remove or delete a row from a table. 8 The Syntax for the UPDATE Command , SYNTAX UPDATE table_name set (column_name = value) WHERE statement In this syntax, table_name is the table containing the row you want to update, column_name is the column you want to update, and the WHERE statement identifies the , row in the table to be identified. The following is an example of the UPDATE command to change the values of the Employee table. This statement will change the value of the employee name to Tim Brandon for the table row which has the EMP_ID equal to 2. UPDATE employee SET (emp_name = ‘Timothy Brandon’) WHERE emp_id = 2; The Syntax for the DELETE Command SYNTAX DELETE from table_name WHERE statement In this syntax, table_name is the table containing the row to be deleted, and the WHERE statement identifies the row to be deleted. The following example will delete all records from the Department table where the department name is equal to Accounting. DELETE FROM department INPUT WHERE dept_name = ‘ACCOUNTING’; The example illustrates the deletion of all records from the Department table ANALYSIS where the department name is Accounting. All other records with department names other than Accounting will remain in the table and untouched. Once records are deleted from a table they remain unusable until a COMMIT Caution or a ROLLBACK command is issued. The COMMIT command will permanently delete the records while the ROLLBACK command will restore the records. Refer to the Oracle SQL Language Reference Manual for a more comprehensive syntax diagram for these last two commands.
  6. 232 Day 8 Handling Types of Exceptions Exceptions are errors that occur during runtime processing. These exceptions can arise due to different situations. Normally, PL/SQL processing will terminate as soon as it encounters an exception. Fortunately, PL/SQL gives you several tools to handle these exceptions so that processing does not terminate. After an exception is detected, process- ing is transferred to your handling routine within the PL/SQL block. Refer to Day 7, “Procedures, Packages, Errors, and Exceptions,” for additional information about Oracle’s exception-handling capabilities. The following are the more commonly used predefined exceptions that you can trap in your exception-handling section of your PL/SQL block: • no_data_found—Singleton SELECT statement returned no data. • too_many_rows—Singleton SELECT statement returned more than one row of data. • invalid_cursor—Illegal cursor operation occurred. • value_error—Arithmetic, conversion, or truncation error occurred. • when others—Used when no other exception is explicitly listed. Listing 8.6 offers an enhancement to the code in Listing 8.5. In this example, I added another exception to handle the case when no rows are returned from the database. LISTING 8.6 Multiple-Row SELECT Command with Several Exception- INPUT Handling Routines DECLARE v_emp_id INTEGER; BEGIN SELECT emp_id into v_emp_id from employee WHERE emp_name = ‘Jack Richards’; exception when no_data_found THEN v_emp_id := 888; -- 888 is just an example of any code you can use ➥ to indicate a specific error when too_many_rows THEN v_emp_id := 999; -- 999 is just an example of any code you can use ➥ to indicate a specific error END; In the example in Listing 8.6, one of several exceptions can be raised. An excep- ANALYSIS tion is raised when no rows are returned by the SELECT statement as well as when more than one row is returned by the SELECT statement.
  7. Using SQL 233 Using the LOCK TABLE Statement The final DML statement covered in this chapter is the LOCK TABLE statement. This SQL 8 statement will lock one or more tables during the execution of your session. Although not typically thought of as a DML statement, it is indeed one. It is used primarily to enhance the effects of the other four DML statements. The syntax for the LOCK TABLE statement is as follows. LOCK TABLE table_name SYNTAX IN lockmode MODE {NOWAIT}; In this syntax, • table_name is the name of the table to be locked • lockmode represents the nature or extent of the lock. The following are the possible values for the lockmode: • ROW SHARE allows concurrent access to the locked table, but prohibits users from locking the entire table for exclusive access. ROW SHARE is synonymous with SHARE UPDATE, which is included for compatibility with earlier versions of Oracle. • ROW EXCLUSIVE is the same as ROW SHARE, but also prohibits locking in SHARE mode. Row Exclusive locks are automatically obtained when updating, inserting, or deleting. • SHARE UPDATE allows concurrent access to the locked table, but prohibits users from locking the entire table for exclusive access. • SHARE allows concurrent queries but prohibits updates to the locked table. • SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE is used to look at a whole table and to allow others to look at rows in the table, but to prohibit others from locking the table in SHARE mode or updating rows. • EXCLUSIVE allows queries on the locked table but prohibits any other activity on it. • nowait option is an optional parameter. This specifies that Oracle returns control to you immediately if the specified table is already locked by another user. In this case, Oracle returns a message indicating that the table, partition, or subpartition is already locked by another user. If you omit this clause, Oracle waits until the table is available, locks it, and returns control to you.
  8. 234 Day 8 The following is an example of using the LOCK TABLE statement to lock the Department table in exclusive mode, which means the lock command does not have to wait for other locks to dissipate. LOCK TABLE department INPUT IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT; The sample code will place a lock on the Department table. This lock will pre- ANALYSIS vent others from modifying the table while you have the lock on it. Transaction Control Statements Transaction control statements are the last set of SQL statement we will discuss in this chapter. Transaction control statements help you manage the changes made by any of the other DML statements. The four transaction control statements are • COMMIT—makes permanent any changes to the database during this session. • ROLLBACK—used to remove any changes since the last commit during this session. This command will restore the data to where it was at the last commit. • SAVEPOINT—a bookmark within or at the boundaries of a transaction. This book- mark is referenced in other parts of your PL/SQL program when needed to roll- back. • SET TRANSACTION—defines the nature of the transaction and its behavior during rollback processes. Using Records A record is a collection of individual values that are related somehow. Most often, records are used to represent a row in a table, and thus the relationship is based on all the values being from the same row. Each field in a record is unique and has its own values. A record as a whole does not have a value. By using records, you can group like data into one structure and then manipulate this structure as one entity or logical unit. This helps reduce coding and keeps the code easier to maintain and understand. Declaring a Record Variable In order to use a record, you must define the record by declaring a record type. Then, you must declare one or more PL/SQL variables to be of that type.
  9. Using SQL 235 You declare a record type in the declaration portion of a PL/SQL block, subprogram, or package. The following example declares a record type named emp_pay_info: 8 TYPE emp_pay_info IS RECORD --record declaration (emp_id INTEGER, emp_name VARCHAR2(32), pay_rate NUMBER(9,2), pay_type CHAR(1) ); With the record type defined, you can then declare variables of that type, as in the fol- lowing example: DECLARE ... emp emp_pay_info; ... BEGIN ... After you have a record variable declared, you can use dot notation to reference the indi- vidual fields within the record. In the following example, the pay_type field in the emp record is referenced in an IF statement: IF emp.pay_type = ‘S’ THEN... Having related fields grouped together in a record allows you to more easily keep things together when you are passing those values as parameters to other program units. This example shows the declaration for a procedure that takes a record of type emp_pay_info as a parameter: procedure calculate_check (emp IN emp_pay_info) IS ... Passing related values as a record not only makes your code more readable, but it makes it more maintainable as well. If you need to add another field to the emp_pay_info record, you only need to change the record definition, and that new value will be passed around everywhere that the record goes. If you were dealing with separate variables, you would have to change the header for every procedure and function that used the record. Using the %TYPE Attribute If you’re declaring a record, and you want some of the field definitions to match defini- tions of columns in a database table, you can use the %TYPE attribute.
  10. 236 Day 8 Note %TYPE can be used in any variable declaration, not just with records. To declare a variable to match a column definition, place an entry such as this in the dec- laration section of the PL/SQL block: variable_name table_name.column_name%TYPE; The %TYPE following the table and column name tells Oracle that you want the variable being declared to inherit its datatype and length from the definition of the named col- umn. The following example shows another way to define the emp_pay_info record shown in the previous section: TYPE emp_pay_info IS RECORD (emp_id employee.emp_id%TYPE, emp_name employee.emp_name%TYPE, pay_rate employee.pay_rate%TYPE, pay_type employee.pay_type%TYPE ); Using %TYPE like this helps insulate your PL/SQL code from changes in the underlying database columns. In the next section you’ll learn an even easier technique, using %ROWTYPE, that you can use when you want the record to contain fields for all columns in a table. Using Record Variables Based on Database Tables If a record type variable is based on a table, it means that the fields in the record have the exact same name and datatype as the columns in the specified table. You use the %ROWTYPE attribute to declare a record based on a table. To declare a record variable that exactly matches the definition of a table—that is, that contains one field for each column in the table—use the following syntax for the record type: table_name%ROWTYPE; where table_name is the name of the table. %ROWTYPE is a keyword that tells Oracle that the record should have one field for each column in the table, and that the datatypes of the fields should exactly match the datatypes of the columns. The following example declares the variable dept so that it matches the definition of the Department table: DECLARE dept department%ROWTYPE; ...
  11. Using SQL 237 The beauty of this is that a change to the table definition automatically ripples through to your PL/SQL code. You don’t need to manually hunt down and change record defini- 8 tions. Adding a column to a table would be transparent to your PL/SQL code, as Note would certain types of datatype changes. However, if you drop a table col- umn that your code is using, you need to visit that code and make some changes. As with any other record, you use dot notation to reference a specific field. As far as PL/SQL is concerned, using department%ROWTYPE has the same effect as if you had declared the record like this: DECLARE TYPE dept_type IS RECORD ( dept_id department.dept_id%type, dept_name department.dept_name%type, no_of_emps department.no_of_emps%type ); dept dept_type; If you’re working with all or most of the fields in a table, use %ROWTYPE to declare your records. You’ll save typing, and you’ll insulate your code somewhat from changes to the table. Using Record Variables and SELECT Statements If you have a record where all the fields in the record correspond exactly to the fields being returned from a SELECT statement, you can retrieve the values directly into that record. Here’s an example: DECLARE dept department%ROWTYPE; BEGIN SELECT * INTO dept FROM department WHERE dept_id = 502; ... END; /
  12. 238 Day 8 You don’t have to use %ROWTYPE when you do this, and you don’t have to use SELECT * either. Listing 8.7 shows the dept record being declared without the use of %ROWTYPE, and Listing 8.8 shows a SELECT statement other than SELECT *. Listing 8.7 selects for department 502. If you don’t have that department, Note replace 502 with a valid number for your database. INPUT LISTING 8.7 Selecting Directly into a Record 1: DECLARE 2: TYPE dept_type IS RECORD 3: ( 4: dept_id department.dept_id%type, 5: dept_name department.dept_name%type, 6: no_of_emps department.no_of_emps%type 7: ); 8: 9: dept dept_type; 10: BEGIN 11: SELECT * INTO dept 12: FROM department 13: WHERE dept_id = 502; 14: END; 15: / A record type named dept_type is defined in lines 2–7. The declaration in line 9 ANALYSIS declares a variable named dept to be of type dept_type. Because the fields in the dept_type record match exactly the fields in the Department table, the SELECT statement in lines 11–13 will work. INPUT LISTING 8.8 Selecting a Specific List of Fields into a Record 1: DECLARE 2: TYPE dept_type IS RECORD 3: ( 4: dept_id department.dept_id%type, 5: dept_name department.dept_name%type, 6: no_of_emps department.no_of_emps%type 7: ); 8: 9: dept dept_type; 10: BEGIN 11: SELECT dept_id, dept_name, no_of_emps INTO dept 12: FROM department 13: WHERE dept_id = 502;
  13. Using SQL 239 14: END; 15: / 8 The three fields in the Department table are enumerated in the SELECT list. ANALYSIS Because the number of fields (and their datatypes) corresponds with the defini- tion of the dept_type record, you are able to retrieve the data directly into a variable of type dept_type. The key thing to keep in mind when selecting data directly into a record is that the columns and datatypes represented in the SELECT list must correspond exactly to the fields and datatypes in the record definition. The column names and field names do not need to match, as Oracle assigns column values to fields in a record based on position, but the datatypes must match. If you are using SELECT * to retrieve values from a table, you are safest using %ROWTYPE when declaring the record. Using Record Variables Based on Cursor Definitions Just as you can base a record on a table, you can also base a record definition on a cur- sor. Records that are based on an Oracle cursor draw their structure from the SELECT statement used for the cursor. This type of record has the same number of columns, with the same names and datatypes, as those in the cursor. The %ROWTYPE keyword is used to declare the record that is based on a cursor. Listing 8.9 shows a cursor named all_depts, and a record named dept that is based on that cursor. INPUT LISTING 8.9 Declaring a Record to Match a Cursor 1: DECLARE 2: CURSOR all_depts is 3: SELECT dept_id, dept_name 4: FROM department 5: ORDER BY dept_name; 6: 7: dept all_depts%ROWTYPE; 8: BEGIN 9: OPEN all_depts; 10: 11: LOOP 12: EXIT WHEN all_depts%NOTFOUND; 13: FETCH all_depts INTO dept; 14: DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(dept.dept_name); 15: END LOOP; 16: 17: CLOSE all_depts; 18: END; 19: /
  14. 240 Day 8 BOTTLING OUTPUT BUILDING MAINTENANCE DISTILLATION EMPLOYEE NEWSLETTERS FERMENTATION FLEET REPAIR GUTTING PAYROLL SCALE PROCESSING SEWAGE TECHNICAL WRITING UNLOADING UNLOADING The cursor all_depts is declared in lines 2–5. In line 7, a record variable named ANALYSIS dept is declared based on the definition of the cursor. Because the variable dept matches the cursor exactly, the FETCH statement in line 13 can fetch the results of the SELECT statement directly into the record. If at some point in the future you need to add columns to the select list, that change will automatically ripple through to the record def- inition, and the FETCH statement will continue to operate. Declarations at the Package Level Declaring a package has two parts: the package specification and the package body. The package body defines all the functions, procedures, and other constructs that are declared in the package specification. The package specification declares all variables, constants, cursors, procedures, and functions. This section reviews the declarations of variables in the package specification. The package specification contains the declaration of all objects that will be used in the package body. The following are several examples of a package specification that declares a cursor, variable, constant, and record. package emp_data is -- package specification INPUT pay_raise constant real := 1.25; high_rate INTEGER; CURSOR salary_cur (emp_id INTEGER, pay_rate NUMBER (9,2)); TYPE sal_rec is record (emp_name VARCHAR2(32), pay_rate NUMBER (9,2)); emp_rec salary_cur%rowtype; END emp_data; One of the advantages of declaring items in a package is that they are global in ANALYSIS nature and accessible by all. This means that any program in your application can use the variables, cursors, constants, and records declared in the package specification. You treat these items (except constants) as if they were declared locally in that you can
  15. Using SQL 241 change their values as needed. This global nature of the data is only within a session and is not available across multiple sessions. This means, for example, that the variables run- 8 ning in one user’s applications are not accessible to a different user’s application unless the DBMS_PIPE package is used. Pseudocolumns Pseudocolumns are not really columns in a table; they just have characteristics of columns. These pseudocolumns will return values when referenced just like real table columns. However, you cannot do any other DML or DDL statements on these pseudocolumns. Pseudocolumns are primarily used to give the programmer more tools to use in his code. They provide a convenient way to obtain information about different aspects of the database. The following are the Pseudocolumns we will discuss: CURRVAL, NEXTVAL, ROWID, and ROWNUM. CURRVAL and NEXTVAL Pseudocolumns The CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns are used in conjunction with sequences. The CURRVAL pseudocolumn returns the current value of the referenced sequence. The NEXTVAL pseudocolumn, when referenced, will increment the sequence value and then return the new sequence value. These pseudocolumns may only be used in the SELECT VALUE clause, and SET Note clause statements. To reference the CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudocolumns, the SQL dot notation must be used. For example, the following statement will insert a new record into the Employee table. This insert statement will use the next increment of the emp_id_seq sequence for the value to be inserted into the emp_id column. INSERT into employee INPUT VALUES (emp_id_seq.NEXTVAL,’Stanton Bernard’); This sample code inserts a single record into the Employee table. The employee ANALYSIS id is created and provide by the emp_id_seq sequence number. The employee name is hard coded and provide in the insert statement.
  16. 242 Day 8 ROWID Pseudocolumns The ROWID pseudocolumn represents the binary address of a row in a table. You can use variables of type UROWID to store rowids in a readable format. In the following example, you declare a variable named emp_row_id for that purpose: DECLARE emp_row_id UROWID; When you select or fetch a rowid into a UROWID variable, you can use the function ROWIDTOCHAR, which converts the binary value to an 18-byte character string. Then, you can compare the UROWID variable to the ROWID pseudocolumn in the WHERE clause of an UPDATE or DELETE statement to identify the latest row fetched from a cursor. ROWNUM Pseudocolumns The ROWNUM pseudocolumn refers to the order in which data was retrieved from a table. For example, ROWNUM of 1 indicates that row was the first row retrieved from the table. Likewise, ROWNUM of 2333 refers to 2333rd row retrieved from the table. ROWNUM values are assigned when the fetch occurs and are not affected by the ORDER BY clause. The most common usage of the ROWNUM pseudocolumn is in the WHERE clause statement. For example, you may want to do an interactive select on a table until the ROWNUM is equal to some constant. In this example, the interaction will continue until the ROWNUM is greater than 100. DECLARE INPUT CURSOR c1 IS SELECT sal FROM employee WHERE sal > 500 AND ROWNUM < 100; The above cursor declaration code uses the ROWNUM pseudocolumn in the WHERE ANALYSIS clause. The ROWNUM is used to limit the number of records processed to the first 99 records in the table. Summary Today’s lesson presents you with a quick overview of using SQL statements within a PL/SQL block. You learned how to insert and retrieve data from tables that you created and how to prepare for runtime errors. You also learned about PL/SQL variables—how to declare them; how to use them; and how to base them on other objects such as database tables, columns, constants, and even other variables. The %type attribute enables you to keep the variable declaration in synch with the datatypes in the database.
  17. Using SQL 243 Q&A Q What happens if my SQL statement fails inside the PL/SQL block? 8 A The processing of your PL/SQL block will terminate unless you have code in place to trap and handle the exception. PL/SQL allows for numerous predefined excep- tions that make your coding easier. Q What is a PL/SQL record? A A PL/SQL record is a variable with the type record. It is a composite structure con- taining fields with its own datatypes. Records can help the developer by reducing the volume of code necessary. Records allow similar fields to be grouped and treat- ed as one logical entity. Q What is the difference between Data Manipulation Language statements and Transaction control statements? A The Transaction control statements ensure the integrity of the data while using Data Manipulation Language statements. That is, while you use the SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, and DELETE statements, the programmer will insert the appropriate transaction control statements to ensure the data is accurate and does not become corrupted. Workshop The following workshop will test your comprehension of this chapter and give you an opportunity to practice what you have just learned. The answers to the quiz and exercises are provided in Appendix A, “Answers.” Quiz 1. Name some of the database objects that you can base a variable declaration on. 2. Name at least two of the exception types discussed in this chapter. 3. Do you need to list the table column names while inserting data into that table? 4. What are the five SQL DML statements permitted in a PL/SQL block? Exercises Evaluate each of the following three declarations and determine which ones are legal or not legal. Explain your answer for those that are not legal. 1. Legal or not legal: DECLARE emp_rec emp_rec_type;
  18. 244 Day 8 2. Legal or not legal: DECLARE emp_last_name %type; 3. Legal or not legal: LOCK TABLE department IN EXCLUSIVE MODE;
  19. WEEK 2 DAY 9 Manipulating Data with Cursors by Tom Luers PL/SQL cursors provide a way for your program to select multiple rows of data from the database and then process each row individually. Specifically, a cursor is a name assigned by Oracle to every SQL statement processed. This name provides Oracle a means to direct and control all phases of the SQL processing. Today, you will learn • Cursor creation • Cursor processing • Defining and using cursor attributes What Is a Cursor? NEW TERM Oracle uses two kinds of cursors: implicit and explicit. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor for every SQL statement used, regardless of the number of rows returned by the statement. It needs to do this to
  20. 246 Day 9 manage the processing of the SQL statement. Implicit cursors are declared by Oracle for each UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT SQL command. The user declares and uses explicit cursors to process multiple rows returned by a SELECT state- ment. Explicitly defined cursors are constructs that enable the user to name an area of memory to hold a specific statement for access at a later time. As you recall from earlier in this book, SELECT statements can return zero, one, or many rows of data. When a PL/SQL cursor query returns multiple rows of data, the resulting group of rows is called the active set. This active set is stored by Oracle in the explicitly defined and named cursor that you create. The Oracle cursor is a mechanism used to process multiple rows of data easily. Without cursors, the Oracle developer would have to explicitly fetch and manage each individual row that is selected by the cursor query. Another feature of the cursor is that it contains a pointer that keeps track of the current row being accessed, which enables your program to process the rows one at a time. Figure 9.1 illustrates an Oracle cursor: It shows the active set, which is the row returned by the cursor’s SELECT statement and the pointer indicating the latest row fetched from the active set. FIGURE 9.1 Cursor Active Set An Oracle multirow cursor. Emp Id Emp Name Emp Dept 1 Cathy 1 2 Patricia 2 Current Row 3 Linda 3 4 Karen 3 Explicit Cursors Explicit cursors are defined by the programmer to process a multiple-row active set one record at a time. The following are the steps for using explicitly defined cursors within PL/SQL: 1. Declare the cursor. 2. Open the cursor. 3. Fetch data from the cursor. 4. Close the cursor. Declaring a Cursor The first step is to declare the cursor for PL/SQL to reference the returned data. You must do this in the declaration portion of your PL/SQL block. Declaring a cursor accom- plishes two goals:
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