Testkiller 640-503 Ed2

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Installing, Configuring ,and Administering Exchange 2000 Server Concepts

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  1. CISCO STUDY GUIDE Building Scalable Cisco Networks (BSCN) Exam 640-503 Edition 2
  2. Congratulations!! You have purchased a Testkiller, Ltd Study Guide. This study guide is a selection of questions and answers similar to the ones you will find on the official CCNP 640-503 exam. Study and memorize the following concepts, questions and answers for approximately 15 to 20 hours and you will be prepared to take the exams. We guarantee it! Remember, average study time is 15 to 20 hours and then you are ready!!! GOOD LUCK! DISCLAIMER This study guide and/or material is not sponsored by, endorsed by or affiliated with Cisco Sys- tems, Inc. Cisco®, Cisco Systems®, CCDA™, CCNA™, CCDP™, CCNP™, CCIE™, CCSI™, the Cisco Systems logo and the CCIE logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco Sys- tems, Inc. in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Guarantee If you use this study guide correctly and still fail the exam, send your official score notice and mailing address to: Testkiller, Ltd 8200 Pat Booker Rd. #368 San Antonio, TX 78233 We will gladly refund the cost of this study guide. However, you will not need this guarantee if you follow the above instructions. This material is protected by copyright law and international treaties. Unauthor- ized reproduction or distribution of this material, or any portion thereof, may re- sult in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under law.  Copyright 2001 Testkiller, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. www.testkiller.com
  3. Table of Contents Routing Principles........................................................................................................................... 1 Routing Metric ............................................................................................................................ 1 RIP Routing Metrics ............................................................................................................... 1 IGRP Routing Metrics ............................................................................................................ 1 Classful Routes ....................................................................................................................... 1 Classless Routing .................................................................................................................... 1 Distance Vector Operation...................................................................................................... 1 Convergence ............................................................................................................................... 1 EIGRP Convergence............................................................................................................... 1 OSPF Convergence................................................................................................................. 2 IP Addresses.................................................................................................................................... 2 Current challenges in IP Addressing........................................................................................... 2 IP Addressing Solutions.............................................................................................................. 2 Hierarchical Addressing.......................................................................................................... 2 Variable Length Subnet Masks............................................................................................... 2 Route Summarization.............................................................................................................. 2 CIDR ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Redistribution Implementation Guidelines ............................................................................. 3 NAT ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Using IP Unnumbered Serial Interface ....................................................................................... 3 Server Location........................................................................................................................... 3 OSPF ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Configuring OSPF in a Single Area............................................................................................ 3 OSPF Operation in a Broadcast Multiaccess Topology ......................................................... 4 OSPF Startup .......................................................................................................................... 4 OSPF over NBMA Topology ................................................................................................. 4 NBMA Mode Neighborship ................................................................................................... 5 Point-to-Multipoint Mode Neighborship ................................................................................ 5 Interconnecting Multiple OSPF Areas........................................................................................ 5 Multiple OSPF Areas.............................................................................................................. 5 Types of Routers ..................................................................................................................... 6 Types of Areas ........................................................................................................................ 6 Supporting Route Summarization........................................................................................... 6 EIGRP ............................................................................................................................................. 6 Configuring EIGRP .................................................................................................................... 6 EIGRP Operation .................................................................................................................... 6 EIGRP Packets........................................................................................................................ 6 EIGRP Reliability ................................................................................................................... 7 Topology Table....................................................................................................................... 7 Configuring EIGRP ................................................................................................................ 7 EIGRP Load Balancing........................................................................................................... 7 EIGRP and WAN Links.......................................................................................................... 7 EIGRP Link Utilization .......................................................................................................... 7 www.testkiller.com
  4. Using EIGRP in a Scalable Network ...................................................................................... 7 BGP................................................................................................................................................. 8 Configuring Basic Border Gateway Protocol ............................................................................. 8 BGP Use.................................................................................................................................. 8 When to use BGP.................................................................................................................... 8 When not to use BGP.............................................................................................................. 8 BGP Peers or Neighbors ......................................................................................................... 8 Policy-Based Routing ............................................................................................................. 8 Well Known Attributes ........................................................................................................... 8 Optional Attributes.................................................................................................................. 9 Defined BGP Attributes.......................................................................................................... 9 BGP Synchronization.............................................................................................................. 9 BGP Message Types ............................................................................................................... 9 Implementing BGP in Scalable Networks ................................................................................ 10 Route Reflectors.................................................................................................................... 10 Policy Control and Prefix Lists............................................................................................. 10 Optimizing Routing Update Operation......................................................................................... 10 Redistribution............................................................................................................................ 10 Policy-based Routing ................................................................................................................ 10 Calculating cost for external routes .......................................................................................... 10 www.testkiller.com
  5. Key Concepts Building Scalable Cisco Networks (BSCN) Routing Principles Routing is a relay process in which items are forwarded from one location to another. The mechanism of learning and maintaining awareness of the network topology is considered to be the routing function. Routing Metric In a routed network the routing process relies on the routing protocol to maintain a loop-free to- pology and to locate the best path to every destination network. RIP Routing Metrics RIP is a commonly used routing protocol in small to medium sized TCP/IP networks. IGRP Routing Metrics Cisco’s IGRP is a commonly used routing protocol in medium to large sized TCP/IP networks. IGRP uses a composite metric, based upon bandwidth, delay, reliability, load, and maximum transmission unit (MTU). Classful Routes Classful routing protocols, such as RIPv1 and IGRP, exchange routes to subnetworks within the same major Class (A, B or C) network. Classful routing is the result of subnet masks not being included in the routing advertisements generated by most distance vector routing protocols. Classless Routing Classless routing protocols can be considered second-generation protocols because they are de- signed to deal with some of the limitations of the earlier classful protocols. Distance Vector Operation The periodic routine routing updates generated by most distance vector routing protocols go only to directly connected routing devices. Convergence In a routed network, the routing process in each router must maintain a loop-free single path to each possible destination logical network. When all the routing tables are synchronized and each contains a usable route to each destination network, the network is converged. EIGRP Convergence A router running EIGRP uses reliable multicast messages when it sends queries and updates to other routers. 1 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  6. OSPF Convergence A router running OSPF uses a multicast address to propagate LSAs. LSA is state information about a link or a network. IP Addresses Current challenges in IP Addressing An IP address consists of a 32-bit number with two components: a network address and a node. The incredible growth of the Internet has resulted in following challenges: • IP address exhaustion • Routing table growth and manageability IP Addressing Solutions Solutions have been developed to slow the depletion of IP addresses and to reduce the number of Internet route table entries by enabling more hierarchical layers in an IP address. These solutions include the following: • Subnet masking • Address allocation for private internets • Network Address Translation (NAT) • Hierarchical addressing • Variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) • Route summarization • Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) Hierarchical Addressing The benefits of hierarchical addressing are: • Reduced number of routing table entries • Efficient allocation of addresses Variable Length Subnet Masks The VLSMs are commonly used to maximize the number of possible addresses available for a network. The benefits if VLSMs are: • Even more efficient use of IP addresses • Greater capability to use route summarization Route Summarization Route summarization can reduce the number of routes that a router must maintain because it is a method of representing a series of network numbers in a single summary address. 2 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  7. Cisco routers manage route summarization in two ways: • Sending route summaries • Selecting routes from route summaries CIDR CIDR is a mechanism developed to help alleviate the problem of exhaustion of IP addresses and growth of routing tables. Redistribution Implementation Guidelines • Be familiar with your network and your network traffic • Do not overlap routing protocols • One-way redistribution • Two-way redistribution NAT Network Address Translation can be used to merge two large networks without having to re- address the whole network. Another function of NAT is overloading inside global addresses. This process allows several inside addresses to use a single IP address. NAT can also use a pool of addresses or multiple interfaces. Using IP Unnumbered Serial Interface To enable IP processing on a serial interface without assigning an explicit IP address to the inter- face, use the ip unnumbered type number interface configuration command. In the command type number indicates the type and number of another interface on which the router has an as- signed IP address. Server Location The server location is located in several ways: • A single server on a single remote medium • Multiple servers on a single remote medium, sometimes called a server farm • Multiple servers on multiple remote media OSPF Configuring OSPF in a Single Area OSPF is a link-state technology, as opposed to a distance vector technology such as Routing In- formation Protocol (RIP). The OSPF protocol performs the two primary functions of every rout- ing protocol algorithm: path selection and path switching. The OSPF addresses the following issues: 3 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  8. • Speed of convergence • Support for variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) • Network Reachability • Use of bandwidth • Method for path selection Topologies found in OSPF are: • Broadcast multiaccess topologies • Point-to-point topologies • Nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) topologies OSPF Operation in a Broadcast Multiaccess Topology Because OSPF topology is dependent on the status of a link between two routers, neighbor routers must recognize each other on the network before they can share information. This proc- ess is done using the Hello Protocol. The information contained in a Hello Packet is as follows: • Router ID • Hello and dead intervals • Neighbors • Area-ID • Router priority • DR and BDR IP address • Authentication password • Stub area flag The DR and BDR add value to the network in the following ways: • Reducing routing update traffic • Managing link-state synchronization OSPF Startup The steps involved when routers running OSPF come up on a network. 1. Exchange Process 2. Discovering Routes OSPF over NBMA Topology OSPF runs in two official modes in NBMA topologies: • Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA) • Point-to-Multipoint 4 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  9. NBMA Mode Neighborship Consider the following before using this mode: • Full mesh and direct communication • Stability of the network Point-to-Multipoint Mode Neighborship This mode has the following properties. • Does not require a fully meshed network • Does not require static neighbor configuration • Uses one IP subnet • Duplicates LSA packets Configuring OSPF over NBMA Topology • RFC –compliant Modes NBMA Mode Point-to-multipoint Mode • Cisco-defined Modes Point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast mode Broadcast mode Point-to-point mode Interconnecting Multiple OSPF Areas Multiple OSPF Areas The following areas need to be addresses. Frequent calculations of the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm Large routing table Large link-state table The hierarchical topology of OSPF has the following advantages. Reduced frequency of SPF calculations Smaller routing tables Reduced link-state update (LSU) overhead 5 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  10. Types of Routers 1. Internal Router 2. Backbone Router 3. Area Border Router 4. Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) Types of Areas The characteristics that you assign an area control the type of route information that it receives. The possible area types include the following. Standard area Backbone area Stub area Totally stubby area Not-so-stubby area Supporting Route Summarization Summarization is the consolidation of multiple routes into a single advertisement. With summa- rization, only summarized routes will propagate into the backbone. Two types of summarization exist, as follows: 1. Interarea route summarization 2. External route summarization EIGRP Configuring EIGRP EIGRP is a Cisco owned protocol that combines the advantages of link-state and distance vector routing protocols. This hybrid protocol has the following features: Rapid convergence Reduced bandwidth usage Multiple network layer support EIGRP Operation Elements of EIGRP operation are: EIGRP Packets EIGRP neighbor relationship EIGRP Packets EIGRP uses the following five types of packets: 6 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  11. Hello Update Queries Replies ACK EIGRP Reliability EIGRPs reliability mechanism ensures delivery of critical route information to neighboring routers. This information is required to allow EIGRP to maintain a loop-free topology. All pack- ets carrying routing information are sent reliably. Topology Table When the router dynamically discovers a new neighbor, it sends an update about the routes that it knows to its new neighbor and receives the same from the new neighbor. These updates populate what is known as the Topology Table. Configuring EIGRP Perform the following steps to configure EIGRP for IP. 1. Enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system. 2. Indicate which networks are parts of the EIGRP autonomous system. 3. If using serial links especially for the frame relay or SMD define the bandwidth of a link for the purpose of sending routing update traffic on the link. EIGRP Load Balancing Load balancing is the capability of a router to distribute the traffic over all its network ports that are the same distance from the destination address. EIGRP and WAN Links EIGRP is scalable on both point-to-point links and NBMA multipoint and point-to-point links. A solid understanding of EIGRP operation coupled with knowledge of link speeds can yield an ef- ficient, reliable and scalable router configuration. EIGRP Link Utilization By default EIGRP will use up to 50 percent of the bandwidth declared on an interface or subin- terface. This percentage can be adjusted. Using EIGRP in a Scalable Network The following are some of the many variables that impact network scalability. The amount of information exchanged between neighbors A topology change The depth of topology The number of alternative paths through the network 7 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  12. BGP Configuring Basic Border Gateway Protocol BGP is an interdomain routing protocol also known as an EGP. Two types of routing protocols are as follows: Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) BGP Use BGP is used between autonomous systems. The main goal of BGP is to provide an interdomain routing system that guarantees the loop-free exchange of routing information between two autonomous systems. BGP routers exchange information about paths to destination network. When to use BGP Use when one of the following conditions exists. The AS allows packets to transit through it to reach other autonomous systems. The AS has multiple connections to other autonomous systems. The flow of traffic entering and leaving the AS must be manipulated. When not to use BGP Do not use BGP when one or more of the following conditions exist. A single connection to the Internet or another AS. No concern for routing policy and route selection. Lack of memory or processor power on routers to handle constant BGP updates. A limited understanding of route filtering and BGP path selection process. Low bandwidth between autonomous systems. BGP Peers or Neighbors Any two routers that have found a TCP connection to exchange BGP routing information are called peers or neighbors. Policy-Based Routing BGP allows policy decisions at the AS level to be enforced. This setting of policies or rules for routing is known as policy-based routing. Well Known Attributes A well-known attribute is one that all BGP implementations must recognize. These attributes are propagated to BGP neighbors. 8 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  13. Optional Attributes An optional attribute need not be supported by all BGP implementations; it could be a private attribute. Defined BGP Attributes The attribute defined by BGP includes the following. Well-known, Mandatory Attributes: • AS-path • Next-hop • Origin Well-known, Discretionary Attributes: • Local preference • Atomic Aggregate Optional, Transitive Attribute; • Aggregator • Community Optional, Nontransitive Attribute; • Multi-exit-discriminator (MED) BGP Synchronization The BGP synchronization rule states that a BGP router should not use or advertise to an external neighbor a route learned by IBGP, unless that route is local or is learned from the IGP. BGP Message Types BGP defines the following message types: • Open • Keepalive • Update • Notification An open message includes the following information: • Version • My autonomous system • Hold time • BGP identifier (router ID) • Optional parameters An update message may include the following fields. 9 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  14. • Withdrawn routes • Path attributes • Network layer reachability information Implementing BGP in Scalable Networks Route Reflectors Route reflectors modify the BGP split horizon rule by allowing the router configured as the route reflector to propagate routes learned by IBGP to other IBGP peers. The route reflector will have a partial IBGP peering with other routers, which are called clients. Policy Control and Prefix Lists The advantages of using prefix lists are as follows: • A significant performance improvement over access list in loading and route lookup of large lists. • Support for incremental modifications. Optimizing Routing Update Operation Redistribution Cisco routers allow internetworks using different routing protocols to exchange routing informa- tion though a feature called route distribution. Redistribution Considerations: • Routing feedback (loops) • Incompatible routing information • Inconsistent convergence time Policy-based Routing The benefits that can be achieved by implementing policy based routing in networks include the following. • Source-based transit provider selection • Quality of service • Cost savings • Load sharing Calculating cost for external routes You can configure the router to generate the following external packet types (the cost depends on the external type): 10 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  15. • Type-1 (E1) - The metric is calculated by adding the external cost to the internal cost of each link the packet crosses. • Type-2 (E2) - The packet will always have the external cost assigned, no matter where in the area it crosses. (Type-2 routes are preferred unless two equal cost routes exist). After receiving the updates, routers add updates to their link-state databases and recalculate the tables in the following order: 1. Type-1 and Type-2 LSAs. Calculate the paths to destinations within their area and add these entries into the routing table. 2. Type-3 and Type-4 LSAs (inter-area rout entries). Calculate the paths to the other areas within the internetwork. Intra-area route destinations are kept over inter-area routes. 3. Type-5 destinations. All routers, except those that are in a form of stub area, then calcu- late the paths to the AS external destinations. 11 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  16. WARNING: It is important that you read and study the “CCNP Keypoints” portion of this study guide. We have iden- tified important “KEYPOINTS” in this section. Please ensure that you absolutely know and understand these prior to sitting for the exam. 12 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  17. Keypoints to Remember 1. When configuring serial 0 for OSPF in a point-to-point mode using subinterfaces, the first command will always be very similar to this: interface serial 0.1.-2-. 2. Use the show ip ospf interface command to verify that OSPF interfaces are configured in the proper area and to display neighbor adjacencies. 3. OSPF is always better than RIPv.1 in a large network. OSPF has virtually no limitations on reach and supports variable length subnet masks. 4. When configuring OSPF Ethernet, you will always enter the commands in the following order: interface Ethernet 0 IP address ! interface Ethernet 1 IP address ! router ospf network area network area 5. Once the OSPF routing process is enabled, the following command will select only the router’s network interfaces to participate in an OSPF area: Network area 6. OSPF can support variable length subnet mask (VLSM) because OSPF carries subnet mask confirmation in the link advertisements. 7. Use the traceroute command to view routing tables and determine if a router is using the best path to forward packets on a specific network. 8. Route summarization uses hierarchical routing to allow one route update to represent many downstream networks. 9. The following are true about BGP: 13 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  18. Periodic keepalives are sent to verify TCP connectivity. Reliability comes from using TCP port 179 as its transport. Topology awareness is kept current by routine periodic update. BGP based routing allows policy decisions at the AS level to be enforced. BGP allows an AS to send traffic to a neighboring AS intending that the traffic take a different route than from the traffic originating in the neighboring AS. BGP can only advertise routers that it uses to be its peers in other autonomous systems. 10. VLSM allows a way of controlling the number of reliable hosts on the network by ma- nipulating the mask in an attempt to efficiently allocate IP addresses. 11. Neighbors or peers are created when two BGP routers form a transport protocol connec- tion between each other. Each router running BGP is a called a BGP speaker. 12. By default, the next hop attribute advertised by EBGP is carried into IBGP. 13. The “default-information originate always” command is required whenever you want to propagate a default route into an OSPF autonomous system. 14. BGP communities allow routers to filter incoming or outgoing updates. They are indica- tors used by routers to allow other routers to make decisions based upon these indicators. 15. An autonomous system is a set of routers under a single technical administration. It uses EGP to route packets to other autonomous systems and IGP or multiple IGPs to route packets within the autonomous system. 16. Routers running EBGP are usually directly connected. They need to be able to reach each other. 17. An EIGRP router determines when a neighbor is unavailable according to when the hold time is exceeded. 18. Routers run EBGP in order to exchange BGP information with routers in other autono- mous systems. 19. There are three basic elements that are required for a router to be able to forward a packet: 1. The best route 2. Destination address 3. Summarized routes entry 14 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  19. 20. RIPv.1 routing updates do not support VLSM because they do not contain the subnet mask. 21. In a routing entry table, the time value represents an incrementing router indicating how long the router has been in the table since the last update. 22. All learned router entries are kept in an EIGRP routing table. 23. When configuring EIGRP for NBMA operation, the purpose of IP bandwidth-percentage EIGRP command is to adjust the percent of bandwidths that EIGRP packets can use on an individual router interface. 24. A router running BGP with all the default settings will not use a route learned by IBGP unless that route is learned from IGP. Also it will not advertise a route learned by IBGP to an external neighbor unless that route is learned from IGP. 25. Redistributing dynamic routes by the BGP method of sending route information into BGP routing protocol is not recommended. 26. The neighbor ip-addr | peer-group-name weight command is used to change the BGP weight attribute of updates coming from a neighbor router. 27. Many BGP sessions may be created, and a significant amount of bandwidth may be taken on slow WAN links when a full event mesh of BGP sessions is configured within an autonomous system. 28. An autonomous system connected via BGP to more than one ISP is referred to as Multi- homed. 29. The following three IP protocols support variable length subnet masks (VLSM): 1. RIPv.2 2. OSPF 3. EIGRP 30. In an OSPF area will no longer exchange information with other routers in the area once you configure an ABR as a stub, and the area is a transit area for virtual links. 31. A metric is a routing table entry, which is used to indicate the best route to reach a desti- nation network. 32. The show controller command will allow you to determine whether a serial interface is connected to a DTE or DCE cable. 15 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  20. 33. Link state routing determines path by bandwidth-based values. It sends updates rather than complete routing tables when a network change occurs. 34. Variable length subnet masks have a greater capability to use route summarization. VLSMs allow for more hierarchical levels within an addressing plan. 35. In a multiarea OSPF network, all areas that incorporate NBMA topology must be full mesh, and cannot be configured as stub areas. 36. Variable length subnet masking supports hierarchical addressing. It is specifically used in the IP environment. 37. In a multipoint WAN topology using EIGRP on a serial interface, you should configure the bandwidth by multiplying the number of circuits by CIRs provisioned for each circuit in the topology. 38. The show ip route eigrp (process-id) command displays only the current EIGRP entries in the routing table. 39. When using routes with EIGRP route selection, the cost between the local router and the destination is a feasible distance. 40. An EIGRP router discovers its neighbors when it receives acknowledgements for the transmitted hello packets. 41. The no auto summary command is used to turn off automatic summarization for EIGRP routes. 42. The route summarization feature in EIGRP enables it to reduce the size of the routing ta- ble. 43. The route is set to inactive, when a neighboring router has failed to respond to a query about the route within three minutes. 44. Excess LSA traffic and frequent routing table recalculations occur when a large number of routers operate in a single OSPF area. 45. With OSPF support of VLSM, a multiple design ensures that addresses are allocated in an efficient manner, and summarization can be performed with different prefix lengths throughout the network. 46. The default router priority is 1 for purpose of participating in an OSPF DR/BDR election. 16 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
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