TestKiller 640-504 Ed2

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TestKiller 640-504 Ed2

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  1. CISCO STUDY GUIDE Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) 640-504 Edition 2
  2. Congratulations!! You have purchased a Testkiller, Ltd Study Guide. This study guide is a selection of keypoints you will need to know to pass the official CCNP 640-504 Switching exam. Study and memorize the fol- lowing concepts, keypoints and problems for approximately 15 to 20 hours and you will be prepared to take the exams. We guarantee it! Remember, average study time is 15 to 20 hours and then you are ready!!! GOOD LUCK! DISCLAIMER This study guide and/or material is not sponsored by, endorsed by or affiliated with Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco®, Cisco Systems®, CCDA™, CCNA™, CCDP™, CCNP™, CCIE™, CCSI™, the Cisco Systems logo and the CCIE logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Guarantee If you use this study guide correctly and still fail the exam, send your official score notice and mailing address to: Testkiller, Ltd 8200 Pat Booker Rd. #368 San Antonio, TX 78233 We will gladly refund the cost of this study guide. However, you will not need this guarantee if you follow the above instructions. This material is protected by copyright law and international treaties. Un- authorized reproduction or distribution of this material, or any portion thereof, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prose- cuted to the maximum extent possible under law.  Copyright 2001 Testkiller, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
  3. Table of Contents Overview of a Campus Network......................................................................................... 1 A Solution to Broadcast Domain Issues: Localize Traffic ............................................. 1 Current Campus Networks.............................................................................................. 1 The 80/20 Rule................................................................................................................ 1 The New 20/80 Rule ....................................................................................................... 1 The Emerging Campus Network .................................................................................... 2 Emerging Campus Structure ........................................................................................... 2 The Hierarchical Model .................................................................................................. 2 The Access Layer........................................................................................................ 2 The Distribution Layer................................................................................................ 3 The Core Layer ........................................................................................................... 3 The Building Block Approach ........................................................................................ 3 Connecting the Switch Block.......................................................................................... 3 Cable Media Types ............................................................................................................. 3 Ethernet ........................................................................................................................... 4 Fast Ethernet ................................................................................................................... 4 Cabling Switch Block Devices ....................................................................................... 4 Configuring Connectivity within the Switch Block........................................................ 4 Defining Common Workgroups with LANs....................................................................... 4 Layer2 Campus Network ................................................................................................ 4 VLANs............................................................................................................................ 5 Defining VLAN Boundaries ....................................................................................... 5 Link Types .................................................................................................................. 5 VLAN Frame Identification Methods......................................................................... 5 Configuring a Trunk Link........................................................................................... 6 VTP Modes of Operation................................................................................................ 6 Managing Redundant Links................................................................................................ 7 Contents of BPDU .......................................................................................................... 7 Spanning-Tree Port States............................................................................................... 7 Inter-VLAN Routing....................................................................................................... 7 Improving IP Routing Performance with Multilayer Switching......................................... 8 MLS Components ........................................................................................................... 8 Creating a NULL Domain .............................................................................................. 8 Configuring HSRP for Fault Tolerance Routing ................................................................ 8 Routing Issues in a Redundant Environment.................................................................. 8 HSRP Group Members ............................................................................................... 9 HSRP States ................................................................................................................ 9 Multicast Overview..................................................................................................... 9 Controlling Access to the Campus Network....................................................................... 9 Applying Policies in a Hierarchical Model..................................................................... 9 Managing Network Devices ......................................................................................... 10 Port Security.................................................................................................................. 10
  4. Key Concepts Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks Overview of a Campus Network A campus is a building or group of buildings connected into one enterprise network that consists of many LANs. A campus is further defined as a company or a portion of a com- pany contained in a fixed geographic area. The major problem with traditional networks is availability and performance. These two problems are impacted by the amount of bandwidth in the network. A Solution to Broadcast Domain Issues: Localize Traffic There are two main options for addressing the broadcast containment issue for large switched LAN sites. The first option is to use routers to create many subnets, logically segmenting the traffic. LAN broadcasts do not pass through routers. The second option is to implement virtual LANs (VLANs) within the switched network. Current Campus Networks Most campus networks now consists of two components: 1. LAN switches 2. Routers The 80/20 Rule Ideally the end users with common interests or work patterns are placed in the same logi- cal network as the servers they access most often. The 80/20 rule states that in a properly designed network environment 80% of the traffic on a given network segment is local. Not more than 20% of the network traffic should move across the backbone. Backbone congestion indicates that the traffic patterns are not meeting the 80/20 rule. The New 20/80 Rule Traffic patterns are moving toward what is now referred to as the 20/80 model. In the 20/80 model only 20% of traffic is local to the workgroup LAN and 80% of the traffic is required to go off the local network. 1 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  5. The Emerging Campus Network The key requirements placing pressure on the emerging campus designs are as follows: • Fast convergence • Deterministic paths • Deterministic failover • Scalable size and throughput • Centralized applications • The new 20/80 Rule • Multiprotocol support • Multicasting Emerging Campus Structure Services can be separated into three separate categories: 1. Local services 2. Remote services 3. Enterprise services The Hierarchical Model The layers within the hierarchical model are defined as follows: 1. Access layer 2. Distribution layer 3. Core layer The Access Layer Some of the functions represented by Access layer are Shared bandwidth, Switched bandwidth, and Layer 2 services. 2 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  6. The Distribution Layer The multitude functions of the Distribution layer are as follows: • VLAN aggregation • Department of workgroup access • Broadcast or multicast domain functions • Inter-VLAN routing • Media translation • Security The Core Layer The core layer is responsible for providing connectivity between switched blocks, provid- ing access to other blocks, such as the WAN block, and switching frames or packets as quickly as possible. The Building Block Approach The two major elements for a campus network are Switch block and Core block. These include three contributing variables: • Server block • WAN block • Mainframe block Connecting the Switch Block Campus networks carry a variety of traffic types. As more applications and users are con- figured into the campus network, the need for available bandwidth increases. Cable Media Types A variety of cable media types have been deployed for local-area networks, including Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI. In order to increase the overall performance to the us- 3 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  7. ers, you must either increase the overall bandwidth of the network, or decrease the num- ber of devices on the same shared media cable segment. Ethernet One solution to the bandwidth crunch is Ethernet Switching, which dynamically allocates dedicated 10 Mbps connections to each user on the network. Fast Ethernet For campuses with existing Ethernet installations, increasing the network speed from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps is preferable to investing in a completely new LAN technology. Cabling Switch Block Devices There are two basic types of cable connections: 1. through the console port 2. through the Ethernet port Configuring Connectivity within the Switch Block After the switches have been physically cabled, some basic system settings that should be assigned are: • Limiting access to the switch • Setting the host or prompt name to the switch • Defining the switch’s IP address and subnet mask • Identifying a port or an interface with a unique description • Setting the port speed • Defining the full duplex port • Verifying connectivity Defining Common Workgroups with LANs Layer2 Campus Network 4 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  8. With Layer2 campus networks you encounter problems of flat network structures, secu- rity management, and managing multiple paths to a destination. VLANs VLANs solve many of the issues of the Layer2 Network by allowing efficient bandwidth utilization, security management, load-balancing multiple paths, and the isolation of problem components. Defining VLAN Boundaries The number of VLANs in the switch block will vary widely depending on several factors. These factors include traffic patterns, types of applications, network management needs and group commonality. When scaling VLANs in the switch block, there are two basic methods of defining the VLAN boundaries: 1. End-to-end VLANs 2. Local VLANs Link Types There are three basic VLAN link types: 1. Access Links 2. Trunk Links 3. Hybrid Links VLAN Frame Identification Methods There are four basic Frame ID methods: 1. Inter-switch link (ISL) 2. IEEE 802.1Q 3. LAN Emulation (LANE) 4. 802.10 5 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  9. Fields in an ISL encapsulation: • Destination Address (DA) • Frame Type (TYPE) • User-defined Bits (USER) • Source address (SA) • Length (LEN) • SNAP/LLC • High bits of the source address (HSA) • VLAN ID • BPDU/CDP indicator • Index (INDX) • Reserved for FDDI and Token Ring • Encapsulated Frame • Frame Check Sequence Configuring a Trunk Link Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet trunking can be set up in any of the following modes: • On • Off • Desirable • Auto • Nonegotiate VTP Modes of Operation There are three VTP modes of operation: 1. Server 6 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  10. 2. Client 3. Transparent Managing Redundant Links The basic functionality of a switch is identical to that of a transparent bridge. By defini- tion a bridge must not modify the frames that it forwards. A bridge learns addresses by listening on a port for a device’s source MAC address. The bridge then forwards the broadcast it receives out all ports except for the port that initially received the broadcast. If a destination MAC address is unknown, sometimes called an unknown unicast, the bridge forwards the frame out all ports except for the port that initially received the frame. When a bridge receives a frame, it either filters it if the frame’s destination is out the receiving port, or forwards the frame if the destination is on a different port. Contents of BPDU The BPDU contains the following information: • Root information • Path cost • Bridge information • Port information • Timers Spanning-Tree Port States There are five types of Spanning Tree Port states: 1. Blocked 2. Listen 3. Learn 4. Forward 5. Disabled Inter-VLAN Routing 7 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  11. In Isolated Broadcast Domains you need to consider sharing resources between VLANs, load-balancing, redundant Links, addressing, and segmenting networks with VLANs. Improving IP Routing Performance with Multilayer Switching MLS Components Multilayer switching includes the following three components: 1. Multilayer Switching Switch Engine (MLS-SE) 2. Multilayer Switching Route Processor (MLS-RP) 3. Multilayer Switching Protocol (MLSP) Creating a NULL Domain There are several ways in which a route processor and a switch can end up in different VTP domains. You can purposely place both devices in separate domains, you can mis- name or mistype the VTP domain when configuring either the switch or the route proces- sor, or you can enter the MLS interface command prior to putting the interface in a VTP domain. Configuring HSRP for Fault Tolerance Routing The Hot Standby Routing Protocol provides fault tolerance and enhanced routing per- formance for IP networks. HSRP allows Cisco IOS routers to monitor each other’s opera- tional status and very quickly assume packet forwarding responsibility in the event that the current forwarding device in the HSRP group fails or is taken down for maintenance. Routing Issues in a Redundant Environment Hosts learn which router they should use by the following methods: • Default gateway • Proxy ARP • Routing protocol 8 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  12. HSRP Group Members The stand by group is comprised in the following entities: • One active router • One stand by router • One virtual router • Other routers HSRP States The HSRP states include: • Initial state • Learn state • Listen state • Speak state • Standby state • Active state Multicast Overview Multimedia traffic can work its way through the network using one of the following methods: • Unicast • Broadcast • Multicast Controlling Access to the Campus Network Access control cannot be implemented until a standard access policy has been created. Applying Policies in a Hierarchical Model 9 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  13. Policies can be applied at any of the three basic layers: 1. Access layer 2. Distribution layer 3. Core layer Managing Network Devices When managing network devices you must take into account the following factors: physical security, passwords, privilege levels to allow limited access to a network device, and limiting virtual terminal or telnet access. Port Security A MAC address can be allowed by either static or dynamic assignment of the MAC ad- dress. 10 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  14. WARNING: It is important that you read and study the “CCNP Keypoints” portion of this study guide. We have identified important concepts in this section that are re- quired knowledge to pass the exam. Please ensure that you absolutely know and understand these keypoints prior to sitting for the exam. 11 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  15. Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks Keypoints 1. Know that the Switch(config) ip default-gateway command accu- rately depicts the mode and command used to configure a default gateway on an IOS command-based switch. 2. Know that 256 is the maximum number of VLANs that can be supported on a single RSM. 3. Know that static VLAN membership is managed through port-based assignments. 4. Know that a Route Processor is used to connect several separate VLANs. 5. Know that there is not an issue with VLAN membership, nor is it media depend- ent in order to connect a host that is attached to the network using IEEE 802.5 and another host that is attached to the network using IEEE 802.3. However, there is an issue at Layer 2, which requires the use of translational bridging. 6. Know that the VLAN trunking protocol (VTP) is used to propagate global VLAN information. 7. Know that VTP version 2 is preferable to VTP version 1 because it supports To- ken Ring VLANs. 8. Know that the Auto and Desirable trunking modes make a port able to convert a link to a trunk link when you are configuring a VLAN on fast Ethernet. 9. Know that you enter the set ip route command to configure a default route on a set-based command switch. 10. Know that a switch must be in client mode and the clear config all command must be executed on the switch and be rebooted in order to enter a switch into an existing VTP domain without altering the configuration of the systems currently on the domain. 12 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  16. 11. Know that existing flow masks are purged when an access list is applied or when the aging time expires. 12. Know that the set mls enable command enables multilayer switching on a distri- bution layer switching engine. 13. Know that you will need to issue the mls rp ip and mls rp vtp-domain com- mands if you are using multilayer switching and you need to configure your dis- tribution layer route processor to participate in the multiplayer switching. 14. Know that you will need to enable CGMP on the distribution switch, and enable CGMP on your distribution router to enable CGMP on a distribution layer device. 15. Know that the router creates a CGMP frame and forwards it to a well-known ad- dress to which all CGMP switches listen. 16. Know that when the LEDs flash during the Catalyst 5000 power up sequence that the power-up sequence is underway, but not yet completed. 17. Know that you would look for the port‘s link LED on the Switching Module as an indicator of an active link state on a Catalyst port. 18. Know that you will use the ip cgmp command to enable CGMP on a router inter- face. 19. Know that in order for the CGMP to operate correctly on a switch, the switch must have a network connection to a router running CGMP. 20. Know that you would use the set cgmp disable command to disable CGMP on a set command based switch. 21. Know that you can have no more than 90 meters from the punch down block to the switch when you are preparing to install a UTP cable connection. 13 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  17. 22. Know that you need to set the port speed on your access switch on your primary distribution switch in order to configure the Fast Ethernet connection between your access switch and primary distribution switch. 23. Know that auto [sense] is the default for the 100Base-TX port, which negotiates full duplex connectivity if the connecting device supports it. 24. Know that when you have correctly connected a cable between a catalyst 1900 and 5000 series switch that the port status LED light located on both switches should light up and remain on. 25. In contrast to shared Ethernet, switched Ethernet on a catalyst switch provides greater access to bandwidth and connects directly to end users or other switches. 26. Know that you use a straight-through cable when connecting the 10BaseT switch ports to servers, workstations, and routers. 27. Know that you use a straight-through cable to connect the switched 10BaseT ports to a 10BaseT compatible workstation. 28. Know that shared bandwidth and switched bandwidth are functions represented by the Access layer in the campus network hierarchical model. 29. Know that port security limits the number of MAC addresses that are allowed to use the switch in order to prevent unauthorized users from gaining access to the network. 30. Know that IEEE 802-3Z is the IEEE specification for Gigabit Ethernet. 31. Know that ISL and 802.1Q are two good solutions for carrying VLANs over a single link. 32. Know that VTP configuration does not affect how you assign ports to VLAN 1 on a switch. 14 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  18. 33. Know that before you can modify one of the VLAN names on a switch, the VTP domain name must be configured and the mode on this switch is server. 34. Know that in client mode you cannot create, change, or delete VLANs on a switch. 35. Know that the ip access-group command is used to apply an extended access list to an interface. 36. Know that the Auto trunking mode makes the port willing to convert a link to a trunk link when configuring a VLAN trunk for fast Ethernet. 37. Know that the mls rp ip command enables global multilayer on the distribution layer route processor. 38. Know that the show mls entry command displays the MLS cache. 39. Know that applying an outgoing access list to an interface purges any existing flow mask entries and then begins caching new IP-flow mask entries. 40. Know that the mls rp ip command enables an RSM interface for multilayer switching. 41. Know that you should use PortFast when you are connecting a single end station to a switch port. 42. Know that with a catalyst 6000 and 6500 series switch that the multilayer switch module is viewed as an external router connected to four full-duplex Gigabit Ethernet interfaces. 43. Know that you would use the set spantree portfast [module/port] command to enable fast EtherChannel. 44. Know that the set spantree portfast enable command ensures timely host access to the network in a spanning-tree environment. 15 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  19. 45. Know that the multicast IP address 224.64.255.45 translates to a MAC address of 01-00-5E-40-FF-2D. 46. Know that in the multicast transmission method frames are replicated as needed. 47. Know that IGMP query messages are addressed to all-host groups with the TTL set to (1) because IGMP query messages will remain on the directly attached sub- network. 48. Know that with multicast transmission, one copy of each packet is sent using a special address that allows each client to choose if they receive the packet. 49. Know that loops in one spanning tree do not have any impact on the other span- ning tree environments you have on multi spanning tree trunk. 50. Know that you must define the ISL encapsulation type and number on each inter- face to ensure that a route processor can forward traffic from multiple VLANs. 51. Know that if a host interface is constantly sending frame fragments or frames with CRC errors, any broadcast traffic created would be contained within the VLAN. 52. Know that the RSM has only 1 global MAC address that applies to interfaces on a device. 53. Know that you use the ip default-gateway command on an ISL-based command switch to define a gateway. 54. Know that with VLAN routing, a switched VLAN corresponds to an ISI trunk in- terface. 55. Know that to determine the best loop-free path to the root, the spanning tree pro- tocol places the port with the lowest port ID in forwarding mode. 16 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  20. 56. Know that multilayer switching is based on the route once, switch many model. 57. Know that you would use the show spantree command if you want to observe the spanning-tree port state on a set command-based switch. 58. Know that once the failure of the forwarding link is detected, uplinkfast allows the blocked port of a switch to quickly begin forwarding. 59. Know that if you properly place the root bridge to ensure an optimal STP topol- ogy, it will cause the spanning-tree protocol to improve operations as the network grows. 60. Know that if you set forward delay and max-age timers to maximum values that you can you reduce spanning-tree protocol BPDU traffic during extended periods of instability for VLANs. 61. Know that uplinkfast can be enabled on a spanning tree network with many point- to-point connections to significantly decrease the time of the listening and learn- ing states. 62. Know that the default transaction time in spanning-tree protocol for a switch to move from blocking to forwarding state is 50 seconds. 63. Know that a combination of the priority number and the MAC address are the fac- tors that determine who will become the root bridge in a spanning tree network. 64. Know that to take advantage of Fast EtherChannel ports you will need to config- ure all ports in a channel to operate at the same speed and in duplex mode, and as- sign all ports in a channel to the same VLAN or configure them as trunk ports. This will help avoid configuration problems that may cause the ports to be auto- matically disabled. 65. Know that the top slot of the chassis in a Catalyst 5000 switch contains the con- sole and network ports in the supervisory engine module. 17 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email con- tent checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
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