TestKiller 640-506 Ed1

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TestKiller 640-506 Ed1

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Key Concepts Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Network

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  1. CISCO STUDY GUIDE Cisco Support Exam 640-506 Edition 1
  2. Congratulations!! You have purchased a TestKiller, Ltd. Study Guide. This study guide is a selection of keypoints you will need to know to pass the official CCNP Support 640-506 exam. Study and memorize the following concepts, keypoints and problems for approximately 15 to 20 hours and you will be prepared to take the exams. We guarantee it! Remember, average study time is 15 to 20 hours and then you are ready!!! GOOD LUCK! DISCLAIMER This study guide and/or material is not sponsored by, endorsed by or affiliated with Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco®, Cisco Systems®, CCDA™, CCNA™, CCDP™, CCNP™, CCIE™, CCSI™, the Cisco Systems logo and the CCIE logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Guarantee If you use this study guide correctly and still fail the exam, send your official score notice and mailing address to: TestKiller, Ltd. 8200 Pat Booker Rd. #368 San Antonio, TX 78233 We will gladly refund the cost of this study guide. However, you will not need this guarantee if you follow the above instructions. This material is protected by copyright law and international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this material, or any portion thereof, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under law.  Copyright 2001 TestKiller, Ltd. All Rights Reserved www.testkiller.com
  3. Table of Contents The Complexity of Internetworks....................................................................................... 1 Protocol Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 1 Reliable vs. Unreliable Protocol Characteristics ............................................................ 1 Connection-Oriented Services vs. Connectionless Services........................................... 1 Token Rings .................................................................................................................... 1 FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface ........................................................................ 2 AppleTalk ....................................................................................................................... 2 Troubleshooting ATM .................................................................................................... 2 Troubleshooting Frame Relay......................................................................................... 2 Cisco Routing and Switching Processes ............................................................................. 2 Routing............................................................................................................................ 2 Switching ........................................................................................................................ 3 Interface Buffers ............................................................................................................. 3 General Troubleshooting Tools .......................................................................................... 4 Low-End Cable Test Equipment..................................................................................... 4 High-End Cable Testers.................................................................................................. 4 Cisco Management and Diagnostic Tools .......................................................................... 4 Cisco Management Tools ............................................................................................... 4 Cisco Diagnostic Commands.......................................................................................... 4 Routing and Routed Protocol Troubleshooting .................................................................. 4 Troubleshooting TCP/IP Connectivity ........................................................................... 4 Troubleshooting Novell Connectivity............................................................................. 5 Troubleshooting AppleTalk Connectivity ...................................................................... 5 AppleTalk Router Diagnostic Commands .................................................................. 5 Debug Apple events:................................................................................................... 5 AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol ................................................................................ 5 AppleTalk Session Protocol........................................................................................ 5 AppleTalk Printer Access Protocol............................................................................. 6 Diagnosing and Correcting Catalyst Problems ............................................................... 6 Bridge vs. Switch ........................................................................................................ 6 VLAN Frame Tagging with ISL................................................................................. 6 Troubleshooting VLANs on Routers and Switches........................................................ 6 Diagnosing and Correcting Frame Relay Problems........................................................ 6 Frame Relay Frame Format ........................................................................................ 6 WAN and Frame Relay Diagnostic Tools .................................................................. 7 Frame Relay Loopback Tests...................................................................................... 7 i www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  4. Key Concepts Cisco Support The Complexity of Internetworks As more advanced technologies and services are introduced into the field of information processing and communications, the resulting internetworks are becoming increasingly complex. The problem-solving model includes the following steps: 1. Define the problem 2. Gather the facts 3. Consider the possibilities 4. Create an action plan 5. Implement the action plan 6. Observe the results of the action plan 7. Repeat the problem solving process 8. Resolve the problem Protocol Characteristics Reliable vs. Unreliable Protocol Characteristics • Reliable protocol - error correction, flow control and retransmission functionality built in. • Unreliable protocol – reliability provided by higher-layer protocols. Connection-Oriented Services vs. Connectionless Services • Connection-oriented - flow control, error control and session termination. Examples of this include TCP and ATM. • Connectionless services -no connection setup between the two communicating protocol entities. UDP is an example. Token Rings 1 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  5. IBM technology that consists of a token that is 3 bytes long. It has a start delimiter, an access protocol byte and an end delimiter. Data/command frames vary in size and are dependent on the size of the data field. FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface The use of optical fiber as a transmission medium is the most important characteristic. Fiber offers some advantages over traditional copper wiring: • Security - does not emit electrical signals that can be tapped. • Reliability - immune to electrical interference. • Speed - much higher throughput potential than copper cable. AppleTalk AppleTalk’s transport layer consists of: • Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) • AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol (AURP) • AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP) • AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) • Name Binding Protocol (NBP). Troubleshooting ATM Allowed encapsulation methods are AAL5, PVC and SVC. ISL contains header, original packet, and FCS fields. ISL not directly supported by ATM, but can be implemented in ATM LANE configuration. Troubleshooting Frame Relay Typical problems include frame relay links down, inability to ping remote routers, or inability to ping end-to-end. You must ensure that both Cisco devices are using IETF encapsulation method. Cisco Routing and Switching Processes Routing 2 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  6. The routing process moves packets based on the source, destination, and network conditions. Routing protocols identify the best path(s) to use routing packets to the outbound, using one or more of the router interfaces. Switching As part of the switching process, the router moves the packet(s) from the appropriate interface to the destination address. The basic switching paths are: • Process switching • Fast Switching • Silicon Switching/Autonomous Switching • Optimum Switching • Distributed Switching • NetFlow Switching Switching features that affect performance include: • Queuing • Random early detection • Compression • Filtering (access lists) • Encryption • Accounting Interface Buffers The interface buffers on the SP (Switch Processor) card are used for buffering packets copied from interface processors. The SP and SSP (Silicon Switch Processor) controllers have 512 KB available for packet buffering. 3 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  7. General Troubleshooting Tools Low-End Cable Test Equipment At the low-technology end of the spectrum of test equipment the following equipment is used: • Volt-Ohm Meters • Digital Multimeters High-End Cable Testers Higher technological advancements include: • Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) Cisco Management and Diagnostic Tools Cisco Management Tools • Cisco Works • Netsys Network Management Suites • TrafficDirector Remote Monitoring Software • The VlanDirector Switch Management Application • WAN Manager Cisco Diagnostic Commands • show • debug • ping • trace • cdp • core dump Routing and Routed Protocol Troubleshooting Troubleshooting TCP/IP Connectivity Four main diagnostic commands include: 4 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  8. • ping – connectivity test which is actually an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo test packet. • trace – traces path from source to destination. • show – details information about interface conditions, protocol status, neighbor reachability and traffic. • debug – analyzes packets; generates high amount of output and may adversely affect production networks. Troubleshooting Novell Connectivity Three diagnostic commands are primarily used to troubleshoot Novell Networks: • ping – works only on Cisco routers running Cisco IOS 8.2 or later. • show – details information about interface conditions, protocol status, neighborhood reachability and traffic. • debug – analyzes packets; generates high amount of output and may adversely affect production networks. Troubleshooting AppleTalk Connectivity AppleTalk Router Diagnostic Commands • show • test Apple • debug Debug Apple events: Displays information about AppleTalk special events such as if neighbors are reachable/unreachable or if interfaces go up/down. AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol This protocol guarantees data bytes are delivered in the same order as they are sent and that they are not duplicated. AppleTalk Session Protocol Session Protocol establishes and maintains logical conversations between an AppleTalk clients and the server. ASP is considered a session layer protocol. 5 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  9. AppleTalk Printer Access Protocol Printer Access Protocol is a connection-oriented protocol responsible for establishing and maintaining connections between clients and servers. Diagnosing and Correcting Catalyst Problems Bridge vs. Switch Functionality Bridge Switch Pass packets between network segments Yes Yes OSI layer DataLink DataLink Filtering Software Hardware (ASIC) VLAN Frame Tagging with ISL ISL is used over point-to-point connections to interconnect two VLAN capable Cisco products such as Catalyst 5000 and higher series switches and Cisco 2600 and higher series routers. Troubleshooting VLANs on Routers and Switches • To configure a VLAN use RSM in the Catalyst 5000 switch or attach a router, with a FastEthernet or Gigabit Ethernet interface, to a VLAN trunking port using ISL encapsulation. • Incorrect VLAN trunking protocol configuration will cause a VLAN to be slow or malfunction. • When a line protocol Frame Relay is down, check for timing problems with myseq and myseen keep-alive events. Command to show: debug serial interface. Diagnosing and Correcting Frame Relay Problems Although Frame Relays is a Layer2 datalink protocol, when Frame Relay problems occur you should first check the lower-layer hardware interface. Frame Relay Frame Format Congestion-related bit positions in the frame are: • FECN 6 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  10. • BECN • DE WAN and Frame Relay Diagnostic Tools The show and debug commands are designed for the purpose. Frame Relay Loopback Tests 1. Do the local loopback test with LMI. 2. Try the local test on the other side LMI. 3. If LMI come up, but you cannot get a non-LMI DLCI to the remote interface to carry other traffic, contact the service provider. 4. The frame relay service can perform remote loop tests and will be more willing to do so if you have already eliminated the local loops as a possible cause of the problem. 7 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  11. WARNING: It is important that you read and study the “CCNP Keypoints” portion of this study guide. We have identified important “KEYPOINTS” in this section. Please ensure that you absolutely know and understand these prior to sitting for the exam. 8 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  12. Support Troubleshooting Keypoints 1. When delivering service related to trouble tickets, the Customer Support Engineer (CSE), will consider the following: • The details of the warranty and service contact. • The type of problem and the priority level of the call. • An assessment of the severity of the network degradation. • The equipment involved and the amount of network downtime. 2. A fiber-optic cable tester is commonly used to measure attenuation (signal loss) and return loss for wavelengths. 3. A time domain reflector (TDR) is commonly used to locate opens, shorts, crimps, links, sharp bends, impedance mismatches, and other defects in cables. 4. Browsing problems can occur when several Windows NT devices are set up as master browsers and send inconsistent updates. 5. A Protocol Analyzer is used periodically to record, interpret, and display how a communication protocol operates in the network architecture. 6. The first step for troubleshooting Windows NT/95 TCP/IP networks is to determine if the local host configuration is correct. 7. After isolating a problem to a specific device such as a router or switch, the next step is to isolate the problem within the specific device. 8. The show ip arp command is used to check if hosts are listed in the IP routing table. The routing table shows the correspondence between network (IP) and LAN hardware (MAC) addresses. 9. A switched Ethernet interface on a Catalyst switch provides greater access to bandwidth as compared with a hub. It can connect directly to end users or other switches. 9 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  13. 10. The show frame-relay map command displays information about a configured association between a DLCI and another protocol. 11. Identifying IP as the selected ping protocol in the privileged mode for TCP/IP, allows you to check for MTU, set data patterns, set a source address, and record the route used. 12. BRI layer 1 activation on the S/T interface occurs immediately after the TE and NT synchronize and NT sends A = 1. 13. CCO Documentation is a web-based Cisco resource for the list of field replaceable units when in need of spare parts. 14. The Cisco NetSYS tools are used for network simulation and modeling. 15. The Software Center is a CCO web-based resource for major code upgrades and maintenance releases of Cisco software products. 16. The output of the Cisco IOS show controllers token command will count isolating and non-isolating errors. 17. A connectionless protocol, such as UDP, requires an application to request retransmission of missing or corrupt packets s since the receiving device will not know that the packets were dropped or lost. 18. Speed is the main advantage of a connectionless protocol. 19. The debug IP icap command will check if the router is sending or receiving ICMP messages. 20. The service timestamps {log|debug} uptime [msec] command will allow you to configure the router to indicate how long after the system rebooted that events occurred. 10 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  14. 21. The show tech-support command can you use to obtain a comprehensive output of a router’s condition that can be sent to your tech support engineer. 22. The ipx ping-default Novell command sets the non-default ping to correspond to Novell’s NLSP specification. 23. After initiating an action plan to resolve a network problem, the network still continues to perform poorly, you should iterate the process and, as required, undo the changes that did not work. 24. A switched VLAN corresponds to a single-routed subnet. 25. Process switching is relatively slow when tracing the process of packet flow in a router such as the Cisco 7000 series. This is due to the fact it must interrupt the RSP for the time is takes to copy the packet from the SP to the RSP. 26. Know the following facts about the ping ipx command: • This command works on Cisco IOS software Release 8.2 or later. • This command was part of Cisco’s IOS software before a ping command was developed by Novell. • With the privileged form of the command, a higher repeat count than five (the default) can be specified. • Many of the command’s return characters are comparable to those used with a ping in the IP protocol stack. 27. Statistics, events, history, and alarms are the RFC1757 RMON groups supported by the embedded RMON agent and SwitchProbe functions. 28. The application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) or hardware-based filtering perform bus arbitration on a single switching bus of the Catalyst 5000. They control how packets access the backplane as they transfer to destinations on the switch. 29. The show config Catalyst 5000 command is comparable to the router’s Cisco IOS software command, show running-config. 11 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  15. 30. The WINS protocol used with Windows NT/95 is routable in its native operation. 31. To compare abnormal network performance or to plan for network expansion, use the baselining profile. 32. Quality of service management is a key network management area that is NOT one of the ISO defined functional areas of network management. 33. A cable tester is commonly used to check STP, UTP, 10BaseT, and coax for near-end crosstalk, and noise. 34. The debug ip rip command checks for routing packets in a network that uses TCP/IP and RIP (Routing Information Protocol). 35. Cisco routers can use IEEE 802.1Q LANs to/from IEEE 802.10 FDDI translation to augment VLAN operation on Catalyst switches by performing VLAN translation. 36. The show version command can be used to: • Gather initial facts about a router’s system hardware. • Determine how long the system has been up. • Determine the general situation that caused the last system boot-up. 37. When troubleshooting PPP CHAP authentication for ISDN BRI, check to make sure that the password and router name configured on the local router is equal to the password and TE name on the remote router. 38. Know the following four facts about the inter-switch link (ISL) specification: • ISL adds an extra 30 bytes to the frame. • ISL is for point-to-point connections only. • ISL can support token ring as well as Fast Ethernet. • ISL adds or removes its frame tagging and FCS fields for traffic between VLAN capable Cisco products. 12 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  16. 39. The Catalyst 5000 switched port analyzer, the port that mirrors traffic to a protocol analyzer, is identified by the destination module/port identifier. 40. Collisions only occur in a shared Ethernet environment, thus a switched Ethernet domain does NOT cause slow or unreliable performance on a VLAN. 41. If the show ipx traffic command shows the bad hop count increasing, there may be a back-door bridge between segments. 42. The show interface command IOS software provides several diagnostic commands to help you troubleshoot ISDN BRI from a local router to a remote router. 43. The debug ip packet command displays the flow of IP packets transmitted between local and remote hosts. 44. Contact your service provider and state that you are having problems with the LMI, if you are checking the frame relay PVCs and only the local DLCI.0 or DLCI.1023 will come up. 45. You can check the RJ-45 connector at both ends of a cable to determine if it is crossover or straight through. 46. The debug arp command is used to determine if the router is sending and receiving ARP requests/retries. 47. The four Cisco IOS commands used to check for data link protocol characteristics are: • show interface • clear counters • show controller • show cdp neighbor 13 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  17. 48. The output of the Cisco IOS show appletalk traffic command will increment the count for encapsulation failed errors if the encapsulation of a DDP packet fails, or the AppleTalk ARP fails. 49. When troubleshooting a crash or hung system, a Cisco Support Engineer (CSE) will ask for output from a show stack and a core dump. 50. Inspect the Port link LED on the switching module to check for an indication of an active link state on a Catalyst port. 51. You must check for a line in the output of the show interface command to see how long it has been since the counters have been cleared so that the count can renew. 52. Routers will autosense an LMI type on the Frame Relay DTE/DCE. 53. The show log command on a Catalyst switch is used to check for error messages if system messages are redirected to another destination. 54. Graphical user interface applications for high-end tools in troubleshooting and managing Catalyst switches are found at CWSI. 55. When troubleshooting a connectionless protocol, it is usually helpful to check if there are problems indicated by a connection-oriented upper layer. 56. When troubleshooting a connection-oriented protocol, a key symptom to look for is multiple retransmission of data segments. 57. A lobe cable failure on the ring will cause transitions to come from a growing number of interface resets. 58. By default, the output of debug and system error messages are sent to the console terminal. 59. Logging to an internal buffer produces the lowest overhead. 14 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  18. 60. Novell-Ether is the Cisco IOS term used as the equivalent to Novell 802.3 raw (called ETHERNET_802.3 in NetWare). 61. Routers use process switching when you are using the problem diagnostics of a Cisco IOS debug command. 62. “Defining the problem” is the troubleshooting process step that involves a set of symptoms and associated causes. 63. If a host wants to initiate a session in the TCP connection sequence, or wants to acknowledge that it has received an initiation request, it will send a TCP ACK packet. 64. The service timestamps command keeps track of when debug elements occurred and the duration of time between events. 65. Phase1/Phase2 incompatibility is likely to cause inability to see zones or services outside a given router’s own network. 66. The purpose of VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is to ensure there is a trunk or VLAN1 operating. 67. A host that wants to initiate a session in the Novell connection sequence must perform the following steps, in the following order, before the client can send NCP requests to log in to a server: 1. Broadcast a SAP GNS request. 2. Receive a GNS reply. 3. Send a RIP request to find a route. 4. Receive a RIP reply. 68. The show cdp neighbors detail command is used to see information about Cisco devices across a data link. 69. When checking that switches and routers are consistently configured for VLANs, VLAN ID 1 is used for management and troubleshooting only. 15 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  19. 70. It is not a cause for a complete interface reset if interface counters clear with the clear interface command. 71. A CSE will ask for output from show interface and show protocol in situations involving diagnosing lost data or performance problems, or isolating partial loss of system function. 72. Four ways to handle the debug tool in Cisco IOS software: • Reduce the scope of the debug by checking events. • Turn off the debug after you finish with your diagnostics. • Be aware of debug’s processing switching implications. • Limit the impact of debug checking by using access lists. 73. Catalyst 5000 troubleshooting begins with the Catalyst 5000 module located in the top slot of the chassis. This slot contains the console and network ports in the supervisor engine module. 74. IP access lists can cause IP data to be unintentionally filtered by one or more router interfaces. 75. The show trunk [module/port] command checks a module/port, and displays the trunking status, VLAN active status, and VLANs that can use the link. 76. A router is sometimes called router-on-a-stick because it can run Spanning-Tree Protocol and operate as an aggregation point for inter-VLAN routing between multiple VLAN switches. 77. In the output of the Cisco IOS show ipx traffic command, incrementing count in the format errors counter usually indicate a corrupted header in the packets that encountered a bad hop count. 78. If certain TCP/IP protocol services are available, but not others, the extended IP access list may be not properly configured. 16 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
  20. 79. Pins 3, 4, 5, and 6 are the key pins used for ISDN signal connections. 80. Configuration mismatch is the source of a common Novell network problem where inconsistent frame types are used by the IPX clients and servers. 81. Switching is more affected by lower latency than routing because it can move packets, frames, or cells from buffer to buffer with simpler determination of traffic source and destinations. 82. During the Catalyst 5000 power-up sequence, when you see the LEDs flash, the power-up sequence is under way and not yet completed. 83. A Catalyst physical port that is a trunk can be several spanning trees. On this shared topology, loops in one spanning tree can have a media load impact on other spanning trees. 84. You can reduce spanning-tree protocol BPDU traffic during extended periods of instability for VLANs by setting forward delay and max-age timers to maximum values. 85. The ISDN BRI physical frame is 48 bits in length. At 4000 frames per second, it provides 192 Kbps. Know the following four facts about the use of this bandwidth: • The 2B+D occupies the entire frame. • Some bits of the ISDN BRI frame are used for synchronization and collision avoidance. • On the local loop, full-duplex logical channels coexist using time-division multiplexing. • The A bit of the ISDN BRI frame is used during line startup to indicate physical layer activation. 86. Configuring IP address on the main interface of VLANs that are setup using a router’s Cisco IOS software is not necessary. 17 www.testkiller.com GFI - Security & Communication tools for NT/2000: FAXmaker fax server software, Mail essentials email content checking & anti-virus software and LANguard network security software. http://www.gfi.com/tt.shtml
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