Thật thà là đức tính tôt - HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY

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Thật thà là đức tính tôt - HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY

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  1. 1. HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY THAÄT THAØ LAØ MOÄT ÑÖÙC TÍNH TOÁT OUTLINE Introduction : - This is a worldly - minded proverb. 1. Honesty in business probably pays in the long run. 2. But dishonesty often leads to worldly success. 3. And honesty has often to worldly ruin 4. From a spiritual point of view, honesty pays best, because it is right. This is an old and often repeated proverb1 : but is it true ? It has a suspiciously worldly flavour2, for it means that from a worldly point of view it pays3 to be honest. Now a really honest man will not ask whether honesty pays or not. He feels he must be honest, even if4 honesty brings him loss or suffering, simply because5 it is right to be honest and wrong to be dishonest. This proverb is therefore of little use6 to sincerely honest people: it is really meant only if for those unprincipled men7 who will be honest only if honesty pays, and will be dishonest if they think dishonesty will pay them better. Probably honesty does pay in the long run8. In business, for example, a man who deals9 straight forwardly with the public, who sells at fair prices10, who gives good quality, and can be relied upon11 not to cheat, will generally establish a reputation that will be a fine business asset. People will be glad to deal with him : and though he may not make a fortune12 he will have a sound and satisfactory business. On the other hand13 there is no doubt that success is often due to14 trickery, and great fortunes have been built up upon dishonesty. Too many successful rogues have proved by experience that for them dishonesty had been the best policy. Of course some of these people come to a bad end15, and lose all they have gained by their lies : but many maintain their worldly success is more due to ability, lucky opportunities, and business cunning, than to honesty. And many examples could be given of men who, from a worldly point of view16, have failed because they were honest. A martyr17 who prefers to be burned at the stake rather than say what he believes to be false, may be a hero ; but in the eyes of a worldly man, who thinks only of worldly success, he is a sad failure. But if we look at such cases from the spiritual point of view - if we consider that truth and righteousness are far more important than wealth and rank and prosperity - then, in the highest sense, honesty is in the end18 the best policy. "For what it shall profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul ?" Moät caâu chaâm ngoân cuõ thöôøng ñöôïc nhaéc ñeán, nhöng lieäu noù coù ñuùng hay khoâng ? Caâu chaâm ngoân khoâng coù chuùt gì veà muøi ñôøi vôùi nghóa raèng thaät thaø seõ ñöôïc lôïi theo quan ñieåm chung. Baây giôø moät ngöôøi thaät thaø seõ khoâng hoûi thaät thaø coù lôïi hay khoâng maø anh ta chæ thaáy raèng mình phaûi thaät thaäm chí thaät thaät ñem laïi söï thieät thoøi vaø ñau khoå. Chæ vì thaät laø ñuùng, khoâng thaät coù nghóa laø sai. Do ñoù chaâm ngoân naøy chaúng coù ích chuùt naøo ñoái vôùi ngöôøi thaät thaø. Noù thaät söï coù yù nghóa ñoái vôùi ngöôøi khoâng toân troïng nguyeân taéc, ngöôøi chæ thaønh thaät khi thaät ñem laïi lôïi nhuaän, vaø khoâng thaät neáu hoï thaáy noù ñem laïi nhieàu lôïi nhuaän hôn. Coù leõ thaät thaø laø keá laâu daøi ñeå sinh lôïi. Trong kinh doanh, chaúng haïn, coù moät ngöôøi giao dòch tröïc tieáp vôùi quaàn chuùng, baùn haøng vôùi giaù phaûi chaêng, coù chaát löôïng toát, coù theå tin
  2. töôûng maø khoâng bò gaït thì trong töông lai ngöôøi ñoù seõ thieát laäp ñöôïc danh tieáng cho mình, ñoù laø taøi saûn quí baùu trong kinh doanh. Moïi ngöôøi seõ haøi loøng khi mua haøng cuûa anh ta vaø duø anh khoâng gaëp may maén, anh vaãn coù tieáng toát vaø coâng vieäc buoân baùn thoûa maõn. Maët khaùc, khoâng coøn nghi ngôø gì nöõa raèng thaønh coâng thöôøng bôûi troø löøa ñaûo ñoàng thôøi gaëp may ñaõ taïo neân tính löøa bòp. Kinh nghieäm cho thaáy nhieàu teân löøa bòp thaønh coâng xem söï löøa ñaûo laø saùch löôïc toái öu. Taát nhieân laø seõ coù moät soá keát thuùc baèng söï ñoå vôõ, seõ nhanh choùng maát taát caû nhöõng gì hoï coù ñöôïc nhôø noùi laùo. Nhöng coù nhieàu ngöôøi duy trì ñöôïc söï thaønh coâng cuûa mình phaàn lôùn nhôø naêng löïc, vaän may vaø taøi kheùo leùo trong kinh doanh hôn laø loøng chaân thaät. Vaø cuõng khoâng ít nhöõng taám göông thaát baïi chæ vì hoï thaät thaø. Ngöôøi töû vì ñaïo thích ñöôïc cheát thieâu hôn laø noùi nhöõng gì anh ta tin laø sai quaáy. Coù theå laø anh huøng ñaáy nhöng döôùi con maét ngöôøi ñôøi, hoï chæ nghó ñeán thaønh coâng coù tieáng vang cho neân anh ta cho raèng tröôøng hôïp anh aáy laø moät söï thaát baïi buoàn. Nhöng neáu chuùng ta nhìn caùc tröôøng hôïp naøy theo quan ñieåm toân giaùo, neáu chuùng ta xem söï thaät vaø tính ñuùng ñaén quan troïng hôn söï giaøu coù, ñòa vò vaø taøi saûn. Cuoái cuøng treân heát taát caû, thaät thaø laø saùch löôïc ñeïp nhaát. "Ñieàu ñoù seõ ñem laïi lôïi nhuaän gì ñaây cho anh neáu anh ta coù ñöôïc caû theá giôùi naøy ñoàng thôøi laøm maát ñi taâm hoàn cuûa chính ta." TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. often repeated proverb : caâu chaâm ngoân thöôøng ñöôïc nhaéc tôùi 2. worldly flavour /w3:ldl1 'fle1v6/ : muøi vò cuûa ñôøi 3. to pay (v.i) /pe1/ : töï buø laïi ; kieám ra tieàn 4. even if (= even though)• /1v6n 1f/ (comj.) : duø, daãu raèng ex : Even if he were my father, I would not obey him. Daãu raèng oâng aáy laø boá toâi, toâi cuõng khoâng tuaân theo oâng aáy ñöôïc. 5. simply because (= merely because) /s1mpl1 b1'k0z/ : chæ vì 6. of little use /6v 'l1tl ju:s/ : chaúng ích lôïi gì laém ex : Of no use : of great use ; etc. voâ ích ; raát ích lôïi,v.v... 7. unprincipled men /^n'pr1ns6pld men/ (n) : ngöôøi khoâng toân troïng nguyeân taéc 8. in the long run : veà laâu veà daøi ; roài ra ex : He will fail in the long run. Roài oâng aáy seõ thaát baïi. 9. to deal with /d1:l w15/ (v) : ñoái phoù vôùi 10. at fair prices : vôùi giaù coâng baèng 11. to rely upon (or : on) /r1'a1 6'p4n/ (v) : tin töôûng vaøo 12. to make a fortune /me1k 6 'f0:t~u:n/ (v) : laøm giaøu lôùn 13. on the other hand : veà maët khaùc 14. due to /dju:tu/ (conj) : vì ex : His sickness is due to over eating. Beänh anh aáy laø do aên quaù nhieàu. (Anh aáy ñau vì boäi thöïc) 15. to come to an end : keát thuùc 16. point of view : quan ñieåm - viewpoint. : quan ñieåm 17. martyr /'m@:t6/ (n) : ngöôøi cheát vì ñaïo hay chuû nghóa 18. in the end = after all, ultimately : maõi sau, sau cuøng
  3. 2. KNOWLEDGE IS POWER KIEÁN THÖÙC MÔÙI HOAØN THIEÄN CON NGÖÔØI OUTLINE 1. Knowledge gives man power over animals. 2. Knowledge gives civilised nations1 power over savage races. 3. Knowledge gave priests in the Middle Ages2 in Europe, and Brahmins3 in India, power over kings and people. 4. The spread of education has given power in modern times to the people of Europe and America. In general it is true that the man who knows has an advantage over the man who does not know. The educated classes4 have always been able to rule the ignorant5. This can be illustrated in various ways. Phycically, man is one of the weakest of animals. Without the wonderful tools he has invented, he cannot fly like the birds, he cannot run like the horse. He has no weapons of defence like the tiger's fangs6 and claws, and he is no match for7 the lion and bear in strength. Yet he conquers all these strong and fierce beasts, and forces some of them to be his servants. His superior intelligence8 and knowledge make him the master of creatures physically his superiors. In the same way, and for the same reason, civilised nations dominate and enslave ignorant savage races. A handful of9 Europeans in Africa controls millions of African savages. It is their superior knowledge, and the weapons, organisation and character which that knowledge has given them, that gives them power over these races which are physically their equals. In the Middle Ages in Europe, the only educated men were the priests. Great barons, brave knights, ruling princes and kings very ofTen could not even read and write. In consequence10 kings had to appoint priests as their ministers to carry on11 the government of their country. Unless the king was a man of very strong character, the power, nominally12 his, was in the hands of the clever and learned priests. The soldier, the man of the sword, thought he was the master : but he was really in the hands of the priest, the man of the pen14. the same was the case15 in India. The learned Brahmins were for ages the real rulers in Indian states, and domonated all lower castes. Today, in Europe and America, education is so universal16 that even the working classes17 are educated people. As they have advanced in knowledge they have advanced in power : so that now the people of these countries rule themselves, and are no longer18 under the domination of priests19 and kings. Söï thaät laø con ngöôøi coù öu theá hôn khi anh ta coù hieåu bieát veà vaán ñeà naøo ñoù. Ngöôøi coù hoïc thöùc luoân laøm chuû ngöôøi ít hoïc. Đieàu naøy coù theå ñöôïc minh hoïa baèng nhieàu caùch. Đöùng veà phöông dieän sinh lyù, con ngöôøi laø moät phaàn yeáu keùm nhaát cuûa ñoäng vaät. Con ngöôøi seõ khoâng bieát bay neáu khoâng coù caùc coâng cuï ñaõ ñöôïc saùng cheá saün vaø khoâng theå naøo chaïy nhö ngöïa phi. Con ngöôøi seõ khoâng coù vuõ khí choáng laïi nanh vuoát hoå, seõ thua xa söùc maïnh cuûa sö töû vaø gaáu. Tuy nhieân, con ngöôøi coù khaû naêng chinh phuïc ñöôïc taát caû söùc maïnh vaø nhöõng con thuù hung döõ nhaát, baét chuùng phuïc vuï con ngöôøi. Baèng trí thoâng minh vaø kieán thöùc sieâu vieät, con ngöôøi ñaõ laøm chuû ñöôïc moïi sinh vaät treân traùi ñaát.
  4. Cuøng moät nguyeân nhaân ñoù, caùc daân toäc vaên minh thoáng trò vaø laøm chuû nhöõng loaøi hoang daõ, ngu doát. Moät nhoùm ngöôøi AÂu Chaâu ôû Chaâ u Phi ñaõ kieåm soaùt haøng trieäu trieäu ngöôøi daân Chaâu Phi. Ñoù chính laø tính sieâu vieät cuûa tri thöùc, laø vuõ khí, laø toå chöùc vaø laø ñaëc tính maø tri thöùc ñaõ ñem laïi cho con ngöôøi. Tri thöùc ñem laïi söùc maïnh sinh lyù cho con ngöôøi. Vaøo thôøi Trung Coå ôû Chaâu AÂu, chæ coù ngöôøi coù hoïc môùi ñöôïc laøm linh muïc. Nhöõng oâng vua vó ñaïi, nhöõng hieäp só ñaày can ñaûm, nhöõng oâng hoaøng ñaày quyeàn uy thaäm chí thöôøng khoâng bieát ñoïc, bieát vieát. Vì vaäy vua phaûi choïn caùc vò linh muïc laøm coá vaán nhaèm cai quaûn ñaát nöôùc hoï. Caùc oâng vua thöôøng laø höõu danh voâ thöïc, trong tay nhöõng vò linh muïc khoân ngoan trí thöùc töø khi vò vua ñoù laø moät ngöôøi coù tính caùch uy quyeàn maïnh meõ. Nhöõng ngöôøi lính, ngöôøi cuûa göôm kieám laïi cho raèng anh ta laø chuû. Nhöng anh ta thaät söï ôû trong tay caùc linh muïc. ÔÛ AÁn Ñoä cuõng coù moät tröôøng hôïp töông töï. Nhöõng ngöôøi Baø La Moân trí thöùc laø nhöõng ngöôøi cai trò thöïc söï cuûa nhaø nöôùc AÁn trong nhieàu naêm vaø luoân ñaøn aùp caùc ñaúng caáp döôùi. Ngaøy nay, ôû Chaâu AÂu vaø Chaâu Myõ, hoïc vaán ñaõ ñöôïc phoå bieán roäng raõi ñeán cho ngöôøi lao ñoäng. Vì tri thöùc ñem laïi söùc maïnh do ñoù nhöõng ngöôøi coù hoïc thöùc ôû nhöõng nöôùc naøy luoân töï trò. Vaø ngaøy nay khoâng coøn hieän töôïng kieåm soaùt cuûa caùc linh muïc vaø caùc oâng vua ! TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. civilized nations /'s1v1la1zd 'ne1~nz/ : nhöõng quoác gia vaên minh 2. the Middle Age /'m1dl e1d2/ (n) : thôøi Trung Coå 3. Brahmin (Brahman) /br@:m1n/ (n) : tín ñoà ñaïo Baø la moân Ấn Đoä 4. the educated class /'edjuke1t1d kl@:s/ (n) : giai caáp hoïc thöùc 5. the ignorant /'i9n6r6nt/ (n) : keû ít hoïc 6. fang /f%7/ (n) : raêng nhoïn coù noäc ñoäc 7. no match for : khoâng ñuoåi kòp ; thua xa ; khoâng xöùng 8. superior intelligence /su:p16r16 1n'tel126ns/ (n) : söï thoâng minh sieâu vieät 9. a handful of /h%ndf$l/ (n) : moät naém , moät nhoùm , moät soá nhoû ex : A handful of men. moät nhoùm ngöôøi. ex : A handful of rice. moät tuùm gaïo. 10. in consequence = consequently /'k4ns1kw6ns/ (n) : bôûi vaäy , vì vaäy 11. to carry on /'k%r1 on/ (v) : tieáp tuïc ; thi haønh, tieán haønh 12. nominally /'n4mi6n6l1/ (adv) : coù danh thoâi ; höõu danh voâ thöïc 13. the man of the sword /s0:d/ (n) : con nhaø voõ 14. the man of the pen /pen/ (n) : con nhaø vaên 15. the same is the case /ke1s/ : tröôøng hôïp ñoù cuõng theá 16. universal /'jun1v6s6l/ (adj) : chæ veà hoaøn vuõ, chung caû vuõ truï 17. the working classes /'w3:k17 'kl@:s1z/ (n) : giai caáp lao ñoäng 18. no longer /no$ 'lo76/ (conj) : khoâng coøn.... nöõa ex : He is no longer lazy. Anh aáy khoâng coøn löôøi nöõa. ex : I will no longer be here. Toâi seõ khoâng coøn ôû ñaây nöõa.
  5. 3. ROME WAS NOT BUILT IN A DAY THAØNH LA MAÕ KHOÂNG ÑÖÔÏC XAÂY DÖÏNG TRONG MOÄT NGAØY OUTLINE 1. The proverb is for the impatient and discouraged. 2. Illustrations - from sport, and learning. 3. It must not be used as an excuse1 for laziness. Anyone, who attempts a task of any magnitude2, may be beset by two temptations, namely, impatience and discouragement. He starts with hope and enthusiasm : but finding that the task he has set himself will take much longer3 than he thought, becomes impatient and scamps4 the work to get finished. Or, when he realises the difficulties to be overcome, he becomes discouraged, relaxes5 his efforts, or abandons the work as hopeless. As a check to impatience, and a word of cheer to discouragement, comes this old proverb- " Rome was not built in a day." To build a great city like Rome, many days, nay year and even centuries, were necessary. And no task that is really worth doing6 can be done either quickly or easily. Slow progress must not make us impatient, and difficulties must not discourage us. A youth has an ambition to become a fine athlete. He thinks a little practice will soon make him a first class bat or centre forward. But when he finds it will take many months of practice and hard training, he becomes impatient and discouraged. To him the proverb says, " Be patient : for Rome was not built in a day." Another youth makes up his mind to become a scholar, and devotes7 himself in real earnest to his studies. But the more8 he learns, the more he realises there is to be learnt. The subject enlarges as he progresses, the difficulties become more formidable9, and at last he realises that it will take him years of hard mental toil before he can reach his goal. And he becomes disheartened10. To him comes this word of cheer : " Be not discouraged : for Rome was not built in a day." But this proverb, meant to encourage, must not be used, as it sometimes is, as an excuse for laziness and procrastination11. The idler when remonstrated with on his lack of progress, may gaily reply, " Ah well ! What can you expect ? Rome was not built in a day." Baát kyø ai khi coá gaéng laøm vieäc ôû baát kyø möùc ñoä naøo coù theå cuøng luùc bò bao vaây bôûi hai caùm doã - noân noùng vaø thieáu can ñaûm. Anh ta baét tay vaøo vieäc vôùi loøng say meâ traøn ñaày hy voïng. Nhöng daàn roài caûm thaáy coâng vieäc maát nhieàu thôøi gian hôn anh nghó, anh ta trôû neân noân noùng haáp taáp muoán cho xong vieäc. Hay anh ta nhaän thaáy khoù khaên khoù vöôït qua khieán anh nhuït chí khoâng coøn cam ñaûm, buoâng xuoâi hoaëc töø boû coâng vieäc dôû dang khoâng coøn hy voïng. Nhö moät söï kieåm tra loøng kieân nhaãn vaø tính can ñaûm neân môùi coù caâu chaâm ngoân "Thaønh La Maõ khoâng theå xaây trong moät ngaøy". Muoán xaây moät thaønh phoá lôùn nhö thaønh phoá Rome phaûi caàn coù thôøi gian, coù theå laø nhieàu ngaøy, nhieàu naêm vaø thaäm chí haøng theá kyû môùi xaây neân ñöôïc. Khoâng coù moät coâng trình thaät söï ñaùng laøm naøo ñöôïc laøm xong nhanh choùng vaø deã daøng. Ñöøng ñeå tieán trình chaäm laøm maát loøng kieân nhaãn vaø cuõng ñöøng ñeå khoù khaên laøm maát loøng duõng caûm ! Moät thanh nieân coù hoaøi baõo muoán trôû thaønh moät vaän ñoäng vieân cöø. Anh ta cho raèng luyeän taäp ít seõ nhanh choùng laøm anh trôû thaønh moät tay vôït ñöùng ñaàu lôùp hay trung taâm ñieåm. Nhöng khi anh nhaän thaáy seõ phaûi maát nhieàu thaùng taä p luyeän khoù khaên, anh trôû neân noâng
  6. noùng vaø nhuït chí. Ñoái vôùi anh caâu chaâm ngoân coù noùi, "Haõy kieân nhaãn baïn aï ? Ñoái vôùi thaønh La Maõ thì khoâng theå xaây trong 1 ngaøy ñöôïc !". Moät thanh nieân khaùc quyeát ñònh trôû thaønh moät hoïc giaû vaø anh daønh toaøn boä soá tieàn kieám ñöôïc vaøo vieäc nghieân cöùu. Nhöng caøng hoïc, anh caøng nhaän thöùc roõ caàn phaûi hieåu. Chuû ñeà caøng môû roäng khi anh coù tieán boä khoù khaên caøng lôùn vaø cuoái cuøng anh nhaän thöùc ñöôïc raèng anh seõ phaûi maát haøng naêm trôøi laøm vieäc caëm cuïi baèng trí oùc môùi coù theå ñaït ñeán muïc ñích cuûa mình. Vaø anh trôû neân naûn chí. Ñoái vôùi anh coù moät lôøi noùi vui. "Xin ñöøng naûn chí! Thaønh La Maõ khoâng theå xaây xong trong 1 ngaøy !" Caâu chaâm ngoân coù nghóa ñoäng vieân coå vuõ. Khoâng neân duøng noù nhö moät lyù do thoaùi thaùc troán laùnh vì löôøi nhaùc vaø trì hoaõn. Moät ngöôøi löôøi bieáng khi bò quôû traùch veà vieäc khoâng tieán boä, coù theå laëp laïi lôøi noùi naøy moät caùch haøo höùng "a, ñöôïc roài ! Baïn mong muoán gì ñaây ? Thaønh La Maõ khoâng theå xaây xong trong 1 ngaøy baïn aï !". TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. excuse /ik'skju:s/ (n) : côù, lyù do ñeå thoaùi thaùc 2. magnitude /'m%9n1tju:d/ (n) : taàm lôùn lao, vó ñaïi 3. to take much longer /te1k m^t~ l476/ (v) : caàn laâu hôn nhieàu ex : It takes us forty-five minutes to go from Saigon to Bieân Hoøa by Diesel train. 4. to scamp /sk%mp/ (v) : laøm voäi vaõ cho xong (= to perform in a hasty, neglectful, or imperfect manner) 5. to relax /r1'l%ks/ (v) : nghæ ngôi, saû hôi 6. worth doing /w3:8/ : ñaùng laøm, boõ laøm ex. This book is worth reading. The picture is worth seeing. 7. to devote oneself to /d1'v6$t/ (v) : chuyeân taâm vaøo ex : John devoted himself to the study of astronomy. (thieân vaên hoïc). 8. the comparative degree... the comparative degree : caøng... caøng... ex : The more you clearn, the more eagerly you want to learn. The more haste, the less speed. (giuïc toác baát ñaït). 9. formidable /'f4:m1d6bl/ (adj) : lôùn lao, ñoà soä ; kyø dò 10. to dishearten /d1s'h@:tn/ (v) : laøm naûn loøng, laøm naûn chí 11. Procrastination /pr6$,kr%st1ne1~n/ (n) : söï khaát laàn, trì hoaõn ex : Procrastination is the thief of time. 12. to remonstrate with (a person) on (a thing) /'rem4ntre1t/ (v) : traùch ai veà moät ñieàu gì ex : I remonstrate with him on his behavior. ex : To remonstrate with (a person) against (a thing). khaùng nghò ai veà moät ñieàu gì. ex : I remonstrated with Vuõ against his proposal. Toâi phaûn ñoái anh Vuõ veà ñeà nghò cuûa anh aáy.
  7. 4. MAN IS A TOOL USING ANIMAL NGÖÔØI LAØ LOAØI VAÄT BIEÁT DUØNG DUÏNG CUÏ OUTLINE 1. Man is distinguished from all the animals by the fact that he invents and uses tools. 2. Illustrations. Man is an animal ; for his bodily organs do not differ essentially from those of other mammals1 such as the sheep, cow, horse or dog : but he is the only animal that has invented and can use tools. This is only another way of saying that, while a man is physically like many other animals, mentally he is quite different. Other animals can use only the weapons or tools with which nature has endowed them and which are part of their bodies teeth, claws, stings2, legs, wings, fins, etc. But man, whose natural weapons teeth, nails, etc.) are feeble compared with3 those of many animals, has the intelligence and genius4 to invent tools and weapons, which have made him the master of the brute creation. For example, man cannot run very fast or far, as compared to deer, horses, or ostriches5. But he has discovered the power of steam and invented the steam engine ; and by its means he can travel sixty miles an hour. Man's teeth, as cutting instruments6, are weak, and his nails feeble, as compared to the teeth of the tiger or the claws of the lion. But he has used steel and made himself knives and swords and spears. Man's arm and fist are feeble weapons compared to the arms of the bear, the hoof of the horse, or the trunk7 of the elephant. But he has discovered gunpowder, and made himself guns and cannon8, so that he can kill at a thousand yards, and blow up a ship fourteen miles a way with a shell. Man cannot swim fast or far, but he has invented the rowing boat, the sailing ship, the steamer, and the submarine9, so that he can cross the water faster than the swiftest fish. Man has no wings ; but he has invented the aeroplane, and can fly now faster than the fastest bird. His eyes are weak compared to the eagle's ; but he has invented the microscope10 and the telescope11. His voice is feeble compared to the roar of the lion, or the trumpeting of the elephant ; but he has invented the telephone, and wireless broadcasting12, and can now speak to his fellows thousands of miles away.other animal uses tools. so it is just definition to descrobe man as "a toolusing animal." Con ngöôøi laø moät loaøi ñoäng vaät bôûi caùc cô quan cuûa cô theå khoâng khaùc vôùi caùc cô quan cuûa ñoäng vaät coù vuù, nhö cöøu, boø, ngöïa, choù. Tuy nhieân con ngöôøi laø ñoäng vaät duy nhaát bieát cheá taïo ñoàng thôøi bieát söû duïng coâng cuï. Hay noùi moät caùch khaùc trong khi con ngöôøi gioáng ñoäng vaät veà maët vaät lyù coøn veà taâm sinh lyù con ngöôøi hoaøn toaøn khaùc. Caùc loaøi ñoäng vaät khaùc chæ bieát söû duïng vuõ khí vaø coâng cuï töï nhieân, saün coù vaø thuoäc veà cô theå cuûa chuùng nhö raêng, vuoát, chaân, caùnh, vaây... Nhöng con ngöôøi vôùi vuõ khí töï nhieân yeáu hôn so vôùi nhieàu loaøi ñoäng vaät, con ngöôøi coù trí thoâng minh vaø khaû naêng saùng taïo neân duïng cuï vaø vuõ khí giuùp con ngöôøi laøm chuû loaøi sinh vaät hung döõ Ví duï con ngöôøi khoâng theå chaïy nhanh vaø xa baèng nai, ngöïa hay ñaø ñieåu. Tuy nhieân con ngöôøi ñaõ khaùm phaù ra söùc maïnh cuûa hôi nöôùc vaø cheá taïo ñaàu maùy hôi nöôùc giuùp con ngöôøi du lòch 60 daëm 1 giôø. Raêng ngöôøi - coâng cuï caét, nghieán raát yeáu cuõng vaäy, moùng tay moùng chaân laïi raát meàm so vôùi raêng cuûa hoå vaø vuoát cuûa sö töû. Nhöng con ngöôøi laïi söû duïng thieác, töï laøm thaønh dao, kieám cuõng nhö göôm. Caùnh tay vaø quaû ñaám cuûa con ngöôøi laø caùc loaïi khí giôùi yeáu hôn so vôùi caúng chaân cuûa gaáu moùng vuoát ngöïa hay voøi voi. Tuy
  8. nhieân con ngöôøi cheá ra thuoác suùng, töï laøm suùng vaø khaåu ñaïi baùc vì vaäy con ngöôøi coù theå baén cheát caùch xa 1 ngaøn yard coù theå thoåi chieác taøu xa 14 daëm baèng moät phaùt ñaïn phaùo. Con ngöôøi khoâng theå bôi nhanh vaø xa nhöng con ngöôøi phaùt minh ra chieác thuyeàn, taøu thuûy, maùy hôi nöôùc, taøu ngaàm vì theá con ngöôøi baêng qua doøng nöôùc nhanh hôn loaøi caù bôi nhanh nhaát. Con ngöôøi cuõng khoâng coù caùch theá nhöng anh ta coù khaû naêng saùng cheá neân maùy bay vaø ngaøy nay bay nhanh hôn loaøi chim bay nhanh nhaát. So vôùi maét chim phöôïng hoaøng maét ngöôøi keùm hôn, nhöng con ngöôøi laïi coù khaû naêng phaùt minh ra kính vieãn voïng vaø kính thieân vaên. So vôùi tieáng gaàm vang cuûa sö töû hay tieáng roáng cuûa voi, gioïng noùi cuûa con ngöôøi nhoû hôn nhieàu theá maø con ngöôøi laïi coù theå phaùt minh ra maùy ñieän thoaïi, maùy phaùt thanh voâ tuyeát ñieän. Ngaøy nay anh ta coù theå noùi chuyeän vôùi baïn beø caùch xa haøng ngaøy daëm. Khoâng coù loaøi ñoäng vaät naøo söû duïng coâng cuï ngoaïi tröø con ngöôøi. Vì vaäy ñeå xaùc ñònh roõ raøng coù theå moâ taû con ngöôøi nhö "moät loaøi ñoäng vaät söû duïng coâng cuï"!. TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. mammal /'m%m6l/ (n) : loaøi vaät coù vuù 2. sting /st17/ : söï chích (ñoát) cuûa coân truøng - to sting (n) : ñoát 3. to compare with /k6mp'36/ : so saùnh - to comprared to (v) : so saùnh (ví vôùi) ex : This book cannot be compared with that one. Life is compared to a voyage. 4. genius /’d21:ny6s/ (n) : ngöôøi coù taøi 5. ostrich /'4str1t~/ (n) : con chim ñaø ñieåu 6. instrument /'1nstr$m6nt/ (n) : duïng cuï implement, tool : khí cuï, duïng cuï ; utensil : ñoà duøng 7. trunk /tr^nk/ (n) : voøi voi 8. cannon /'k%n6n/ (n) : suùng ñaïi baùc 9. submarine /'s^bm6r1:n/ (n) : taøu ngaàm, tieàm thuûy ñình 10. telescope /’tel1skr6$p/ (n) : oáng nhoøm, vieãn voïng kính 11. microscope /'ma1kr6sk6$p/ (n) : kính hieån vi 12. Wireless broadcasting /'wa16l1s 'br4:dk@:st17/ (n) : söï phaùt thanh voâ tuyeán ñieän
  9. 5. THE CONQUEST OF THE AIR. CUOÄC CHINH PHUÏC KHOÂNG TRUNG OUTLINE Introduction : - The dream of flying. 1. The balloon. 2. The airship, or dirigible balloon1. 3. The aeroplane. 4. Air services2. Many ancient legends3 and fairy stories show that even long ago man dreamt of flying ; but it is only in our own times that this dream has been realised. The first practical step that was taken towards aerial navigation, was the invention of the baloon towards the end of the 18th century, closely following the discovery of hydrogen gas4. Navigation of the air by balloons might be compared to the navigation of the sea by sailing vessels5 before the invention of the steam-boat ; for balloons were the sport of the winds as for over a hundred years after their introduction no method of propelling6 or guiding a balloon was discovered. They were not " flying " machines, but only " floating " machines. The next step was the invention of the dirigible balloon, or air ship, which Count Zeppelin proved to be practicable at the beginning of this century. The " Zeppelin,"7 as it was called, was really a huge cigarshaped balloon propelled by a motor engine and steered8 like a ship. The Germans expected great things from their Zeppelins in the Great War, but they proved to be rather a disappointment : and, although they are used as passenger air-ships, the future is probably with the aeroplane. The aeroplane has a different history, and flies according to9 quite a different principle. The balloon and the airship are "lighter than air"10 craft11, and are lifted and maintained in the air by hydrogen gas ; but the aeroplane, or "heavier than air"12 craft, rises and flies by the resistance of the air itself. Just as a piece of card board13, when thrown edge wise14, will skim15 through the air a long way, so the " planes " of the aeroplane, when forced forward by the motor driven screw, will raise and maintain the whole machine in the air. This is the real " flying machine," and it has now reached a high state of perfection, although only a recent invention. Airmen now think no more of rising up thousands of feet and flying hunderds of miles in the air than of travelling over good roads in a motor car. Man's ancient dream of flying dah come true. Already the Atlantic Ocean17 has been crossed by aeroplanes, and aeroplanes have flown round the world. Already there are regular air services, carrying mails and passengers, as between London and Paris. In a few years all the countries of the world will be linked together by regular air-services as they are now by steamboats and railways. Nhieàu chuyeän thaàn thoaïi cuõng nhö truyeän thaàn tieân cho thaáy raèng caùch ñaây laâu roài con ngöôøi ñaõ mô töôûng ñeán bay. Nhöng maõi ñeán thôøi ñaïi cuûa chuùng ta öôùc mô ñoù môùi ñöôïc thöïc hieän. Böôùc ñaàu tieân ñaõ thöïc hieän ñöôïc laø ngaønh haøng haûi, keá ñeán laø phaùt minh cuûa khinh khí caàu vaøo cuoái theá kyû 18. Tieáp theo sau laø söï khaùm phaù ra hôi hyñroâ. Ngaønh haøng khoâng coù khinh khí caàu ñöôïc saùnh vôùi ngaønh haøng haûi vôùi thuyeàn buoàm ñaõ ra ñôøi tröôùc phaùt minh
  10. ra thuyeàn chaïy baèng hôi nöôùc ; vì khinh khí caàu laø moân theå thao bay baèng gioù ñaõ coù tröôùc ñaây 100 naêm sau söï xuaát hieän cuûa loaïi khinh khí caàu ñaåy baèng xoaùy chaân vòt. Nhöõng loaïi khinh khí caàu naøy khoâng phaûi laø maùy "bay" maø chæ laø maùy "noåi". Böôùc tieáp ñeán laø phaùt minh loaïi khinh khí caàu laùi ñöôïc hay con taøu bay treân khoâng trung maø Count Zeppelin ngay töø ñaàu theá kyû naøy ñaõ chöùng minh ñöôïc tính thöïc tieãn cuûa noù. Khinh khí caàu naøy coù teân goïi laø "Zeppelin" quaû thaät laø moät khinh khí caàu hình ñieáu thuoác khoång loà ñöôïc thuùc ñaåy bôûi moät ñaàu moâ -toâ ñoàng thôøi ñöôïc ñieàu khieån nhö moät con taøu. Trong thôøi ñaïi theá chieán ngöôøi Ñöùc mong muoán nhöõng moùn haøng vó ñaïi cuûa Zeppelin. Tuy vaäy hoï ñaõ chöùng toû hôi thaát voïng vaø maëc ñaàu chuùng ñöôïc söû duïng nhö nhöõng con thuyeàn chôû haønh khaùch treân khoâng thì töông lai vaãn coù theå laø maùy bay thöï c söï. Maùy bay coù moät neàn lòch söû khaùc haún. Noù bay hoaøn toaøn theo nguyeân lí khaùc nhau. Khinh khí caàu vaø taøu bay thì nheï hôn maùy bay, coù theå naâng leân, giöõ laïi treân khoâng baèng hôi hyñroâ. Đoái vôùi may bay naëng hôn khoâng khí khi caát caùnh bay theo chieàu höôùng ñaõ ñònh cuûa noù. Noù cuõng nhö maûnh giaáy caùc -toâng khí neùm ñi, noù seõ löôùt ñi trong khoâng khí. Maùy bay khi bay coù löïc ñaåy veà phía tröôùc bôûi ñinh oác cuûa moâtô laø m maùy bay bay leân vaø giöõ thaêng baèng trong khoâng khí. Ñaây thaät söï laø loaïi maùy bay. Ngaøy nay, maùy bay ñaõ ñaït ñeán möùc ñoäc cao cuûa söï hoaøn haûo, daãu raèng chæ coù moät phaùt minh gaàn ñaây phi coâng ngaøy nay khoâng cho raèng bay cao haøng ngaøy boä vaø bay xa haøng traêm daëm trong khoâng khí hôn laø ñi treân nhöõng con ñöôøng toát treân xe hôi. Giaác mô ngaøy xöa cuûa loaøi ngöôøi ngaøy nay trôû thaønh söï thaät. Ngöôøi ta ñaõ bay qua Ñaïi Taây Döông. Maùy bay ñaõ bay khaép theá giôùi cuõng ñaõ coù caùc dòch vuï haøng khoâng thöôøng xuyeân mang thö chôû khaùch töø Luaân Ñoân ñeán Pari. Trong vaøi naêm nöõa, caùc nöôùc treân theá giôùi seõ ñöôïc lieân keát baèng dòch vuï haøng khoâng nhö chuùng ngaøy nay ñöôïc noái keát baèng taøu thuyeàn vaø ñöôøng ray. TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. dirigible balloon /'d1r1d26bl ba'lu:n/ (n) : khinh khí caàu laùi ñöôïc 2. air services /e6's3:v1s1z/ (n) : nhöõng dòch vuï haøng khoâng 3. legend /'led26nd/ (n) : truyeän tích, truyeän kyù, thaàn thoaïi 4. hydrogen gas /'ha1dr6$ 9%s/ (n) : hôi hy troâ 5. sail vessels /se1l 'veslz/ (n) : thuyeàn (taøu) buoàm 6. to propel /pr6'pel/ (v) : thuùc ñi (baèng xoaùy chaân vòt) 7. Zepplin /’zepl1n/ (n) : teân ngöôøi (Ferdinand von Zepplin, 1838 - 1917) 8. to steer /st16r/ (v) : laùi, ñieàu khieån 9. according to /-6'k4:d17 tu/ (conj) : theo, chieáu theo (= in accordance with) 10. lighter than air /la1t6/ : nheï hôn khoâng khí 11. craft /kraft/ (n) : maùy bay 12. heavier than air /hev16/ : naëng hôn khoâng khí 13. card board /'k@:db4:d/ (n) : giaáy caùc toâng 14. edge wise (or : edgeways) /ed2wa1z/ (adv) : ôû beân bôø, beân meùp ; men beân leà 15. to skim /sk1m/ (v) : ñoïc hay nhìn löôùt qua, ñi löôùt qua 16. to think no more of something : khoâng nghó tôùi... nöõa 17. the Atlantic Ocean /6t'l%nt1k '6$~n/ (n) : Ñaïi Taây Döông
  11. 6. TAKE CARE OF THE PENCE, AND THE POUNDS WILL TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES TÍCH TIEÅU THAØNH ÑAÏI OUTLINE 1. Large sums of money disappear in casual1 petty axpenditures. 2. Expenditure must be systematic, and then money can be saved. 3. To live beyond one's income2 means misery. Everv one knows how mysteriously money dribbles3 away in netty expenditure. Once break a ten rupee4 note and how quickly it disappears ! We cannot remember how spent it, and we have little or nothing to show for it : but it is gone. We forget that sixteen annas5 make a rupee, and fifteen rupees make a pound, and that small spendings mount up, and quite large sums of money have slipped through our fingers before we realise6 it. We did not take care of the pence, petty expenditures, and they mounted up to pounds, which have taken wings and flown away. This is bound to7 be the case if we don't watch our expenses, and if we carry our money abouT with us as loose cash in our pockets. People with small incomes are sure to get into8 financial difficulties if they have no system in their expenditure. When the monthly pay comes in, a monthly budget9 should be drawn up, and certain fixed sums allotted10 to meet necessary expenses such as houserent, food fuel, clothes, travelling, etc. Then, before anything is assigned to11 luxuries, as much as can be afforded should be set aside as saved, and put into the post office saving's12 bank. Then a certain amount should be kept in hand13 for extras14 and unforescen expenses ; in fact it is generally found that these " extras " in the end run away with a considerable sum15. Only when all this has been done, and if there is anything , left, can expenditure on luxuries be allowed. Any one who adopts some such system, and faithfully sticks to it16, will be able to live within his income17, and save into the bargain18. He takes care in spending the pennies, and finds he has saved pounds. But when there is no system, and all the expenditure is casual, expenditure is sure to exceed income, and the result will be constant money worries, unpaid bills, and chronic19 debt. One of Dickens20 characters says that if your income is twenty shillings, and you spend only nineteen shillings and six pence, that means happiness ; but if you spend twenty shillings and six pence, it means misery. Ai cuõng bieát tieàn seõ rôi loït ñi nhanh choùng trong vieäc chi tieâu khoâng tính toaùn. Moät khi laáy ñoàng 10 ñoàng chi tieâu thì chaúng maáy choác noù seõ heát ! Chuùng ta khoâng theå nhôù ñaõ chi tieâu nhö theá naøo vaø haàu nhö khoâng coù baèng chöùng cho vieäc ñoù, maø tieàn ñaõ tieâu roài ! Chuùng ta ñaõ queân raèng 16 xu (AÁn) laø 1 ñoàng, 15 ñoàng baèng 1 baûng Anh, nhöõng chi tieâu vaët seõ lôùn daàn leân vaø roài moùn tieàn lôùn ñoù seõ tuoät khoûi tay chuùng ta tröôùc khi chuùng ta bieát ñöôïc ñieàu ñoù. Chuùng ta khoâng quan taâm ñeán nhöõng ñoàng xu, nhöõng chi tieâu vaët, roài chính nhöõng ñoàng xu, vaët vaõnh naøy seõ lôùn daàn thaønh nhöõng ñoàng baûng Anh vuoät khoûi maát. Ñieàu naøy buoäc phaûi nhö vaäy neáu baïn khoâng quan taâm ñeán vieäc chi tieàn. Neáu chuùng ta ñem tieàn theo beân mình nhö laø boû tieàn maët trong tuùi vaäy !. Ngöôøi vôùi nhöõng thu nhaäp ít oûi chaéc chaén seõ gaëp khoù khaên veà taøi chaùnh neáu hoï khoâng coù moät cheá ñoä chi tieâu phuø hôïp. Khi tieàn löông haøng thaùng ñeán, ngaân saùch haøng thaùng buoäc
  12. phaûi vaïch ra. Moät moùn tieàn coá ñònh ñöôïc daønh cho vieäc chi tieâu caàn thieát nhö tieàn thueâ nhaø, nhieân lieäu naáu aên, quaàn aùo, du lòch... Sau ñoù trích ra moät phaàn coù theå coù ñeå tieát kieäm vaø göûi vaøo ngaân haøng quyõ tieát kieäm do Nha Böu ñieän toå chöùc tröôùc khi coù yù ñònh chi tieâu phung phí. Luùc ñoù baïn ñaõ naém giöõ moät soá tieàn trong tay nhö laø soá tieàn thaëng dö ñeå phoøng vieäc chi tieâu ngoaøi döï kieán. Thöïc teá cho thaáy raèng moùn tieàn dö ra ñaùng keå naøy cuoái cuøng cuõng heát saïch luoân. Chæ khi taát caû vieäc naøy ñöôïc laøm saün vaø neáu coù ñieàu gì baát traéc, coù theå daønh vaøo vieäc laõng phí. Nhöõng ai aùp duïng cheá ñoä chi tieâu nhö vaäy vaø trung thaønh baùm vaøo ñoù, anh ta coù theå soáng vôùi khoaûng thu nhaäp cuûa mình ñoàng thôøi tieát kieäm ñöôïc. Töï anh kieåm tra laáy nhöõng ñoàng xu vaø nhöõng ñoàng baûng seõ töï kieåm tra laáy !. Tuy vaäy neáu khoâng coù cheá ñoä chi tieâu naøo, vaø taát caû vieäc chi tieâu ñeàu caåu thaû. Chaéc chaén raèng vieäc chi tieâu cuûa baïn seõ vöôït quaù möùc thu nhaäp. Keát quaû seõ laø noãi baên khoaên veà tieàn baïc, nhöõng phieáu thanh toaùn nôï naàn vaø moùn nôï trôû thaønh laâu naêm khoâng traû ñöôïc. Moät trong nhöõng lôøi noùi ñaëc saéc cuûa Dickens raèng neáu thu nhaäp cuûa baïn laø 20 ñoàng si-linh vaø baïn chi ra chæ coù 19 si-linh vaø 6 xu. Đieàu ñoù coù nghóa laø nieàm haïnh phuùc ; nhöng neáu baïn chi ra 20 silinh vaø 6 xu coù nghóa raèng khoå ñau ! TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. casual /'k%2u6l/ (adj) : ngaãu nhieân, khoâng quan taâm 2. beyond one's income /'17k^m/ quaù soá lôïi töùc cuûa ta 3. to dribble /dr1bl/ (v) : rôi, loït, ñi 4. rupee /'ru:p1:/ (n) : ñoàng baïc AÁn Ñoä 5. anna /'%n6/ (n) : ñoàng xu AÁn Ñoä 6. to realise /'r16la1z/ (v) : bieát, nhaän thöùc ra 7. to be bound to /ba$nd/ (v) : buoäc phaûi 8. to get into (difficulties, trouble, etc.) /9et '1nt$/ (v) : gaëp (khoù khaên, chuyeän raéc roái...) 9. budget /'b^d21t/ (n) : ngaân saùch 10. to allot /6'l4t/ (n) : daønh cho ; phaân phoái cho - allotment 11. to assign to /6'sa1n/ (v) : chæ ñònh ; chæ phaùt 12. postoffice savings : Quyõ tieát kieäm do Nhaø Böu Ñieän toå chöùc. 13. in hand /1n h%nd/ coù trong tay, coù saün 14. extras /’ekstr6z/ (n) : soá thaëng dö, thöøa ra 15. a considerable sum : moùn tieàn ñaùng keå 16. to stick to /st1ck/ (v) : baùm vaøo 17. to live within one's income : soáng trong phaïm vi lôïi töùc cuûa mình. 18. into the bargain /'b@:91n/ (n) : vaøo moùn haøng ñoù, vaøo cuoäc thöông löôïng maäu dòch ñoù ex : She gave two hundred dollars into the bargain. Baø aáy ñaõ traû 200 ñoàng veà moùn haøng ñoù. 19. chronic /’kr4n1k/ (adj) : kinh nieân ; coù laâu naêm 20. Dickens : Charles Dickens 1812 - 1870 /’d1kenz/ (v) : (teân vaên só löøng danh cuûa nöôùc Anh)
  13. 7. CLEANLINESS OF MIND AND BODY TRONG SAÏCH VEÀ TAÂM HOÀN VAØ THEÅ XAÙC OUTLINE Introduction : Cleanliness is a part of godliness1. 1. Cleanliness of Body a. is necessary for health, b. and for self-respect 2. Cleanliness of Mind. "Cleanliness", says the old proverb, "is next to godliness". This saying simply emphasises the great importance of cleanliness. But in practice2 it has some times been interpreted3 in a different way, and made to mean that godliness can dispense4 with clealiness. In the Middle Ages in Europe, and insome places and classes in India. godliness was associated with5 dirt. The old ascetic6 monk, and the Indian Yogi7, were considered to be all the more holy for being filthy. But true godliness surely means cleanliness of soul and body ; and the old proverb should read, " Cleanliness is a part of godliness ". Cleanliness of body is necessary for physical health. Dirt and disease go together. Disease germs breed and thrive and multiply in dirty ; and the epidemic diseases9 which sweep over a country and carry off thousands, are the results of the drity habits and surroundings of the people. No one can keep healthy who does not keep clean. Not only the regular washing of hands and face but the frequent and thorough bathing of the whole body, and the wearing of clean clothes, are conditions of good health10. Cleanliness of body is also necessary for self-respect. No one can expect to mix with decent society11 if he is not clean and neat. It is an insult to respectable people to meet them with dirty face and hands, and soiled and evil smeiling12 clothes. A gentleman would feel ashamed if he could not keep himself scrupulously13 clean. But even more important than cleanliness of body is cleanliness of mind. To call a mind " clean ", or " dirty " is to use metaphorical14 language. Just as15 linght is the symbol16 of truth and goodness, and darkness of ignorance and evil, so dirt is the symbol of moral evil and cleanliness of moral purity. Sin is dirt ; and in all religions the sinner prays to God for cleansing. " Wash me and I shall be whiter than snow ", cries the Psalmist ; and " Cleanse thou me from secret faults ". A man may be clean in body, but if his mind is full of impure desires, dirty thoughts and unclean imaginings, he is a dirty man, however much he may wash his skin. True cleanliness, then is not only next to, but a part of true godliness. Chaâm ngoân coù caâu "Saïch seõ gaàn vôùi thaùnh thieän". Lôøi noùi ñôn thuaàn muoán nhaán maïnh ñeán söï quan troïng cuûa tính saïch seõ. Trong thöïc teá, lôøi noùi naøy ñaõ ñöôïc nhaéc laïi nhieàu laàn döôùi nhieàu daïng khaùc nhau, nhöng nghóa chung vaãn laø söï thaùnh thieän luoân song haønh vôùi tính saïch seõ. ÔÛ AÂu Chaâu, vaøo thôøi Trung coå vaø moät soá nôi ôû AÁn cuõng nhö moät soá giai caáp AÁn, thaùnh thieän ñoàng nghóa vôùi dô baån. Thaày tu khoå haïnh ngaøy xöa vaø caùc tín ñoà moân phaùi AÁn ñöôïc xem nhö laø söï thanh tuù cuûa tuïc tóu. Tuy nhieân söï thanh tuù thaät söï chaéc chaén coù nghóa laø söï trong saïch ôû taâm hoàn vaø ôû theå xaùc. Do ñoù caâu chaâm ngoân coù theå noùi raèng "Söï trong saïch laø moät phaàn cuûa thaùnh thieän" !
  14. Saïch seõ ôû theå xaùc raát caàn cho söùc khoûe. Dô baån vaø beänh hoaïn luoân ñi cuøng nhau. Nhöõng vi truøng beänh seõ gaây maàm, phaùt trieån vaø sinh soâi trong söï dô baån. Caùc caên beänh dòch truyeàn nhieãm seõ lan traøn khaép trong nöôùc laøm haøng ngaøn ngöôøi mang beä nh. Ñoù laø haäu quaû cuûa thoùi dô baån baûo veä vaø moâi tröôøng xung quanh. Khoâng moät ai ñöôïc söùc khoûe maø khoâng chòu giöõ saïch seõ. Khoâng chæ röûa tay, maët saïch seõ thöôøng xuyeân maø phaûi taém röûa cô theå saïch seõ ñeàu ñaën, maëc aùo quaàn saïch seõ. Taát caû bieåu hieän tình traïng söùc khoûe toát. Saïch seõ cô theå coøn laø ñieàu caàn thieát cho loøng töï troïng. Khoâng ai thích gia nhaäp vaøo moät xaõ hoäi laønh maïnh maø baûn thaân anh ta khoâng saïch seõ goïn gaøng. Seõ laø ñieàu laên g maï ñoái vôùi ngöôøi töï troïng neáu baïn gaëp hoï vôùi göông maët vaø tay chaân baån, aùo quaàn xoác xeách buïi baëm. Moät ngöôøi lòch söï seõ caûm thaáy xaáu hoå neáu anh aáy khoâng töï mình saïch seõ caån thaän ! Tuy nhieân ñieàu quan troïng hôn söï saïch seõ ôû thaân theå ñoù laø trong saïch ôû taâm hoàn. Goïi moät taâm hoàn "trong saïch" bay "dô baån" laø ñaõ duøng ñeán nghóa aån duï. Ñuùng nhö aùnh saùng laø bieåu töôïng cuûa söï thaät vaø söï toát ñeïp. Boùng toái laø cuûa söï ngu doát vaø toäi loã i. Do vaäy dô baån laø bieåu töôïng cuûa toäi aùc, saïch seõ laø bieåu töôïng cuûa söï thanh cao, thanh khieát. Toäi loãi laø dô baån. Trong caùc toân giaùo, ngöôøi coù toäi thöôøng caàu nguyeän Chuùa mong ñöôïc röûa toäi "Xin Chuùa haõy röûa toäi cho con ñeå con ñöôïc trong saùng hôn". Ngöôøi saùng taùc neân thaùnh ca thì khaån khoaûn caàu xin Chuùa : "Xin ngöôøi haõy röûa saïch con khoûi nhöõng toäi loãi coøn aån chöùa". Moät ngöôøi coù theå saïch ôû theå xaùc, nhöng neáu taâm trí hoï ñaày nhöõng ham muoán toäi loãi, tö töôûng dô baån vôùi nhöõng töôûng töôïng khoâng trong saïch, anh ta laø moät ngöôøi dô baån cho duø anh ta coù taém röûa saïch seõ chaêng nöõa. Trong saïch thaät söï khoâng phaûi laø keà caän vôùi thaùnh thieän, maø laø moät phaàn cuûa söï thanh tuù thaät !. TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. godliness /94dl1n1s/ (n) : söï thaùnh thieän, öu tuù 2. in practice /'pr%kt1s/ (n) : treân thöïc teá 3. to interpret /1n't3:pr1t/ (v) : giaûi thích 4. to dispense /d1'spens/ (v) : phaân phaùt 5. to assciate with /6s6$~16t/ (v) : laøm baïn vôùi, quen vôùi 6. ascetic /6'set1k/ (adj) : khaéc khoå, khoå haïnh 7. Yogi /'j6$91/ (n) : tín ñoà moân phaùi 8. to multiply /'m^lt1pla1/ (v) : taêng leân boäi phaàn ; nhaân leân 9. epidemic diseases /,ep1'dem1k d1's1:z1z/ (n) : beänh dòch truyeàn nhieãm 10. good health /9$d hel8/ (n) : söùc khoûe toát 11. decent society /’d1:sent s6'sa16t1/ (n) : xaõ hoäi laønh maïnh 12. evil smelling /'1:vl 'smel17/ (n) : hoâi thoái, khoù ngöûi 13. scrupulously /’kru:pj$l6sl1/ (adv) : raát caån thaän, thaän troïng 14. metaphorical /,met6'f4r1kl/ (adj) : chæ veà tyû duï, ví von, ví duï 15. just as...so... (conj) : ñuùng nhö...thì...cuõng vaäy ex. Just as lungs are to the animal, so are the leaves to the plant. Buoàng phoåi coù taùc duïng theá naøo vôùi con vaät thì laù ñoái vôùi caây cuõng ñuùng vaäy. 16. symbol /’s1mbl/ (n) : daáu hieäu tieâu bieåu 17. the Psalmist /'s@:m1st/ (n) : chæ Vua David trong Kinh Thaùnh
  15. 8. THE POWER OF THE PRESS SÖÙC MAÏNH CUÛA BAÙO CHÍ OUTLINE 1. Modern power of the press based on1 spread of education2 2. Newspapers mould3 public opinion4. 3. The press through public opinion controls the Government. 4. This power may be used for good or evil. 5. A commercialised press tends to evil. The power of the press in any country depends on the number of newspaper readers ; and this, in turn, depends on the spread of education. Where readers are few newspapers must be few, and can appeal5 directly to only a small minority of the population. In a country like England, where even the poorest workingman can read, the reading public6 is practically the whole nation. Hence the large number of newspapers and their great influence on public opinion. Now the great majority7 of newspaper readers are uncritical8. Only a few think for themselves, and form their own opinions. Most accept what they read without question, and take their opinions ready make from their favourite10 papers. Newspapers therefore mould public opinion. In democratic countries where by the system of election and representation11 the people control the government, public opinion is the chief power. No democratic government will have to yield13 to public opinion, or be driven out of office14. It is therefore obvious that, if the press controls public opinion, and public opinion controls the government, the press ultimately controls the government. Such is the political power of the press. The pen is indeed mightier than the sword15. This great power may be used for good or evil. If the great newspapers are serious16, disinterested and clean, and give their readers a wise and courageous and lofty lead17 on great national questions, the power of the press will be a blessing. But if the papers are frivolous18, prejudiced and corrupt, and pander19 to the worst tastes of the people by filling their pages with scandal20 and sensationalism21 their influence must be bad, and even disastrous22. The commercialising23 of the modern press is an evil. A newspaper is a business concern24 and is meant to sell, to get a large sale, it must give its readers what they want. And the more extreme and sensational and excit-ing it is, the better it will sell. It therefore cannot afford to be lofty and serious and moderate. A country that has an independent and clean press, is blessed indeed. ÔÛ baát cöù nöôùc naøo, söùc maïnh baùo chí tuøy thuoäc soá löôïng ñoäc giaû. Ñieàu naøy coøn tuøy ôû aûnh höôûng giaùo duïc cuûa baùo. Nôi coù ít ñoäc giaû, neân phaân phoái baùo ít ôû nôi ñoù, vaø coù theå loâi cuoán tröïc tieáp ñoái vôùi moät boä phaän daân chuùng thieáu soá nhoû. Nhö ôû nöôùc Anh, thaäm chí ngöôøi coâng daân ngheøo nhaát cuõng ñoïc baùo. Thöïc teá ñoäc giaû laø toaøn boä daân chuùng. Do ñoù con soá lôùn baùo chí vaø taùc ñoäng lôùn lao cuûa noù leân yù kieán quaàn chuùng. Ngaøy nay, ña soá caùc ñoäc giaû ñeàu khoâng thích pheâ bình. Chæ coù moät soá ít ngöôøi nghó veà hoï, ñöa ra yù kieán rieâng. Haàu heát hoï ñeàu chaáp nhaän nhöõng thoâng tin hoï ñoïc maø khoâng neâu caâu hoûi vaø ñöa ra lyù do hoï thích baùo naøo nhaát. Vì vaäy baùo chí un ñuùc yù kieán cuûa quaàn chuùng.
  16. ÔÛ caùc nöôùc daân chuû coù theá ñoä baàu cöû vaø quyeàn ñaïi bieåu, nhaân daân kieåm soaùt nhaø nöôùc, yù kieán cuûa quaàn chuùng laø söùc maïnh chính. Khoâng coù moät chính phuû daân chuû naøo laïi phaûi nhöôïng boä yù kieán quaàn chuùng, hay bò caùch chöùc. Do ñoù, coù moät ñieàu roõ raøng raèng neáu baùo chí kieåm soaùt dö luaän, vaø dö luaän kieåm soaùt nhaø nöôùc, thì baùo chí ít ra kieåm soaùt ñöôïc nhaø nöôùc. Ñaây chính laø söùc maïnh chính trò cuûa baùo chí. Caây buùt quaû thaät beùn hôn göôm ! Söùc maïnh lôùn lao naøy coù theå duøng vaøo vieäc toát hay toäi aùc. Neáu baùo chí nghieâm tuùc, trong saïch, khoâng vì lôïi nhuaän, ñem laïi cho ñoäc giaû löôïng kieán thöùc khoân ngoan duõng caûm vaø laø ngöôøi daãn ñaàu veà nhöõng vaán ñeà ñaïi söï cuûa quoác gia. Luùc ñoù söùc maïnh cuûa baùo chí raát lôùn. Nhöng neáu baùo chí coù noäi dung taàm thöôøng, vôù vaån, taïo thaønh kieán, hoái loä vaø chieàu theo nhöõng yù thích xaáu xa vôùi ñaày raãy nhöõng vuï tai tieáng, tình duïc. Noù coù aûnh höôûng xaáu, thaäm chí tai haïi. Vieäc thöông maïi hoùa ngaønh baùo chí hieän ñaïi laø moät toäi aùc. Moãi moät tôø baùo laø moät haõng buoân, coù nghóa raèng phaûi baùn ñeå coù moät soá löôïng lôùn. Baùo chí phaûi ñem laïi cho ñoäc giaû nhöõng gì hoï muoán ñoïc. Tôø baùo caøng chöùa ñöïng noäi dung hay, phong phuù, caøng kích thích ngöôøi ñoïc, baùo baùn caøng chaïy. Vì vaäy baùo chí khoâng theå mang tö töôûng cao quyù, nghieâm trang vaø ñuùng möïc. Moät nöôùc coù neàn baùo chí trong saïch vaø ñoäc laäp quaû thaät raát quí baùu!. TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. based on (upon) /be1sd on/ (conj) : caên cöù vaøo 2. spread of education : söï phoå caäp giaùo duïc 3. to mould /m6$ld/ (v) : taïo thaønh ; naën theo khuoân 4. public opinion /'p^bl1k 6'p1nj6n/ (n) : dö luaän, coâng luaän 5. to appeal /6'p1:l/ (v) : keâu goïi ex. The countries involved appealed to arms. Nhöõng quoác gia lieân quan ñaõ toång ñoäng vieân. 6. the reading public /'r1:d17 'p^bl1k/ (n) : ñoäc giaû (noùi chung) 7. the great majority /9re1t m6'd24r6t1/ (n) : ñaïi ña soá - minority : thieåu soá 8. uncritical /,^n'kr1t1kl/ (adj) : khoâng thích pheâ bình 9. ready made /red1 me1d/ (adj) : laøm saün 10. favourite /'fe1v6r1t/ (adj) : ñöôïc öa chuoäng nhaát 11. representation /,repr1zen'te1~n/ (n) : quyeàn ñaïi bieåu, ñaïi nghò cheá 12. sooner or later : sôùm muoän, chaúng choùng thì chaày 13. to yield /j1:ld/ (v) : nhöôïng boä ; phuïc toøng ; laøm theo 14. cut of office : khoâng coøn taïò chöùc. 15. The pen is mightier than the sword : ngoøi buùt coøn maïnh hôn thanh kieám 16. serious /'s16r16s/ (adj) : ñöùng ñaén ; nghieâm trang ; ñaøng hoaøng 17. lead /l1:d/ (n) : söï daån ñaàu, laõnh ñaïo ex. to take the lead : laõnh ñaïo. 18. frivolous /'fr1v6l6s/ (adj) : taàm thöôøng, phuø phieám, vôù vaån 19. to pander /'p%nd6/ (v) : chieàu theo (thò hieáu cuûa ñoäc giaû) 20. scandal /'sk%ndl/ (n) : chuyeän tai tieáng, chuyeän khoâng ñöùng ñaén 21. sensationalism /sen'se1~6n6li6m/ (n) : söï gaây "giaät gaân" (cho ñoäc giaû) 22. disastrous /d1'z@:str6s/ (adj) : tai haïi 23. commercializing /k6'm3:~6la1z17/ (n) : vieäc thöông maïi hoùa 24. business concern /'b1zn1s k6n's3:n/ (n) : haõng buoân, thöông ñieám 25. to afford /6'f0:d/ (v) : chòu ñöïng ; coù khaû naêng
  17. 9. THE FOLLY OF LISTENING TO IDLE RUMOUR NGHE TIN ÑOÀN NHAÛM LAØ MOÄT TRONG NHÖÕNG CAÙI DAÏI CUÛA CON NGÖÔØI OUTLINE 1. Idle rumour, which is responsible for so much mischief, is spread by credulous1 hearers. 2. Rumour exaggerates trivial2 and innocent things into portentous3 evils. 3. Our duty is to be crilical4, and to refuse to accept or pass on, stories until we have verified5 them. Idle gossip and irresponsible chatter6 do an immense amount of mischief. They often lead to7 the breaking up of friendships, to unjust prejudice, to loss of reputation, to any amount of sorrow and suffering, and even to ruin. But idle rumours could do no harm if there were not a large number of credulous people who accept all they hear, and pass it on to others in a still more exaggerated8 and distorted9 form. If there were no receivers of stolen goods, there would be fewer thieves ; and if there were no silly and credulous people, there would be fewer gossip mongers10. It is wonderful how a rumour grows. A traveller, says an old story, walking along a road at night, noticed a glow-worm shining in a hedge near a haystack. Soon after, he met a man and told him what he had seen, adding that at first he thought the light was a burning match. This man told another that a traveller had seen a burning match near a haystack, and that there was a danger of the haystack getting on fire, When the next report of the incident was made, it was that the haystack was on fire, and there was danger of the farm-house catching fire too Finally, this story was that the farm house was burnt down and all the inmates11 suffocated12. And all this arose out of the traveller's simple remark that a glow worm's light looked like a burning match ! Knowing, then how stories get exaggerated, and what harm false and silly rumours do, we should keep an open mind and cultivate a critical attitude. When some one tells us a story against another (for rumours are generally evil), we should ask ourselves three questions. First is our informant13 in a position to know the facts at first hand14 ? Second, is he a man whose word can be relied on ? Third, has he any motive, such as personal spite, to make up or exaggerate such a discreditable story ? In nine cases out of ten15 we shall find that our informant is either repeating second hand gossip, or he is a man who is known to exaggerate or distort what he hears, or that he has some private motive for inventing, or exaggerating, the story. In which case, our duty is to suspend16 judgment and keep the matter to ourselves until we can verify its truth. Vieäc ngoài leâ ñoâi maùch vaø chuyeän phieám voâ thöøa nhaän gaây ra khoâng bieát bao nhieâu ñieàu phieàn luïy. Chuùng thöôøng daãn ñeán ñoå vôõ tình baïn, ñöa ñeán thaønh kieán khoâng chính ñaùng, laøm toån haïi danh tieáng, laøm buoàn raàu khoå ñau, thaäm chí laøm tan naùt. Tuy nhieân nhöõng lôøi ñoàn voâ caên cöù seõ voâ haïi neáu khoâng coù nhöõng con ngöôøi nheï daï deã tin roài laïi truyeàn tin cho ngöôøi khaùc coù phoùng ñaïi theâm, thaäm chí coøn xuyeân taïc. Neáu khoâng coù nhöõng ngöôøi nhaän haøng aên caép ñöôïc, seõ coøn laïi ít troäm cöôùp hôn. Vaø neáu khoâng coù nhöõng ngöôøi voâ duyeân caû tin seõ coù ít keû ngoài leâ ñoâi maùch. Thaät lyù thuù khi lôøi ñoàn ñaïi ngaøy moät taêng. Moät khaùch du lòch ñang böôùc doïc con ñöôøng trong ñeâm khuya, nhìn thaáy moät ñoám saùng röïc ñang chieáu saùng gaàn ñoáng coû khoâ. Laùt sau oâng gaëp moät ngöôøi ñaøn oâng, noùi vôùi oâng ta nhöõng gì oâng vöøa nhìn thaáy coù theâm thaét raèng
  18. luùc ñaàu oâng nghó laø aùnh saùng phaùt ra töø que dieâm ñang chaùy. Ngöôøi naøy laïi keå sang cho moät ngöôøi khaùc raèng moät khaùch du lòch ñaõ nhìn thaáy moät que dieâm chaùy gaàn ñoáng rôm khoâ, vaø raèng moái nguy doáng rôm saép baét löûa chaùy. Khi lôøi truyeàn ñaït tieáp ñeán veà söï kieän treân, ñoáng coû khoâ ñang chaùy, moái nguy laø noâ ng traïi cuõng seõ beùn löûa. Cuoái cuøng caâu chuyeän ñöôïc truyeàn raèng ngoâi nhaø ñaõ chaùy ruïi vaø toaøn boä ngöôøi nhaø ñaõ cheát ngaït. Toaøn boä caâu chuyeän naøy vöôït ra ngoaøi lôøi nhaän xeùt thuaàn tuùy cuûa khaùch du lòch raèng ñoù laø moät ñoám saùng troâng gioáng nhö que dieâm ñang chaùy ! Ñeå bieát ñöôïc caâu chuyeän ñöôïc cöôøng ñieäu nhö theá naøo cuõng nhö lôøi ñoàn sai, voâ caên cöù gaây taùc haïi gì, chuùng ta phaûi môû roäng trí oùc, nuoâi döôõng moät caùi nhìn pheâ phaùn. Ñoâi khi ai ñoù keå chuùng ta moät caâu chuyeän khoâng hay veà ngöôøi khaùc (vì lôøi ñoàn ñaïi noùi chung ñeàu laø nhöõng lôøi noùi xaáu). Chuùng ta phaûi bieát töï hoûi ba caâu hoûi sau. Tröôùc tieân ngöôøi ñöa tin coù bieát tin töùc ñoù tröïc tieáp hay khoâng ? Thöù hai, lieäu tin töùc cuûa anh ta coù caên cöù hay khoâng ? Vaø thöù ba, xem anh ta coù ñoäng löïc naøo noùi leân nhöõng lôøi ñoù khoâng ? Chaúng haïn loøng haän thuø caù nhaân taïo neân hay cöôøng ñieäu caâu chuyeän ñoù ? Chín trong möôøi tröôøng hôïp cho thaáy ngöôøi phao tin hoaëc laëp laïi tin töùc cuõ, neáu khoâng anh ta phaûi laø ngöôøi hay cöôøng ñieäu caâu chuyeän hoaëc boùp meùo nhöõng gì nghe ñöôïc. Hoaëc anh ta coù moät ñoäng löïc caù nhaân ñeå döïng neân caâu chuyeän môùi hay thoåi phoàng caâu chuyeän leân. Trong moãi tröôøng hôïp naøy coâng vieäc cuûa chuùng ta laø phaûi hoaõn laïi nhöõng lôøi nhaän xeùt vaø giöõ vaán ñeà cho ñeán khi xaùc ñònh noù laø ñuùng söï thaät !. TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. credulous /’kredjul6s/ (adj) : deã tin ngöôøi, hay tin, caû tin 2. trivial /’tr1v16l/ (adj) : taàm thöôøng ; nhoû nhoi 3. portentous /p0:'tent6s/ (adj) : ñaùng sôï, khuûng khieáp 4. critical /’kr1t1kl/ (adj) : thích pheâ bình, pheâ phaùn 5. to verify /ver1fa1/ (v) : xaùc ñònh, chöùng minh ; kieåm chöùng 6. chatter /’t~%t6(r)/ (n) : chuyeän phieám, chuyeän ba hoa 7. to lead to /l1:d/ (v) : daãn tôùi 8. exaggerated (p. a) /19'z%d26re1t1d/ (adj) : (ñöôïc) phoùng ñaïi, theâu deät theâm 9. distorted (p. a) /d1'st4:t1d/ (adj) : bò meùo moù, xuyeân taïc 10. gossip monger /'94s1p 'm^796/ (n) : keû phao tin ñoàn 11. inmate /'1nme1t/ (n) : ngöôøi ôû cuøng nhaø 12. suffocated (p. a) /'s^f6ke1t1d/ (adj) : bò ngheïn thôû ; cheát vì ngaït hôi 13. informant /1n'f0:m6nt/ (n) : keû ñöa tin, keû truyeàn tin 14. first hand /f3:st h%nd/ : tröïc tieáp (nhaän ñöôïc) 15. in nine cases out of ten : chín trong möôøi tröôøng hôïp 16. to suspend /s6'spend/ (v) : hoaõn laïi
  19. 10. HOLIDAYS CAÙC KYØ NGHÆ OULINE 1. The necessity of holidays. 2. The abuse of holidays. 3. The ringht use of holidays. There is not much need of proving to most schoolboys that holidays are necessary. They are quite convinced1 that they are and most desirable too. They welcome a holiday from school with hilarious2 joy, and plague3 the headmaster on the least excuse to let them off their lessons. It would be more in place4 to try to convince5 them of the necessity of work and study. Yet it may be desirable to show that regular intervals6 of rest, recreation, or a change of occupation, are really necessary. As the old rhyme7 says, "All work and no play, Makes Jack a dull boy." Holidays at proper intervals are especially necessary for young people, and for those engaged8 in hard mental work ; for continuous work, without a break, will injure the health, and may cause a nervous break down9. A short holiday, rightly used, will send us back to our work with renewed zest ans vigour. "Rightly used." It all depends upon that. For holidays may be abused. If the holidays is spent in stupid idlenes, or in an exhausting round10 of exciting amusements, or shut up in close stuffy11 rooms drinking and playing, or in any other unhealthy way, the boy or man will come back to his work tired, listless12, and uninterested. The holiday, instead of doing good, has done harm,-much more harm than steady work could ever do. How can a holiday, then be best used, so that at the end of it we shall come back to our work with energies13 renewed and interest keener than ever ? If we are students, or have been shut up in stuffy offices, we should get away into the pure air of the country and live a healthy, open-air life14, enjoying games or sports. We should avoid unhealthy amusements, keep early hours15 and get plenty of refreshing sleep. And we should not be completely idle. Change of occupation is a rest, And if we have a little regular word to do, work that we take an interest in17, it will make our holiday not only healthier, but more enjoyable. Khoâng caàn chöùng minh raèng kì nghæ heø raát quan troïng ñoái vôùi toaøn boä hoïc sinh nam bôûi lí leõ ñaày söùc thuyeát phuïc raèng hoïc sinh nam coù nhieàu mong muoán nhaát. Chuùng chaøo ñoùn moät ngaøy nghæ ôû tröôøng vôùi nieàm vui ñaày hôùn hôû, vaø laøm thaày hieäu tröôûng phaûi taûng lôø cho pheùp chuùng nghæ hoïc. Coá gaéng thuyeát phuïc vôùi chuùng raèng laøm vieäc vaø hoïc hoûi laø ñieàu quan troïng. Tuy nhieân vaãn bieåu hieän moät öôùc muoán veà khoaûng caùch nghæ ngôi ñeàu ñaën, söï tieâu khieån hay söï thay ñoåi ngheà nghieäp ñeàu thaät söï caàn thieát. Nhö vaàn thô cuõ coù noùi. "Laøm vieäc maø khoâng chôi Seõ bieán caäu beù Jack thaønh moät ngöôøi ngu". Kyø nghæ heø ñuùng vôùi thôøi ñieåm cuûa noù raát caàn thieát cho thanh nieân vaø cho nhöõng ai lao ñoäng baèng trí oùc meät nhoïc, ñeå tieáp tuïc laøm vieäc maø khoâng bò giaùn ñoaïn laøm aûnh höôûng ñeán söùc khoûe, coù theå gaây neân suy suïp tinh thaàn. Moät ngaøy nghæ ít oûi phaûi ñöôïc taän duïng trieät ñeå, seõ ñöa chuùng ta trôû laïi coâng vieäc vôùi nieàm say meâ môùi ñaày höùng thuù !. "Haõy taän
  20. duïng trieät ñeå". Taát caû ñeàu leä thuoäc noù. Nhöõng ngaøy nghæ heø coù theå bò laïm duïng. Do vaäy neáu kyø nghæ ñöôïc tieâu khieån khoâng thaän troïng hay trong moâi tröôøng meät laû cuûa nhöõng troø vui chôi höùng thuù hay töï nhoát mình trong caên phoøng ngoät ngaït uoáng röôïu, chôi bôøi, hoaëc trong nhöõng caùch khoâng laønh maïnh ngöôøi ta seõ quay trôû laïi coâng vieäc goø boù, chaùn naûn, thieáu haøo höùng. Kyø nghæ, thay vì laøm vieäc toát, laïi laøm ñieàu tai haïi hôn coâng vieäc beàn bæ maø ñaõ töøng laøm. Moät ngaøy nghæ heø söû duïng nhö theá naøo ñeå ñöôïc toát nhaát ñeå cuoái cuøng chuùng ta seõ trôû laïi coâng vieäc cuûa mình vôùi naêng löôïng môùi vôùi loøng quan taâm say meâ hôn bao giôø heát ? Neáu chuùng ta laø sinh vieân hay bò nhoát trong moät vaên phoøng ngoät ngaït. Chuùng ta seõ toáng khoâng khí naøy vaøo luoàng khoâng khí trong laønh ôû mieàn queâ vaø soáng moät cuoäc soáng ngoaøi trôøi laønh maïnh, chôi caùc troø chôi vaø caùc moân theå thao. Chuùng ta phaûi traùnh caùc hoaït ñoäng khoâng laønh maïnh, nguû sôùm daäy sôùm, nguû thaät nhieàu thaät saâu, vaø khoâng ñöôïc nhaøn roãi quaù. Haõy thay ñoåi coâng vieäc nhö moät söï nghæ ngôi. Vaø neáu chuùng ta coù moät coâng vieäc laøm thöôøng xuyeân ít oûi, haõy laøm noù khi thaáy höùng thuù. Ñieàu ñoù seõ laøm cho kyø nghæ cuûa chuùng ta theâm laønh maïnh vaø vui töôi !. TÖØ MÔÙI : 1. convined (p. a) /k6n'v1nt/ (adj) : tin vöõng vaøng ; ñöôïc thuyeát phuïc 2. hilarious /h1'le6r16s/ (adj) : vui veû, hôùn hôû, töng böøng 3. to plague /ple19/ (v) : quaáy raày, laøm phieàn 4. in place /1n ple1s/ : thích hôïp 5. to convince /k6n'v1ns/ (v) : thuyeát phuïc, laøm cho tin phuïc 6. interval /1nt6vl/ (n) : khoaûng thôøi gian ; khoaûng caùch quaõng 7. rhyme (hoaëc : rime) /ra1m/ (n) : vaàn (trong thô) 8. engaged (p. a) /1n'9e1d2d/ (adj) : baän ex. He is engaged in writing a book. 9. break down /'bre1k da$n/ (n) : söï suy nhöôïc 10. round /ra$nd/ (n) : moät hoài, moät loaït 11. stuffy /'st^f1/ (adj) : bí thôû, ngoät ngaït 12. listless /l1stl6s/ (adj) : chaùn naûn, khoâng thaáy haøo höùng 13. energy /'en6d21/ (n) : nghò löïc, naêng löïc ex. Atomic energy : naêng löôïng nguyeân töû. 14. open-air life : ñôøi soáng ngoaøi trôøi 15. to keep early hours : nguû sôùm, daäy sôùm 16. refreshing /r1'fre~17/ (adj) : saûng khoaùi, khoan khoaùi 17. to take an interest in : thaáy thích thuù trong vieäc...
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