The development of a bipolar technology for integrated circuits (ICs) went hand in hand with the steady
improvement in semiconductor materials and discrete components during the 1950s and 1960s. Consequently,
silicon bipolar technology formed the basis for the IC market during the 1970s. As circuit
dimensions shrink, the MOSFET (or MOS) has gradually taken over as the major technological platform
for silicon ICs. The main reasons are the ease of miniaturization and high yield for MOS compared with
bipolar technology. For VLSI circuits the low standby power of complementary MOS (CMOS) gates is
a significant advantage compared with integrated bipolar circuits....