Thiết kế mạch điện tử máy tính

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Thiết kế mạch điện tử máy tính

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  1. 7 TRUONG DAI HQC BAcH KHOA HA Nor LlNH GIANG /' K
  2. • TRUONG D~I HQC BAcH KHOA HA N(n NGUYEN LINH GIANG , A' -' THIET KE HBANG MAy TiNH • Giao trluh cho sinh vien Cong ngh~ Thong tin, I)i~n tit Vien thong ... cae truOng d~i hQc, cao dfing ky thu~t... thuQc cae h~ dolo t.w , NHA. XU'\T nAN KHOA HOC vA KY THUST HA N(JI
  3. 6-6C2-01-6T7.3 -----113-244-03 KHKT-03
  4. Uri n6i dilu ClIng nii .\'1/ ,i('// h(1 ella khoa !rec k.v fhlll)t, l'i~;c 11/ d(Jtlg h()(l rhie'" k( ("{Ie m(lch di~1I fl'( drillg nI(Jr \'(/i lui qllall hellg '/"o/lg "/(;(" tlllle del)' Sf.'" pil(I' tri/n ".f rllll(l{ tilllt (mill. TII'I11117)lg IIdm 50 n;a lilt k)" 20, (III(/ 161111 pluff/ric'll k} rllll(tt di~;11 fir dd qlla Jlhi/u giai do(w: 1/( IIllling b/i/Ig dhl di~;11 /If'd6! nlurllg h/mg /)(111 deln, qua IIltirllg nlWh licli IWp IIlId r6i {(il llliii'lig mwh \'(1'/ nl/lt d() Ifcit IWp!/fIl I't/ sihr 1/111. NIIII)lg nlWh licit IWp loai 1/(1), CfY fli/ ell/'(O itdllg 1ri~;11 finl! kii;'11 h/m d/i/l (FCII nl(J{ II1Wh. \ 'f (il.l di(;'1 flil/II h, ("lIe h(! )'i XII' '-". Vi('(' lf1i(" k( /lll/l'lIg mach l'I)'/ d(i tidl it(IP hl/l \'(/ S/('II I!J"f/ k!/{)/lg 111/ ///1/(' hi~;11 nl()t ('(leI! tllli C/jng. /lid plu;i u; Sl/ Xilip (hY (,Iiu mciy lillh. SUII f1l()/ .1'/;' lIlinl guing d~IY nUJ/I hee 'Till'" I,j nrw-II 1/1/(')' nUlv Ifnll" t~li Klloa CrJng Ilg/i¢ TII/mg till, TI'II/)'n,!!, D(li h(lc H(icil kho(l Hti N()i, Il'hl ('(/ sri Tlwm khdo kilili nghi¢nr gidng d~ly Clio ('(Ie ci(ing IIglli{'p I'({ cdc tlli 1i~'11 !1r1l(!C flllh 1'1,11 lIay, ell/ilig IrJl hiL;1IS()(III gido trillil c/to /Jujll hpc II(IY, nh/im (,illig (,(I{) till li~;11 tllOm I-Iu/o clio sil/II I'h'lI ('1111.\'('/1 IIgilllh C/Jllg IIgh~' TJU)/lg lill, Di~'11 tlrVitll tll/lllg I'd 1I11I(I:g (Ii (II/Ifil (tim tim hilu limon Ii(H' Irc'lI, "j rollg CII(;'II s(leh I/(I.\' ellllJlg t(ii Iril/It hay nlc giw doqn qllWI !r(ln:.; lrung (/1/(/ Irin/r {hie" k(j'I'd .will XI/(I! cdc mw'lI tleh l/(ir tmllg ('(illg IIghi~;fJ, Qml trillil 1/(/-,,: hao g(JJ1l ('(Ie /JI(//{' IIlIi hill" IUla m(lch tn'/! CUI' nll(c d(j chi lu't kll(ic 111/((11, xciy dl.olg mwh 1'(/ ki/m IIglli~;1II IlI(ICII, Clllillg I{)i kluJ/lg tlwI!! I'ellg Irinlr hdy IJr 01 C(1e 1'(111 £1/ lie'll qllall I()'I lett oj cdc gilli d()~1/1 ('[ia qil(l Irinit .\'(III.rJ/(/{ IIId ellli Y(';' {(Ie trill/g 1'(/0 111 'I ,I()' CI)/lg d()~fiI: Tlli(it k/ Ill/I hilll! !UJ(I tlwch I'd ki/m !lghi~;m {filII (hing dt/II nia Ihic;, k/ Trhl gUli d()~111 1176 hi/lft !U)(/, lrollg 1111/(' t/ ('(J IIllItll /'<.;/ill IIgl7' OJ Iht'dll'(!C Sir dllllg 111111' SPICt:, VFRILOG, VIIDL .. , sOllg cluillg /1'1 r~ifJ !/'IIlIg I'c/O trill It bdy IIg/j/lllgll'\/HDL trong gi(io Irillli lillY, !Nfi nglJII ngtr VIIDL ld tIl(Jt IIg/J1I IIgii' OJ tillfl C{/II tl'lle ('(lO, M(JI d{ic dilm (/1/(/11 Ir(!I('<; Clia IIg01l IIgll' \--HDI. Id /I() clIO p!tL;fJ flU) lei' tfllL'! At" Tileo 11111/11 tlllit d(j ('iti !ie'; kh(IC 1111(111 - ll/' nl/rc ki(',1 tl'l/e d(',1 ('(IC cdll Inie I'd ti(ing cI/i' 1i~;II. Vri'i nhii)lg 11'11 di/m IIdy, Ilg/)II IIgii'FJlDL clIO phL'P xci)' dl/Ilg C(IC Ihidf k(mwh III' 1(/lIg qlUfT dJlI clll li(", clIO pl/('p IIhd Thief /':(UI Ih/ liMn fII(;T (,(lell /('{lIg the>" qwi trin/t thit'! k( I'd: gilip clto qWI Trinh ki/m Ira tfl/It tiling ddll uta titil'! Af dl!'(!c de ddllg. Cltfilit llit(1 \'~IY md IIg()n ngii'VHDL 3
  5. dll(iC Sir dUllg r(!lIg n7i [rollg djl/g IIghir'p ehe'I(Jo mwh di~;1/ III' (,(J de) rich It~)j) C([O . f\"IUfll ((If) ('11(/11 S(lefl dWfC .rudt hdll, dUIl/g I()i .rill clUJII IIie/1I1! ni//1 (m . SI/ ,l!.()jJ .~' cllcllI tillli CI/O Ule "~III ddllg IIghi~;p (rollg B(j /}/(J/I Kv tllII~jf Mel.\" linlt, KI/Oo C611g IIgh~; Tht'illg rill Trtl/iIIg D{li Ii~)c D(Ic/t kho(l flil N()i. D()-n,~ [f/(Ji, ell/il/g I()i Cllllg c//(111 11/(11111 ('(im (ill SI/ kllll.W'/1 khicfl l'rlf{1O c/I/II ki~'1/ Clio Nlui XI/crt bdil Khoo flee I'd K)~ flllldt dl CWil1 Sikh /1(1)" .\,()'m dl({lc ra el()'i. CUr// Cling cluillg t(11 I/IOllg IIh~JI/ dWfC Sl/ cI(l/lg g()p ql(~' ball Cliu cdc b(1I1 d(}'lIg IIglii~'p 1'(1 h~1I1 d(){' Xli gd"1I d/lrill {(JI IUIII sail ('I[(}II S(lcit dl(/c hOc/II ehillll /l(iII. T,le gia TS. N~uycn Linh G-i:mg 4
  6. MI,lC ll,lC Trang LO'j noi dati Chlwng I. Ma dati vao thiet kc In<:,ch vi di¢n tu 7 *1.1. Cae pl1[lll d(x~n trong thiet kc d.c mach lfeh lwp 7, ~ 1.2. :\16 hlnh hoa nwch di¢n III ~ 1.3. T6ng hQP va 'oi uu hoa 111'-.lCh dung Imi), tinh 12 Chuang II. Co' sit toan h<;lc IY *2.1. f)~.li so Bool YU I}' thuyct chuyen mt.teh 19 ~2.2. Cae h~un logic va d'.lIlg chufln uk 22 *2.3. T6i thicu h6a de bieu Ihue logic 27 Clllwn~ III. Co so ella thiCt kc logic :t'i *3.1. D.)c diem cLIa qu!.! trlnh thic"t kc m~\ch miiy tinh 35 *3.2. Cae phan IU logic C0 ban 40 ~3.3. Thiel ke d.e nwch t6 hQ'p '-1-3 *3.4. Nh(l'ng \'un de khi thie'l ke mach to hqp 51 *3.5. Thiel ke cae mt.teh tuan tl! 54 *3.6. Nhung van de khi lhi~-t ke Ci.lc m<',lch tufin t~r 67 Chuong IV. NhO:ng khai ni~m chung ,"'c mb hloh hoa phan 77 drng *4.1. M6 hlnh hoa philn cung 77 ~4.2. Otc ngon ngu m6 hinh hoa phun cu:ng 78 ~4.3. Otc mo hiBh tnlu tuqng 87 Chtwng V. eric phuong phap mt> hlnh hoa logic 95 ~5 .1. Co sa ma hillh hoa logic 97 ~5.2. Phuong phip ma hinh hoa hi en djch 106 §5.3. Phuong phip mo hlnh hOil hu6ng sl! ki4n I II 5
  7. ~5.4. M(l hlnh hoa qua trlnh tre tin hi¢u trong cae philo tLr 1T1i.Kh 115 ~5.5. M6 hlnh hoa tren mtre cae phan tV logie 114 Chll"tJllg VI. I'oigon ngu ml> hinh hoa VHOL 131 96.1. ~vll~ <.UtU ng<.'m ngO VUOL 131 ~6.2. Cic c:{u truc co so trang VHOL 136 ~6.3. Cae kie'u dO ll('u 153 ~6.4. Toao tv\';1 bic'u thue 162 ~6.5. etc cAu true tuiin tv 171 ~6.6. Dic cilu true song . ..,ong 1X7 ~6.7. Cic chu"Ong trlnh con Vil cae goi clnwng trlnh 196 Chmmg VIl. ~lo hlnh hoa m~.lch bill1g ng(ln ngu VHUL 207 ~7 .1. ~vl0 hlnh hoa Iren mile crlu true 207 ~7.2. \16 hlnh hoa trC:n ll1Lrc thanh ghi truycn dq.t 219 ~7 .3. ~16 hlnh hoa de 610111<11 hiJu Iwn 231 Chmmg VIll. C{IC phuong ph,ip kic'm tra loi ml,lch logic 243 §8.1. Cae 1116 hlnh lui logic 243 §8.2. Bai to;io phat hiGn 16i 250 §8.3. Cie phu<.1ng ph<.lp thu,~t toan tong h<,l"p uk gia tr! thiI nghi¢111 264 ~g.4. PlllfO'ng ph<ip!TI6 hinh h6a 101 277 §8.5. M(l1. so pilU'0ng phap lam d<.m gian hoa qua trlnh kiem tra phat hi911 16i 288 Tai li~u tham kluio 297 (,
  8. CHUONG I. MO DAU VAO THIET KE M,.,CH VI DI~N Til §1.1. Cae ph:!n do:;t" trung thiet ke cae mach tich hqp SV ra (\i:J'j ella de mach \'i di2n Ill' di'i l:un co' ~h phel! tri~ll phCill cll'll~ \,~I phi-til I1lCIll Cllil de h~ th6ng tillh t,xtn tl'Ong nhl1"ng th(tp k~- g;lll d,ly. Vll'l' \,\ng hen n,le meTe d6 Ifch hqp ella de lll<.lch c1i¢n til' IrcH tnt'll 1ll::11 don d~l dua t6i \'i~c che 1<,10 nhilng I-u; thong \'O'i d(l phdc 1'-.1]1 ngay c~lllg t:Ing COll)! ngh!.,' che I~\O m,~ch Itch heyp tren eel sb' uie chflt han d,ln pluit trj~ll \'U hao. T(1i gifb.l nhfrng n[\[11 RO elta the k)' 20 nglf(1i la dil dl lh~ chc tao liU'(,il' llhung \11',lch 1ich h9P chu-a lui h(\I1g tri~u liuh kicn di¢n lU trcn mot lmh the ch~-ll b:ln d,ll1. I\'hU11g llwch dl) duq'C gqi El m'.Icil lich hQ'p cao(VLSl) ho~c \a mi..tell vi cti¢n IU. Vi~c ra dui etla nhung 111'-.leh vi di~n Ill' (hi him nay sinh "~f can Ihid ph,!i co ITIQI phuong ph{ip luan va quy trinh thie't ke'. ehe 1<,tO thieh h9V. Trong eoog nghi~p. v,~c che' t,..tO uie nweh lich IH)p dU'Q"c thL!e IlJ¢n qua hon giai dm~n: • Giai dmm thie't ke. • Giai c1o<',m che' h.W. • Giai do<.~n ki~m tra. • Giai c1m.1I1 dong go!. o giai do,.111 thiel kc. Itr de ehue nang ma me.teh sc tlll.re hi¢n. ('hClng ta x,ly dung mCl hinh ella me.leh tren nhi~u mue de) chi liet khac nhau. Cae muc de) chi tiet co the (hrqc ehia thanh muc kie'n true, mu:e logic, mCre V(lt 15;. Ket qua eLla giai dO<'111 thiet ke la cac rm'l hlnh ella m,wh (El duvc xac lIil(1ll kh6ng ehu:a loi tren phuong di~n thiel kc. Gi<.li <.10<.111 th(r hai iiI giai c1O<.I11 che' h.l0. 6 giai c10,.111 nay, m'.Ich tieh hqp se duqe che \'.10 th..:o dc e(mg ngh¢ eflY ghcp d.e phfin tLf lllC.lCh iClI dIe tinh tht chat bi.in d<'ill btll1g phmmg phap m~11 na che phLI vi'I cong ngh¢ X{IY dung cae mach nhi~u la-po Ke't q\l(i ella giai c1m.l!1 llay lit nhung vi mach time hi~n nhfrng ehLfe n[mg nhu trong thie't kc. Giai doan ba la gi<'lI c1m,1I1 kiem Ira. 6 giai dO<'.111 nay, nhu'ng m',lch d5 che' t"to se dU\J'C kidm nghi¢m ngau nhicn c1d khiing dtnh dll1g l1l<:tch kh6ng ebu:a loi ve m,)! ehe !<;Io. Trang truung hqp co nhilng 10, g(lp nllleu litn c6 the rut ra 7
  9. 1<:6'1 lutlll loi do eo Ih~ la loi lrong qua Irlnh che l<;to. Dl!<I \'aO VI¢C kitm Ira quy Il'lnb eong ngh¢ la e6 Ihe rUI ra ke'l lU(1l1 \'e cae kh,lu c6 Ih~ >;mh ra luI. Cil;\[ doan euai clll1g I~I gml c10an dong g6i. Ll:ic lki de vi mach sc ducfe phfll1 laeh \'il du~jC I,.to Vl') hoe. Trong ehu'ong trlnh ta s2 nghi2n eCru ky giai dm~ll dill! ti2n iii giai duan thict kC. Qua trlnh thic't kc' nie mach vi lti¢n tti lrung cong nghicp c1uqc ehia Elln ba ph;ll1 dOi..ll1: • Mo hlnh h6a. • T()ng hqp vii lai Ull ho'\. • Kl~m nghi¢m vii phi': eilu£ln. Trong do ehung la 1(lp trung vi:1O blli loan m() hlnh hoa maeh \,~I 1611g hl.lp. t6i ll'll ho;i mach. Pluin du~n dUll lien: 1\-11'. hlnh hO{1 giai dm.1i1 n~\y. nh~1 thie't ke X[IY (hyng de mo hinh dIll trllc l11<,lch \'il 6 de ch(re n~lllg ma mi..lell >;is tlll.re hi¢n. Cic mI.) hlnh m;.leh iii c{)1l1:! cu bi(o'u di~n d.e ;' tu'('mg thiel ke. Mo hinh ho,\ el6ng \'al tn) quail lrong Irong LI1II.':1 kc' m:.Ich \'i di¢n ILl' blii \'1 cac m6 hlnh Iii nhung phuong lien mang Ih6ng Lin \'(~ dc mach s0 duue xiI)' d~rng m6t deh Cl) dong VlI ehinh x,ic. Do d6 Ill() hinh e[m ph;ii ehinh x<.i.c. ch[lt ehl' eOng nlur c6 ml['e ell) 16ng quat. trong su6t \'(1 de hl~U c10i w':ii ngl['()"i thiC·'t kc "il may. V{)'i sl,l' phat L["J~n eUd cae k5' Ihu,:tl mo phong, me) hlnh 111<,1ch c6 the duqc xi.ly d~rng treil cO' so' Ciic ngon ngL'i" 1110 l;i ph[in eU:llg HDL (harclwar~ description language>;). Trollg nhicu tnIll'ng hnp, Ciic mo hlnh de) hqa nhu bieu do dong thong tin. so' de) m,.teh V(I 1lll) I;i hinh d'.lI1g hlnh hQc eLla cae d6i tU'(5!lg cung nhu deh sAp xcp cluing Lj'~n Ixin mach dell eo Ihe dUQ'e dllllg d~ hidu <lien m;.Ich. D6i vt'fi llhi}'ng llli,leh co dt) lich h0'P sieu lall do dl) phLi'c t:.lp ella mach n'ft eao nen \'l~e X[IY (h.rn,!! 111l') hinh mach Ihuang Iheo eae IllLrC d() chI li2'1 kh,ic nhau. Dieu d6 elm ph<'sp nglf(\i Ihiel ke' I:~p trung \'aO tung ph,'ln Cl'la mo hinh I;.li 1[l'llg giai dO:.lIl thiet kC:'. Ph;'l11 d()~n hai: Tong hqp va t6i I(lI hila Tl)llg lWp mach iii giai cto'.111 >;;ing I'.l() thCr hai ella qll,i trlllh ll1le-l ke'. ('lal dOi.lI1 dill! lu[m theo cae \' lUl'mg: cllil nh;1 Ihici kc hl1111 111>l1h (hin de kh;ii
  10. ni¢m Y~ 111<.lch Y~I xay dvng nhung mo hlnh sO' h9 dfiu lien ye m'.\'.:I1. Ml.lc dleh ehinh cLla giai dO<;ln t6ng h\Jp mach I~I xfly dVng 1116 hlnh chi liel ella 111<.1ch. v\ dl,l nhu cae chi liel \'C dang hlnh hqe phl,le vu cho cong dO'.I11 Illp nip viI tao vi) bge eho mach. Dicll n~IY d'.lt c1l(.iC thong qua yu.\. trinh xay dung: V~I chfnh xac hm\. thiet kc ti:rng: bu6e trong d6 m0 hlnh truu wq"ng ban diiu dW"iC ngui\i thiet ke chi tiel ho<1. tung bu6c I~p (11 I~p l<:li. Khi thVe hi¢1l qUi. Idnh t6ng Iwp 111'.lch theo dc blfac Gii tie'n m6 hinh, ngu(1i thi('1 kc" dn nillcu thC)ng tin lien quan 16'i cae e(lIlg ngh~ che tao YLI cac phong cach thi(,t kc 1l10ng l11u6n. Ta co Iht thtiy e.lc ehCre nang ella lll<.\eh e6 Iht dge !{Ip \'Cii cae chi tic"t thut hiC'n, trong khi do Cile d~lt1g hi6u dien hinh h~)C ella nwch hO~1ll toi\l1 pliu thU(lC \'LIO cac d;)c tinh ella cemg ngh¢ vi dl,l nhu kfch Ihu6c cLla de d[ry dim IroJlg miKh plll.l thuQe dto cbng nghc ehe' 1•.10. Bai Imin t6i It'U mach IUllll ke"t IWp cll(lt che \'6i bili Imin t(')ng IWp m'.lch. Qu;.i trlnh 16i lilt dOl h(')i phill Il,l''-l chQn nhung chi lict dc djnh eua 1l1i..lell \'()"i ml.lC rlieh lam Hill'; kh,'1 Il~ing ella m'.leh "e phuong <.lJ¢n thie"t ke tuong Crng v6i nhiJng d(l do x,ie djnh. Vai Ir() ella tcii lru IiI n[mg cao chell IUq"ng ella mach dien Hlur tOL uu \'~ chue nan". \'C dj~n ttch, \'C tll1h d~ kiem n"hicm \'i'l . _ b . b , ph,it hi¢ll il')i. ehuc nimg lien quail t6i thl"ii gian rl6 Ilwe hi~n Ill(lt qu(\ trlnh :Xlr I)' th(lJIg tin cung nhlf ~ci IUQ"ng Ih6ng lin c() lh6 dU<;ic XLe Iy trong 111(11 d{1ll Y! Ih(l"i gian. Cilc tlnh n,-mg ella mach Iii anh lur6ng 16n t(1i kha nfulg eanh tranh ella m'.leh trC:n th; trui:5ng. V.tll dc ch{lt Iuong ella n1<,leh cOng !ten qllan t6i kkh Hllr6c cling nhlr di~n tfeh clla n1<,leh. Di¢n Ikh cung IiI d6i Wong cLla 16i uu mach. Kfeh Ihu6e nhl) ella me.lell eho phcp co Ih6 ph.ln b6 nhicu mach tren IIl9t lap. dicu d6 IZlln gli.im gl.l IhLtnh che' lao \'a d6ng g(ll. Trong dmg nghi~p ehe' 1,.\0 chung la Il10l1g muCln c<.'l nhung IhiL::t ke' eho phcp ph.it h:cn 10] \'a x.ie djnh \'i tI'l 16i ella nl<.\eh sau khi ehe' tao. Kh.'t nfmg !lilY. lrong nhicu truil'ng hup, :lJlil imtJ'ng 16n t6'i eh:it IIJ'~l'Ilg ella l11~leh. M(ll tht'H1g ~6 quan trqng lrong \'eln de plUl1 hi¢n loi ella Il1i.\eh li\ ph[ill Inllll loi e6 th6 duo'e ph(11 hien doi ,,6'i mot h() g]a trj thLe nghi¢lll. l\'oi chung, ngU'{Ji thic"t k.c mung mu()n c6 nhung m,.ICh de ki~m nghi¢\D, dieu d{) lam glillll gi(l thLlllil chung: ella qUil tl"lnh ~,\n xuelt. PhilO dOl,l1l 3: Kicm nghi~m "'a phe chmln Qui Iflnh phe chuan m'.lch ILl vi¢c (t,lt dw.IC <'1 m()1 mLre (t() eh(lc eh{lll hop 1)' rang 111<.1ch dicn sc lam \'i¢c dung v6j gi,\ Ihic"t khong c6 loi clie" t,.lo. TrC:n ')
  11. phtlll dm.lI1 nay ml.le dich d~t ra b\ pluii IO<:J.i hI') m9i 16i thi6t kc co the e6 tru6"e klll dua van san xUtlL Qua tflllh phe ehwin mi.lei"t bao g6m vi¢e xdy dl;Ing mo hlnh mo phong mi!eh elva tn~n thiet ke va tlive hi¢n klem Ira. Mo phollg 1l1<;lch bao g6m phii.n tich die dlen bien hanh vi ella !ll~leh di':ll then Ihni gian doi \'6i mQI ho~c nhieu h(J gia trj dAu vao. Qua trlnh Jl)() ph6ng c() the: ,ip dl;lllg tn:n nhicu mue thiet ke kh5.c nhau tuy theo de mue truu tu~mg eLla mo hlnh. §1.2. M6 hlnh hoa m;:tch di~n Mo hinh !TIl.tch la bieu di~n trlru tuqng trang d(j chi ra nhlin" dac linh c . thich hqp mi\ kh6ng c6 nhung chi tiet tmrng (rng. QUii tdnh t6ng ht;1p m<;leh la qua trlnh t~IO m6 hinh Mtl"e kien true 111i.\Ch bal driu Itl nhung bitu dien sa luqe nha!. Cae m6 hlnh duae phun Im.li then cae mLrC dl) mo PC~PC+I Iii triru tuqng Vll de g6c dq quan ~a1. • Cae !TICre d(l 1116 til trtlu tuqng: duqc chi a Fetch (PC) lam ba merc nhu sau: .................... • Mere kien true 6 1I1U'C kie"n wk. mi.lch di¢n duqe tht Muc 16gic hi¢n qua t(lp hqp de thao tic nhu d.c tfnh 10iln tren dfr h¢u, de phep ehuyen dbi \'ll Iruycn thong tin. Vi ell,!, tren mlrc kien true, m~\Ch co the' duqc bi6u dien 1> 1=L8= qua nhu11g mo hlnh tren de ngon ngCr 1116 lil phan cUng. nhung bieu diS luang Mu-c hinh hqe thong tin. I~I • Muc logic 6 m(re logic, Illl.ICh dlen duqc the hl¢n nlHt ti)p hqp dc chu'c nang /(lgic va duqe ehuy6n Ihill1h de ham logic. Vi UI.1. Iren I1lllh 1.1 Ba llllk Ol) tri:ru m(rc logic Illi;lch co the dlflJC bicu uien IlllYn)! biell dicn mach (llen. thong qua cac bicu do ehuyen tl"i..Hlg thai, ulc sa do mi.1Ch logic. to
  12. • Muc hlnh hoc 6 mue hlnh h9C, Im~eh co th~ dUQc bitu dicn nhu t<~p hQp dc d6i tlrqng hlnh h9c. Vi dl) don gian ctia bic'u di~n hlnh h9c e6 the la e:k lop trong mq.eh nhicu lOp, dang vc be ngoai V~l phfm b6 clla dc phfin tu cau thanh Im.leh. • Cae goe d<) quan sat ding dUQ'e ehia thanh ba goc d(): • Goe elC;! hanh vi Goe di} hanh vi mt') t:i de ehde niing eua m<:leh ma kh(lng quan tAm tai vi~c tlwc hi¢n cae dll1c n~Hlg do. • Goe ell) diu true Goe tIC;! diU true 1110 hi mo hlnh m,~eh bang cae th~H1h pld.n CO" b,in ella Im~eh va cae lien ke"t gii1"a de thanh phan d(). • Goe tIt) V1.)t 1)' Goe tIt) V\l.t Iy co lien quan t6i cae d6i tuQ'ng v,~t 1"9 XU[lt hi~n trung thiel k'::. Cae rno hinh co dc Il1de m6 tA truu tu9ng khae nhau v~\ co the el\.fl,l'e a quan sat thco nhung goe <.19 khae nhau. Vi dl}., iTIdc kie'n true theo goc d() hanh vi thl me.lell di¢n l~l tftp hqp c;ic phcp toan va S\..T licn quan glll"i.1 chung v6i nhau, con thl.Oo gt)e d() cAu true thl nweh Iii t~IP hqp de khoi co sa va ute lien k6t, ghep n6i gilia de khai co so do. N0"u xct truO)lg h0P thiet kc" d.e mq.eh ching uQ thl voi d.e mo hlnh trcn muc logiC, g{)C d() hZmh vi co th~ la cac lUll do chuyc'n tqmg tlul.i, con goe de;. diu true la cae ph[in tiT Il)gic V~t c,ic kct noi giua ca.e phun tlr do. M6i quan h¢ giua cae mue d() Huu twmg va uie goc dl) qUan sat C{HI mo hinh duqe bie'u dl~n h,\ng s(} de) ehu Y ell.::t Gajski- Kuhn. G6e dQ h2uiQ vi G7~c de) eAu true r\1UC kie'n true ;/ / lIinh 1.2 ele g(}c do qllan ~al vii d.c llllrc lllO ti trlill tlrong nia blC:u ,\ ,, dien 1110 hillh mach. ,/ Mile hh{h hoe 11
  13. I lInh 1.2 eho ta (htlY rnoi lien h~ giCra cae rn(re hi~u dien m() hlnh \·;t de gae d() quan S(It. 6 muc kien true va l6gic. rno hlnh 1l1'.leh tillro-ng oll"<}e hicu dicn tll<.:o de g6e elt) hiU1h yj V~t ctlu truc, eon 0 Il1li"e hI nil hqe IlH') hlnh thui'mg duqe bicll then qua g6e dQ c:iu true va V(lt IY·. Tr2n hinh 1.3 cho ta d tll.1 \6 dc nnk bieu dlcn ella m6 hlnh bQ xu iy V~I c(le g/lC dQ qUdll ~,'lttuang (mg. 0 lTIlIC kitn true, thea g6e oQ hanh vi, rn6 hinh Iii Uic dong i¢nh Iren ng6n ngiJ mo li\ phfln eung HDL; theo gac d(l cAll true, m6 illllh ban g6m 1.:lr iHJr cae khoi ea sCi nhu h6 t[nh lmill so hQc, h9 (tieu kilien, ... yJ. de lien kc-'t giiJa de ph:in tLr d6, 6 mLre 16gie, thea goe <.19 h~lllh \'1, mo hlnh ban g()ll1 dc so de) ehuyen tf'.lllg Ihiii clla cae ot6mat bieu diclI hm.lt dQllg ella mach: then gae ct() c:\u true. me) hlnh dW)'e hi~u elien btmg de so d6 mi.ll'h 16gie gilra de rh'lll tlt' 16gic e(/ biill. ~~~ G6c dc) h~H1h vi G6c de) Cftll lrllC (,ell' ~------~\1 [fl' ~- I ~ ~ ~~ - - ri WJL I PC~PC+I L Mu-c kicn true Felch (PC) I ADD I I I I Contra I :3> F ~ '"to 0) GW1~ 1 ),," ,) x Mlrc lC)gic (Slale 2) --D---D-' lIinh I.J C~ic IlllfC bi~lI di~lI111() hillh vil [ill' goc ell) qU.lll \iil llfon)'. l'mg. § I.J, Ton.t::: hap \-'a t(ii 1ru hoa mach dim.t::: m:i,v Huh Cil' e{mg (\1 trq giup thiet kc hfmg may tfnh eho ph~p ntmg eao mlng ",uSt thi0't ke', Cie k5' thw.}t Ihiet k6 eho rher gl,llll Ih(ri glall. n:mg eao chu trinh Ihi6t k6 \'(\ giii!l1 e6ng SLre COil nguo-i, Cac ky thu(lt l(ii tru I~l!n I;"mg el1ftt ll((),ng tlli(1 hY. Dn do de ky thU(lt t(;llg hQ'p vu toi u'u hOii 1ll:.lch \'6"i ~V IIV 12
  14. giup ella 1ll.ly linll dUO'e su dung trong hriu he'l de qua trinh IhilYI "-0- 1ll',lCh diell ILl' ,,,6, I. 'U,ng hVp IIW(h di~n ViL:e phtm lo •.1l de m(l hlnh Ih~lJlh cae mu-e IrLI'U ILI'(.mg \';1 CIC g/lC It{) quan ,,:.il eho c1u1ng la phwmg phi.tp xtly dlJng de Ihie"1 k2' tren gtai dO'.I11 16ng 11O'p mi,lCh. (iiai dm.m h:;ng h(,1P maeh e(l Ihe d\I(J'C p!l[lJ\ ehla Ih~lllh Gle ph.tn dO'.Il1 -",IU: T()ng l1\rp d Illll"c kic'n Irue ban gClm vi~e t',IO ra g6e d() Cill Ink eLla me) hlllh 0' mue kien tnle. Dieu [\;lj IU'lmg vuong H1i \'icc X,{lC dmh \'~I phil!! de c1uic n{wg elm mach Ihi'tnh de ph0p 10,ln. etc pll0p to,tn n~ly du{ye g0i IiI 6i nguyen ella Ihiel kC:. Tmllg nHl hlnh cung bao g6m e.1 dc kc'l n6i giCfil de phcp 10.11\ <I trinh Itr Ihu'l' hi~n. Philn doan ll~IY IllLl'(mg duqe gQI IiI (('lng hop (\ Illl're L'<I() h<l\' ICing IH,rp eAu true VI (1 d{) ngu'i)"i lhiel kc phJ.i de d!nh C;'IC du lrue \'J m(l ( tren ll1lfe d() dc -;0 d6 khoi ) eLla ]11'.Ich. 'U;ng h~1p d rnlIe k)gie IiI ph[m do,,111 1,.10 ra g6e d() C<lU Ink ella Illl) hinh (~ mlrc 16gie. l\~l1g hqp logic hao g6111 de Ihao I,le sLJ' dung ky Ihu(ll logic de' 1,.10 nen J11() hlob logIc. M6 hlnh n~IY g6m e{) e,\c ph,In III l6gic co· bin \'a kel 116i giO'a eie ph.:in Ill' d6. Nluf \':1)' bu6e long hap 16gic Et hU"l_)-c x,ie dinh c[['u Irue \'j m(l ( t'), Il1lfC de ph:ill It! 1()gIC cO h{1l1 ) clla lll',Kh. U1I1g \'l¢e ehuycn d6i 1110 hlnh It'lgie Ih~l!lh de h:0'1 neii gi[j'a de ph:in I(f dUc,fC m(J t.1 Imllg lllll' \'i¢n die pll[!l1 ILl' cO" ~O' Iluri:l'ng gqj I~I ,[nh \<.1 c{)]I); nghc hay 1,'1 lien kc'l Ihen IllU' viC:n. T(lng hqp (). mu-e hlnh hqe hao g6m \'i~'e 1',10 ra g6e ct() \"{II 1.\ ella J1l() hln:l () m(rc hlnl1 hoc. Noi dell kh[lC, (1 m(fe 11:IY lllll !lll1h du"t,J'c In() Iii Ihong qua de dilc Ifnh ella 1[11 c;i de m[lLl hlllh hoc lao ncn (t,lllg Clla «Ie llli,lch. ph[ln h6 de m'.lCh 1J\~1l b:ill Ill'Kh. Phtm do'.111 nay Ihu(l'ng (tw!e goj I~I Ilm:;1 ke' \',11 l~'.
  15. "" Goe d6 hanh \1" // /G6c de) diu trl\C Mere kicn t~ T6ng h0P kien true ~/ " Mile logic MCre hlnh hQc Thie't k6 V[tt IS' lI'inh 1.4 Cic goc dll quan \,\1. I!\lrC <16 G6c d9 V(lt ly Iri:ru Ilroll£'. \'il ciic phrtn dmlll !hie", ke. a. Tong lHlP kicn trllC M6 hinh hanh VI Ci mut kiei1 true co th0 (hf~X: the hi~n qua \{Ip h()p de phcp loan vi:11l10i quan h¢ phLJ thuc)c giiJa chung. Tong hqp kicn trllc yell d.lI ph,ii X,lc dinh cae laj nguyen phdn cung dn llLrqc sit' dyng dJ tlure !Il¢n de phep tmin. ,fn dinh trinh tty t1wc hien cae phcp loan va gtlll kG! chting vt'J"j de l~li nguyen. Vi¢c tlll;JC hi¢n Xfly (iL.rng m'Jch s,w !lay phl,! thuQC nl1l6u \'010 bIJ6c n:ly. Tlwc v,~y, de !hie'! bY ve il1{I\ kicn true .s;: xac djnh mlre d() Ilwc hi~ll ,-;ong song ella (,.\c phcp toano TllI;IC hi¢n toi 1111 hOit 111C.\ch 11"en llllk nZly Ch'lllg \"ai tro het suc quan trQng trong qua tdnh thlet le". Ta hay xct y[ d~1 sau: til thiet ke m;\Ch IhljC hi¢n Yi¢c gi:li phuong Irlnl1 \'1 ph[m), -; 3x)' 3y=O tren c1m.m [0, u] bi'l.llg phuong phap s6 "{5i but'J·c dich d\ -j va dlc gia tf! ban (.Hiu x(O)=-x. y(O)-y, y (OJ--II. M<'ICh di~n co the duac bi~u dien btmg ng6n ngfr m6 til ph[in cling llhu sau: Diffcq 1 Read( x. y. dx, i.l): Repeat { xl==x+dx: u 1 == u - 3*x*u*dx - 3*y*dx; I~
  16. yl =y+u*dx C = x< a: I x = xl: u=uL y = yJ: ~ I ':' I 119 dieu Bo Until (c ): khicn nh(1 Writd y): t ALL I I I Trong VI <lL,l n~ly. de dOll gi,in. ta ctl till:; coi c<le c111'ong dfr li¢ll Clb mach ;.;uSt phattlr hai nguon: til oQ nhtm ",'a lir h9 tinh to,in so hoc ALU. fill ALL 1l;1~' co th~ tl11fc hi~n dc phcp tmin cong. trir \'il so s<-ln11. M~\ch s0 g()ll1 c6 dc thanh ghi. h9 X,lc dinh dia chi va or) dieu khi~n. Goc dO diu Ink ella mo hlnh mi..teh (1 mlTe kic"n truc cho ta Ihtiy dc cau trllc VI mo etta lhi0"l kc". :\16 hlnh 0' m(re logic ella 111<,leh co thc duqc hieu dicn btll1g dlc sO" c16 chuyen trang thai Clla dc o16mat hilu h;.ln. b,'ll1g doc sa d6 h'lgic 1JO~iC btll1g de ngon ngCi" m6 t,\ rhrin c(rng HDL. Cic lllO hlnh n~ly c1lt'(.K nha thiet I-..c' (hl'a ra hO(lC dunc tong hqp tir Ule mo hlnh ()·llllt'C kic>'n trlle. Cic thao tac 0' mlJoc k'lgic co Ih~ khae nhau tU)'" theo tinh ch,"l[ cLla mach (nhu lll'.ICh t() hqp hofle 111i,lch turin Il,r) va d'.lIlg hieu dicll ban t1:iu (biC:ll d6 ehuyen tn,mg Ihiii hay sa do l6gic). va'n de toi uu hOii dong \'ai tro he'[ slk quan tr9llg. N6 gflll lien voi qu,i trlllh t6ng hop lrung yi2c ,de dillh de C:\U truc vi mo ctl<l m'-.lch. Ket qua cuoi cung clla tong IWp ('j mu'c 16gic El hi~u dlCI1 CtlLl trllC dfiy uti. VI dl,l n!ur bang cac phan tlf logic ca h:1ll \'il kc:t Mii giu<l nhlJ"ng ph:in lir do. Trang VI dL.1 tru6"e cac d<:mg dCr li~Ll OUl)c dua vc hO nila va dU'<jC (1tt'a lU ht) !lha t6i ALU va bt.,'l nhfm. HO<.~t o<)ng clla b9 dicu khien du'(.l'C bidu (hen hang sa do cllUy~n In.mg th,ii va so do logic. 15
  17. ThllYI ke' \'(11 I}' 1<'1 qu<i. Irlnh lao ra ~o' d6 h6 lri eLJa ('/iiI} dien ILl'. Ceil' 16"r btl trf m"Jch luang lIng \'6i de 1ll,:11 n'.1 dung lrong qu,i Irlnh ehe" t:.IO ('Iill). ])0 ct6 c,k 116 tri hlllh hqe iii nwe IICU euoi cung ella Ihl2'1 kc" ole m,.teh \'1 di~n tu. Cie Ihao I,ic chlnh Ircn rh,ln elm,lll 1l~IY hI b6 trlm'.leh, di del)" dinh tllv(n. Trotlg eut'J1l -.;;ieh n~ly chung: 1<1 khong di ~[tll \,~10 ph,-Ill doan ni:'y. 2. l'{ii un hna m:..teh di~n l1~li lo<i.1I t6i Ull Iio;. me.leh Iw:m di dOl \'Cri h(li locin tc'ing hq'p m,.tell, T(\i U'u iW[1 m:,lch f..h6ng nhO:ng d~ (1;.\1 dU\K ()' ll1u'L' <16 eao nil:11 n:: cltSt IWl'J]g nwch mil C(m 1',10 ra nhlrng llweh e6 trnh c.mh ttanh C,IO. Chling la chi :h:t c,le \:U\ de t6i uu hal d(l do eh,lt Im.-mg quan Ir9ng: di¢n tieh \'(1 hO'-.lt (h)ng ell,. mach. l\g(}~li ra 11l(lt do do ehAI IU'qng qu,1ll tn.mg !lila I~I kh,i n,1ng de kiC:m Ira \-il ph;'lt hi¢n Ibi eua Il1<)eh. DiC:n Ifeh eLla ll1'.Kh dUq"e x,ic dinh hill1g t()ng di¢n tfeh ella de ph,in tll' Im,ch. Do d{l dJ¢n tteh e6 tilt: "[Ie djnh duqc thcmg qua g6e d(l du true nla m'.leh nc"u ta bie"t di¢n tich ella Ilrng th~lIlh ph:ln m'.Kh. Thclng Ilnrh'ng de ph;:in tlf ec1 b,in ella m"ch 16gic 1:1 6e ph:in ILr [clgie, c.:ie thanh ghi, de pltan h'l' n~IY c6 dl¢n tfeh bie't lnr{re lu)' tllll<)e \'JO lung loai Ihicl kc", Di¢Jl licll dc d,'IY n6i d{lng \'ai trt) 4uan trqIlg \'il khong the h() qUa. C,k th:ulh ph:in di¢n l!ch Il~ly c6 Ihe X<.lc djnh IU mo hlnh m'.leh tren g6e d(l \',:11 I)' IH\le u6"c Im)"llg tlf ,-"ie rlH) hlnh 111":0 g(~le dt) (;j"u Iruc th..:o cae phuong phcip Ihollg kc. l-liC:u n{lI1g ella m'.lch dlf(fe t6i U'u hoa til/a IrCII (h(\i gi'lll tre. Ihb'l gldll d(ing h(). c,mh tranh Iren ccie ph:in IlJ', ... Dc Ifnil to,in d() d,) ho'.11 cklIl)}, eua Illi)eil c:in thic"1 ph,ii ph'ln lieh c'lu Iruc "il hanl] \'J cLla mach, V:Yn d..:: nilY kllelc nhau dui \'rJ'i dc IO'-.li mach kll,ie nhall. HI¢u n,-lI1g eLla de m',lcll 10 h(JP dU(,J"c x,ic dinh th{ltIg qua thlji gldn tre truY~1l Ill' lUU \'ilo den dell! nl. TIt(lng Ihui\ng dl~ gr,illl dl) pln!c I'n) clla tlllll IO[\ll, la lut)]] giil thiet rang de gi,i tf! d{iu \'~10 Xll~ll 11I";ll IrDlIg dlllg Ill()\ Ihi)i dr(~ln \,:1 hicll m-lllg ub m',lell dU\1e tinh qua Ihr'ii gian tn~ truYCII tllLo lILt'ling dO Ii¢u dili nhat. Dt'Ji \'6i e<i.e mi..lell tu,\n t~f dong b<\ d(l do hi¢u nrlllg c6 lh~ uuve x,ie djnh Ihong qua thoi giall quay yong cua llli.,leh. Tho'i gian n;l)' IiI chu k)' dc)ng b() nhanh nhJ"t c6 the et,H \,~IO tlweh. Tel nh,)n IhAy dll1g tllb'i giaD Ire lruycil ct'la Iii ,
  18. thitnh ph::in m'.leh t6 hqp etta rn'.lch tu,i.n ~I! Iil. can d116i ell,1 thh'i gian quay vt'mg. Khi la :xct m6 hlnh trC'1l 111lTC kicll true nhu qp h{)"p d.e phep lo{m, d{il vll'i de m'.lch tlHll1 t~t" ddng bi\ m¢t trong nlllrng ci{) do hi('u lHlng li\ Ihi)i giml dn thiitt tte' tlll.TC hi~n d.c phep to,in. Th()'j gian nay co the dU'0C uo-e Ilfong Ih<'lllg qua d.c chu ky thai gian. Tich ella thoi gian quay \'ong vii Ih(Ji glan tlllrc hit;n eho ta thi\i gWIl thl!e hien tcing e(lllg ella 111'.lch. Thong tlmi::mg Ihi:J'i gian quay \'(lI1g \,ZI thai gi<1ll tlllTC hl~n dlTOC t6i Ull hoa riC'Jlf; r~ de' don gi"111 [10ii qu{i :rlllh leli u'U \,;1 Ih(x! man cae yell ([ill (t)1 ra d6i v6i thict kc". eic m;,leh d60g h6 c{) the' dune Ilnrc hicn day dc phcp toan theo chl:" dl) d.\y ehuYCll ~ pipdlll': ), trong dCllll'-.leh se tlll.fC hi~n c{le phcp loan song song tn:'lI nhung t~lp hqp dll' li~u khJe nhau. Nhu \'~\y hl~ll n[lIlg Cllil m'-.lch ellil e6 th~ dU(l'e thc hi~n qua kh,\ n:mg XLI' 15' def liC'Lt, luqng tier !t~u m;\ llI'.leh e{\ IhJ Xli' 1\'. Do do dt'i eni li\ th{llIg lunllt'. ella lIldeh. Doi \-(ii nhG"nl!. mach kh{llll!. • • __ L ' ~_ L ' L Ihvc hi~n qua ky IhU<)1 (by chuy~n, tIH'UIg hrqng hj glll'i h'.lll bni nglqch (j.\O eLlCl tfch giiIa th6i gian quay \'i:mg va thll'i gl:ln tlwc hi~n. K5' Ihu(\t (by ChUYCll cho phep ]\I'.LCh t~ll1g thong 111(l'Ilg dCl' liC'u dll'{~'c XLI' 15' nrot qua gl6i h'.1lI n6i trcII. V6'i nhG'ng dQ do n6i Ircn, tui uu hexi hi~u n:ll1g ella lIl'-.lch bao g()111 \'icc gle\m thicu tlli:ri gian (re truy'?l1 lt6i \'6i 111'.ICI1 t6 hqp, Ihai gian quay \'{'ll1g \':1 (he)'j gial} Illl,TC Iw:n d6i v6i 111'.1Ch tll<ln 1l/ d6ng bel: IZlln Uing t6i cb thong IlTong ella m'.lch d(ii \<'ri nhCmg: mach tlulc hi~lllhco \..-5' thu[lt d.\y chuyen. Ngoi\i nhu'l1g h~li 100In t6i lTli hoa vc kreh tl1Ll'(k \,~I thai gW!1 n61 In~lI, hlCll liang ella ll1'-.lch con lien qllan t6i kh,-'l ni"llIg phal hi~n l()i V:I d]llh V! \'! tr[ 16i lrong m:.Ich. (-l,:'11 10:ln x:ly d~mg nhCrng m~lch cho phcp de d:l1lg Illll It'll c111ng mot yai lri'l qllan trong trong qUii IrJllh tllle"1 kc' \';1 t6i lilt ho,1 tnach. NhCrng m'.lell de kicm tra cho phcp giam IhiJi gian Sll1h Ci\c b() gla Ir! thl! nghi('lJl \':1 gl'-'lll1 s6 lu'{.mg d.c h~) gia In IhlT nghi~lll. V[\n de (hlU lien dlH)'C giai qllyc-I h~lllg deh It III ra nhling thui.lt to{m tclng hnp mach c6 hi~'u qu,'t: ctll1 \'an dc tilL!" hal hen quail h'ri \'l~e tIm ra nhLing thll,H to,\]) tIm j()j nhanh \'('ii llH.1C lieu gi;\1l\ thili glan ph,-i! hi¢n h')i V;I \'j trf 16i IUiJng l'rllg viii tlrng h(l ~;J{\ Irj thLr llghicl1l. T()m h,ll h;1l tOJ1I t6i lIll ho,\ thic't kC' du(,l'C (ILra vc ke'l h(),p hal h~\i 10,111' giall1 11\l~1l di~n lich tlu,re k' ella lIl'.Ich vi\ I,-.ng hi~ll n:ll1g ella llli.lch y(J'i J...h,\ ll{lllg cao nhtlt e6 the c6. Bi:li loan l<li uu hOii e6 the ph\! thUl~C yilo cae ],;1111:' bu()C yi lIl.t nlllT gioi he.1ll tren \'e dicll tich Y~I gi6i h'.111 dll'l)'i YC hi¢lI n{ltlg. B~\J 17
  19. lmin l(ii Ull hu,i co th~ duO"e b!~u (1Il.'11 lrong kh(mg g:iun vccW !lIlli' ~Ull. T:lJ) hnp c,ic c:lll ln~!C c6 the c() CUd mc.teh ,,;: dLroc IhlC'l kl: l.!n lh:lnh !Illll kh(mg ~lla!l. Khllllg. gian nilY 1;(,)/ b kh(Jllg gl<lll llu(:1 kc \ il chli'a llJ(.lL S(l jill'Ll han cac (hl;m tlong d6 mbi dl~llltU'O'J1g Ling \,{ii ITIi?! Ih!.:'1 kc' Cl,1 the, M{li (11':111 ( lUling L(ng 1~1 Ihl'::'1 l..(Y ) :-,c c6 de gi<.i Irj d/~n tfeh \'~l hi.::u nilllg lU(illg (mg. Ta ,~C l(tp h~Ull gia Iri. lr~n cil "i) cic dOl !l(i,Jng nhu di~n lich. the)! gian Ire. lhi)i glill1 lh~rc hi¢n. thi)'i gu.lll quay \'ung, Ih6Jlg lu'tjng. Ru tmin ll1i Ull hoa mach 1m' !h:ll1h n(u tmin lim kicm dicm \<ie d!llllirung kh(lllg gl<.ln thic'l k.:: "ao l'l1O cac dlli 1Lfong: dat g,1J. tri t6i uu. 'Jhu "\y. 1j'()llg ChUUllg nilY Chllllg la dJ nghicn u'rll elc hlJ'('j"C Cit b,111 l!\lllg ljlH! trillll thie't k0 t(~lIg hop nwch. 18
  20. CHlJONG II. CO SO ToAN HQC Trong chuong nuy chClllg \()i nh:-tc 1,.ti nlt)1 sCi vCin de loan hoc liull co _~(j cho C[IC chu'ong lier Ih(;o. Cell' kien there 10;111 Cllll )eu xoay quanh CO' so' X[IY d~rng d.c mach so dna trcn cac d',\llg ci1Uan lAc ella cae biel! thue 16gic. l\hD'ng vall de lien quan \(Ii qua trtnh 11m \/:'i !runt-' dIe Ill'-.lch logIC liell quan loi cae plllwng ph,ip ma ho<i vi:' 1~' thuy6t d6 Ill!_ Do d6 ChUD'llg n~IY (\uoc chia lum hal phiin chinh, m(l\ phfin lien quail tlij v[l'lI de 16i thieu I1mi cae hl0u lhCi'c logic, phfill thLi hai lien quan I(:ii I)' Ihuyet de; til! vii rna hoa. L~; thuy61 chlly~n Im,\Ch Iii co' '>()" Ihi(:', ke dIe h¢ thling so hi¢n (L,IL L)' thuye", nilY cI\ra Ircn logic ky Il.r do nha tmln hQc Bool s:ing li.\O nen. Unh \'~rc [()gic k~' t\f Iii phil! tritll ella logic hl.lc khi ta c1ua \,~lO cae ky' hi¢u hlnh lillie vii e,ie thao t,-Ie d<;ll s6 ilinh tillfe. Hai ~6 Bool dU(:il: dPlh nghla Iii m()t h¢ d~li sci Iho,llllan he de lien ck H,nh nghla: Doi Hii \,Jp hop B ~ { <.\, h, ... ) vZlllili 1001.n IV '+' vi\ ' " n(u h6n li('11 de ~all lho<\ man 1111 he Ih61l~ (t.11 sci g9i IiI d'.li s6 Bool: 1) Va. h E B. a + h:= b + ii, a . h = h. a: Tfnh eh[it giao hmln: (2. 1) 2) Va,h.e E It a + ( h . c ) ::::; ( <.l + b ) . ( a + e ). a . ( b + e ) = (a, b) + ( a . C): Tfllh ehtl! ph:ln phcii: (2.2) J) 3 IE 13, 30 E:: B: 7<1 E B, a + 0::: - <I, a. 1 = a: Ton ti..li e,ic ph,ln tlr dO'll - - q: (2.3) 4) J <lEB:liaEB,a+ a=La. a=O:PldnhtL C~A) C{u: djnh I~' ella (h.li s6 Bool: \. a + a::: a: (2.5) 2. a, a:::: a: (2.6) J. a + I = I: (27) 19
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