Thông tin thiết kế mạch P4
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Thông tin thiết kế mạch P4
FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER In Chapter 2, the amplitude of a highfrequency (carrier) sinusoidal signal was varied in accordance with the waveform of an audiofrequency (modulating) signal to give an amplitude modulated (AM) wave which could be transmitted, received, and demodulated to recover the original audio frequency signal. In frequency modulated (FM) radio, the frequency of the carrier is varied about a ﬁxed value in accordance with the amplitude of the audio frequency.
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 Telecommunication Circuit Design, Second Edition. Patrick D. van der Puije Copyright # 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBNs: 0471415421 (Hardback); 0471221538 (Electronic) 4 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER 4.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the amplitude of a highfrequency (carrier) sinusoidal signal was varied in accordance with the waveform of an audiofrequency (modulating) signal to give an amplitude modulated (AM) wave which could be transmitted, received, and demodulated to recover the original audio frequency signal. In frequency modulated (FM) radio, the frequency of the carrier is varied about a ﬁxed value in accordance with the amplitude of the audio frequency. The amplitude of the carrier is kept constant. The waveform of a sinusoidal carrier modulated by a sawtooth wave is shown in Figure 4.1. All signals carried on any transmission system will sooner or later be contami nated by noise so the susceptibility of the communication system to noise is an important consideration. The noise can be deﬁned as a random variation super imposed on the signal. In AM systems, the information to be transmitted is contained in the envelope of the carrier signal. The noise therefore appears on the envelope and has a direct role in corrupting the signal. In FM systems the information to be transmitted is contained in the variation of the frequency of the carrier about a preset value. The amplitude of the FM signal is kept constant and, indeed, if there are changes in the amplitude of the FM signal, they are removed by clipping before demodulation. By comparison, FM systems are less susceptible to degradation by noise. 4.2 FREQUENCY MODULATION THEORY While a sawtooth modulating signal provides a simple picture of the FM signal, a sinusoidal modulating signal is the simplest for the derivation of the mathematical expressions to describe the FM signal. 111
 112 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER Figure 4.1. The sawtooth waveform vs frequency modulates a carrier to give the output vfm . Note that the relative change in frequency has been exaggerated for clarity. In normal FM radio, the change in frequency relative to the carrier is less than 0.15% A sinusoidal voltage can be expressed as: v ¼ A sin ot ð4:2:1Þ v ¼ A sin yðtÞ ð4:2:2Þ where o is a constant representing the angular velocity of the sinusoid and y is a phase angle with respect to an arbitrary datum. In general, the relationship between the phase angle and the angular velocity is given by dyðtÞ ¼ oðtÞ: ð4:2:3Þ dt In a frequency modulated system, o is varied about a ﬁxed value oc , in accordance with the modulating signal which is assumed in this case also to be a sinusoid: vs ¼ B cos os t: ð4:2:4Þ The instantaneous angular velocity oi ¼ oc þ Doc cos os t ð4:2:5Þ where oc is the longterm mean angular velocity, Do ( o, and Doc is the maximum deviation of the angular velocity about oc .
 4.2 FREQUENCY MODULATION THEORY 113 Substituting instantaneous values into Equation (4.2.3) dyi ðtÞ oi ðtÞ ¼ : ð4:2:6Þ dt Substituting Equation (4.2.5) into Equation (4.2.6) and integrating ðt ðt yi ðtÞ ¼ f þ oc dt þ Doc cos os tdt ð4:2:7Þ 0 0 where f is the initial value of the phase angle which without loss of generality can be set equal to zero. Then substituting Equation (4.2.7) into Equation (4.2.2) gives koc vfm ðtÞ ¼ A sinðoc t þ sin os tÞ ð4:2:8Þ os where kDoc ¼ B, the amplitude of the modulating signal. The term koc =os is called the modulation index, where max: frequency deviation of the carrier mf ¼ ð4:3:9Þ modulating signal frequency vfm ðtÞ ¼ A sinðoc t þ mf sin os tÞ: ð4:2:10Þ Expanding, vfm ðtÞ ¼ A½sin oc t cosðmf sin os tÞ þ cos oc t sinðmf sin os tÞ: ð4:2:11Þ The terms cosðmf sin os tÞ and sinðmf sin os tÞ can be expanded in the form of Fourier series with coefﬁcients which are Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind Jn ðmf Þ where n is the order and mf is the argument, to give P cosðmf sin os tÞ ¼ J0 ðmf Þ þ 2 J2n ðmf Þ cos 2nos t ð4:2:12Þ and P sinðmf cos os tÞ ¼ 2 J2nþ1 ðmf Þ sinð2n þ 1Þos t: ð4:2:13Þ Substituting Equations (4.2.12) and (4.2.13) into Equation (4.2.11) and using cos x sin y ¼ 1 ½cosðx þ yÞ þ cosðx À yÞ 2 ð4:2:14Þ and sin x sin y ¼ À 1 ½cosðx þ yÞ þ cosðx À yÞ 2 ð4:2:15Þ
 114 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER the result is vfm ðtÞ ¼ AfJ0 ðmf Þ sin oc t þ J1 ðmf Þ½sinðoc þ os Þt À sinðoc À os Þt þ J2 ðmf Þ½sinðoc þ 2os Þt À sinðoc À 2os Þt þ J3 ðmf Þ½sinðoc þ 3os Þt À sinðoc À 3os Þt þ Á Á Ág ð4:2:16Þ where Jn ðmf Þ is plotted against mf for various values of n in Figure 4.2. From Equation (4.2.16) it can be seen that: (1) The carrier frequency oc is present and its amplitude is determined by the modulation index mf . (2) The next term represent two frequencies which are the sum ðoc þ os Þ and difference ðoc À os Þ of the carrier and the modulating frequency with an amplitude J1 ðmf Þ. (3) The next two terms have an amplitude J2 ðmf Þ and frequencies ðoc þ 2os Þ and ðoc À 2os Þ. (4) There are an inﬁnite number of sums and difference of the carrier and integer multiples of the modulating signal. Figure 4.2. A plot of Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind, Jn ðmf Þ against mf for n ¼ 0; 1; 2 and 3. The values of Jn ðmf Þ are used to calculate the amplitudes of the sidefrequencies present in the FM signal.
 4.3 THE PARAMETER VARIATION METHOD 115 It would appear that, in order to transmit a simple sine wave in an FM system, an inﬁnite bandwidth is required to accommodate all the multiple sidebands. However, from Figure 4.2 it can be seen that, as n increases, the amplitudes of the sidebands decrease and their contribution to the signal power falls off rapidly. A second aspect of the bandwidth requirements of the FM system can be seen from Equation (4.2.8). Unlike the AM system, where a modulation index greater than unity causes severe distortion, the modulation index in FM does not appear to have an upper limit except that, for a ﬁxed modulating signal frequency os, increasing the modulation index mf means a greater deviation of the FM signal from the carrier frequency. This implies a larger bandwidth. With no apparent technical limits to the bandwidth requirements and to permit the maximum number of FM stations to function with minimum distortion and interference, the maximum frequency deviation for commercial FM radio is set at Æ75 kHz. However, since there is substantial signal power beyond the Æ75 kHz limit, the actual bandwidth is set at 200 kHz, with the highest modulating frequency limited to 15 kHz. Frequency modulated communication channels can be found from approximately 1600 kHz to 4000 MHz. Parts of this spectrum are reserved for the use of police, VHF and UHF television sound channels, VHF mobile communications, and point topoint communication. The commercial FM radio broadcast band is from 88 to 108 MHz. 4.3 THE PARAMETER VARIATION METHOD 4.3.1 Basic System Design A simple method for generating an FM signal is to start with any LC oscillator. The frequency of oscillation is determined by the values of C and L. If a variable capacitor DC is connected in parallel with C and the capacitance variation is proportional to the modulating signal then an FM signal will be obtained. Consider a negative conductance oscillator as shown in Figure 4.3. The negative conductance may be obtained from a tunnel diode, a suitable biased pentode, or a bipolar junction transistor with a suitable feedback circuit. The frequency of oscillation is given by 1 o2 ¼ c : ð4:3:1Þ LC When a variable capacitor DC is connected in parallel with C, the frequency of oscillation will be: 1 ðoc Æ Doc Þ2 ¼ : ð4:3:2Þ LðC Ç DCÞ Any p–n junction diode in reverse bias can be used to realise DC. However the relationship between DC and the bias voltage is nonlinear and appropriate steps will
 116 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER Figure 4.3. The basic FM generator; the value of the variable capacitor DC is controlled by the modulating signal which in turn determines the frequency of the oscillator. have to be taken, such as using two diodes in push–pull or specially fabricated diodes (e.g. varactor diodes or diodes with hyperabrupt junctions, both of which come under the classiﬁcation voltagecontrolled capacitors). The direct generation of FM signals presents further difﬁculties. Assuming that the transmitter were to operate at 100 MHz, the required inductance and capacitance would be approximately 160 nH and 16 pF, respectively. Stray inductances and capacitances associated with the circuit will render it impractical. A less impractical idea is to generate the FM signal at a lower frequency, where larger values of L and C are required, and then to use a cascade of frequency multipliers to raise the frequency to the required value. Supposing that the lowfrequency FM signal is generated at 200 kHz. Suitable values for L and C are 1.27 mH and 500 pF. Since the frequency has to be multiplied by 500 (actually 29 ¼ 512) to place it within the commercial FM frequency band, the maximum frequency deviation has to be 75 kHz=500 ¼ 150 Hz so that the frequency deviation will not exceed the legal limit. The required change in capacitance DC ¼ 2:5 pF. This is within the range of capacitance change that can be obtained from a p–n junction diode. A block diagram of the system is given in Figure 4.4. Figure 4.4. An improved FM generator design in which the FM signal is generated at a lower frequency and then multiplied by a suitable factor to give the required frequency.
 4.3 THE PARAMETER VARIATION METHOD 117 The design of all the blocks shown in Figure 4.4 was discussed earlier. However, frequency stability requirements of the system makes the approach shown in Figure 4.4 impractical. One of the requirements of a transmitter is that its frequency will remain at the assigned value at all times so that its frequency does not drift and cause interference with other channels of communication. In the scheme shown in Figure 4.4 there is no builtin mechanism to ensure that the longterm average frequency will be constant. A modiﬁed scheme is shown in Figure 4.5, in which the carrier frequency of the FM signal is compared with that of a crystalstabilized oscillator and the resulting error signal is used to correct the carrier frequency. 4.3.2 Automatic Frequency Control of the FM Generator The main oscillator is an LCtype similar to the negative conductance oscillator discussed earlier. The variation DC generates the FM signal. The output is fed into a buffer ampliﬁer which provides isolation between the oscillator and its load so that a changing load will have minimal effect on the oscillator operation. The signal proceeds to the limiter which removes any AM which may have occurred and also ﬁlters out the harmonics generated by the limiter. Part of the amplitudelimited FM signal is then fed to a mixer whose other input is from a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The difference frequency is suitably ampliﬁed, ﬁltered and then fed into a discriminator to produce a dc signal proportional to the difference between the required and the crystalcontrolled oscillator frequency. The dc or error signal is Figure 4.5. The circuit in Figure 4.4 has been improved by the addition of an automatic frequency control (AFC) circuit to stabilize the carrier frequency.
 118 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER used to keep the main oscillator at the required frequency. Using this scheme, it is possible to impose the stability of the crystalcontrolled oscillator on the main oscillator. It should be noted that the timeconstant of the error signal should be chosen so it can correct for the longterm frequency deviation of the main oscillator without affecting the shortterm frequency deviation due to the modulating signal. The output of the limiter=ﬁlter is fed into a chain of multipliers to bring the frequency to its operating value. A power ampliﬁer then boosts the signal power to the desired value and drives the antenna which radiates the signal. 4.3.3 Component Design with Automatic Frequency Control Two new component blocks were introduced into the system to realize the parameter variation method. These were the limiter and the discriminator. The circuit design of these component blocks follow. 4.3.3.1 The Amplitude Limiter. An FM signal, by deﬁnition, must have a constant amplitude. In practice, circuit nonlinearities cause variations in the envelope of the FM signal related to the modulating signal, that is, some amplitude modulation takes place. It is evident that any AM present in an FM system will interfere with the signal during the demodulation process since most FM demodu lators convert the variation of frequency to a variation of amplitude before detection. A second reason for limiting the amplitude of the FM signal is that the noise present in the communication channel generally rides on the envelope of the signal and therefore by clipping the amplitude of the signal some of the noise can be removed. The ideal amplitude limiter can accept an input signal of any amplitude and convert it to one of constant amplitude. A practical approximation to the perfor mance of the ideal limiter is obtained by amplifying the input by a large factor and clipping a small portion symmetrically about the time axis. The output waveform will then be a square wave. In order to get back the sinusoid, the signal must be passed through a bandpass ﬁlter which will remove all the harmonics leaving only the fundamental. The amplitude limiter has three identiﬁable parts: the preampliﬁer, the symmetrical clipper, and the bandpass ﬁlter. The subsystem block diagram is shown in Figure 4.6. In Section 4.2, it was shown that an FM signal has an inﬁnite number of sidebands but that it was not necessary to preserve all the sidebands in order to maintain a high level of ﬁdelity. Working with the permitted modulation index, mf ¼ 5, and retaining sidebands with coefﬁcients Jn ðmf Þ greater than 0.01 (i.e., 1% of the unmodulated carrier) it can be shown that the ﬁrst eight sidebands must be Figure 4.6. A block diagram showing the details of the limiter=ﬁlter shown in Figure 4.5.
 4.3 THE PARAMETER VARIATION METHOD 119 preserved. Since the sidebands are spaced os apart, and os has a maximum value of 15 kHz, the required bandwidth is 240 kHz. The (À3 dB) Q factor of the preampliﬁer with the required bandwidth will be just over 400. However, this would mean that the outermost sidebands will be subjected to a 3 dB attenuation compared to those nearer the carrier, causing further variation in the amplitude of the signal. In a practical situation, the modulating signal is made up of a large number of discrete frequencies and this causes further complications in the calculation of the required bandwidth. An ampliﬁer with a ﬂat frequency response could be used but it will have the disadvantage of amplifying the noise below and above the spectrum of interest. A compromise would be to use a tuned preampliﬁer with a much lower Q factor. It will have the advantage of a minimal variation in its response over the spectrum occupied by the signiﬁcant sidebands and yet attenuate the noise present in the rest of the spectrum. A loaded Q factor of about 20 should be adequate. It is accepted practice to generate the FM at a lower frequency and to use a cascade of frequency multipliers to bring it up to the operating value. If the FM is generated at 200 kHz, the appropriate frequency deviation will be about 150 Hz. The corresponding bandwidth to accommodate the ﬁrst 8 sidebands will be 470 Hz. Figure 4.7 shows a circuit diagram of the preampliﬁer and its load, the symmetrical clipper. The detailed design of a similar ampliﬁer was presented in Section 3.4.2 and will not be repeated here. However, it is worth noting that the diodes can be considered as shortcircuits and hence the resistance R will be in parallel with the tuned circuit. 4.3.3.2 Symmetrical Clipper. A simple symmetrical clipper is shown in Figure 4.7. The resistance R is chosen so that the Q factor of the tuned circuit is Figure 4.7. The circuit diagram of the preampliﬁer and the symmetrical clipper.
 120 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER approximately equal to 20. The details of the design of a parallel tuned circuit with a speciﬁed Q factor was discussed in Section 3.4.2. The output of the clipper will be about 0.7 V when single silicon diodes are used or multiples of 0.7 V, depending on how many diodes are connected in series to determine the level of clipping. It is evident that the more severe the clipping is, the more likely it is that the output of the clipper will be a square wave but then more gain will be required in the succeeding stages. A more elegant design when the clipping level is high is to use backtoback Zener diodes as shown in Figure 4.8. The Zener diode provides a much sharper cut off than an ordinary diode when it is reverse biased. In the forward direction, it is an ordinary diode. With this arrangement, only one of the two Zener diodes is operating as a Zener diode while the other one is conducting current in the forward direction. They switch roles when the applied voltage changes polarity. 4.3.3.3 Bandpass Filter. It is reasonable to assume that the output of the clipper is a square wave. The frequency of the square wave varies but it is centered at the carrier frequency. Fourier analysis shows that the most signiﬁcant harmonic in the square wave is the third. So with the subcarrier at 200 kHz, the third harmonic will be at 600 kHz. A simple tank circuit tuned to the carrier frequency is all that is necessary to ﬁlter out the harmonics. But, as before, the choice of the Q factor of the tuned circuit must be made to ensure that all the signiﬁcant sidebands are within the passband of the ﬁlter and are subjected to minimum attenuation. The factors that affect the choice of the bandwidth were discussed in Section 4.3.3.1. 4.3.3.4 Discriminator. The purpose of the discriminator is to convert the variation of frequency to a variation of amplitude. A frequencytoamplitude convertor followed by an envelope detector is used to recover the message contained in the modulating signal. The transfer characteristics of two circuits that could be used for the frequencytoamplitude conversion are shown in Figure 4.9. The simplest circuit with the characteristics shown in Figure 4.9(a) is a simple RC highpass circuit with its corner frequency much higher than the carrier frequency of the FM signal. Figure 4.9(b) shows the response of a simple RC lowpass circuit with its corner frequency chosen to be much lower than the carrier frequency. Both Figure 4.8. The use of two Zener diodes connected backtoback is an improvement on the symmetrical clipper shown in Figure 4.7.
 4.3 THE PARAMETER VARIATION METHOD 121 Figure 4.9. The required characteristics of a frequencytoamplitude converter: (a) is a high pass circuit and (b) is the lowpass version. circuits should, in principle, convert the FM signal into an AM signal. However, in practice the subcarrier frequency of the system shown in Figure 4.5 will be about 200 kHz, while the variation will be limited to a maximum of Æ150 Hz. Since both of these circuits have a slope of 6 dB=octave, the variation in amplitude of these circuits will be exceedingly low. The use of a high gain ampliﬁer following such a circuit will lead to increased noise. A better approach is to ﬁnd a circuit which has a much greater amplitudetofrequency slope. A tuned RLC circuit has a rapid change of amplitude with frequency on both sides of the resonance frequency, especially when the Q factor of the circuit is high. The circuit and its response are shown in Figure 4.10. It is evident that this circuit will be Figure 4.10. A single LC tuned circuit used as a frequencytoamplitude converter. In this case, the skirt with the positive slope (highpass) has been used. The skirt with the negative slope (lowpass) would be equally effective. Note that because the nonlinearity of both skirts is predominantly a secondorder function, the distortion products of the circuit will be mainly even harmonics.
 122 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER prone to produce distortion, especially of even harmonics (the nonlinearity is unsymmetrical). A variation on the circuit in Figure 4.10 is shown in Figure 4.11. The two tuned circuits made up of L1 –C1 and L2 –C2 are tuned to two different frequencies equally spaced from the carrier frequency. The individual and composite characteristics are shown in Figure 4.11. It can be seen that this circuit has a greater dynamic range than the previous circuit and, when properly tuned, should have no even harmonic distortion products in the output. 4.3.3.5 Envelope Detector. The basic envelope detector was discussed in Section 3.4.6. The importance of the choice of the timeconstant in order to avoid distortion of the envelope was discussed at some length. The purpose of this envelope detector is to correct the longterm frequency deviation of the main oscillator while allowing the shortterm frequency deviation caused by the modulat ing signal. Its timeconstant is therefore chosen on the basis that the lowest frequency present in the modulating signal, os;min , will not cause the frequency correction system to go into operation. This condition is satisﬁed when the time constant of the detector, tdet , is chosen so that os;min tdet ) 1: ð4:3:3Þ 4.4 THE ARMSTRONG SYSTEM The use of automatic frequency control in the generation of FM signals results in a practical scheme but one which depends on feedback. For proper operation of the system all of the circuits must be made to track each other. Furthermore, the voltage controlled capacitor used in the automatic frequency control circuit has a non linearity as well as a temperature characteristic which must be compensated for. Evidently, a different scheme with less complexity is needed. The Armstrong system, named after its inventor, is one such scheme. The theoretical basis of the Armstrong system is given by Equation (4.2.7). It is clear that, in commercial FM systems, the frequency deviation must be small compared to the carrier frequency, that is: oc oc ðtÞ ) k j sin os tj ¼ mf j sin os tj ð4:4:1Þ os The following approximations can be applied to Equation (4.2.11): cosðmf sin os tÞ % 1 ð4:4:2Þ sinðmf sin os tÞ % mf sin os t ð4:4:3Þ
 Figure 4.11. The use of a doubletuned circuit provides increased dynamic range and improves the linearity by balancing the nonlinearity of one LC circuit with the other. Note that the ‘‘pushpull’’ 123 arrangement shown here will generate predominantly odd harmonics.
 124 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER to give vfm ðtÞ ¼ A½sin oc t þ ðmf sin os tÞ cos oc t ð4:4:4Þ vfm ðtÞ ¼ Afsin oc t þ 1 mf ½sinðoc À os Þt þ sinðoc þ os Þtg: 2 ð4:4:5Þ It should be noted that the above approximation eliminates all the sidebands except the two closest to the carrier. The modulation is then said to be a narrow band frequency modulation ðNBFM Þ. The advantage it offers is a simple geometric representation of the FM signal as a phasor. The term ½ðmf sin os tÞ cos oc t is a doublesidebandsuppressed carrier (DSB SC) signal. The addition of the carrier term (sin os tÞ would normally produce an AM signal but, in this case, the carrier is 90 out of phase with the DSBSC signal. The difference between AM and FM is shown in the phasor diagrams in Figure 4.12. Figure 4.12. (a) A phasor diagram for an NBFM showing the two phasors of amplitude 1 Amf 2 rotating in opposite directions at angular velocity os in quadrature to the phasor A at t ¼ 0. (b) A 1 phasor diagram for an AM signal showing two counterrotating phasors of amplitude 2 kA and angular velocity os . Note that the amplitude of the resultant phasor varies from Að1 À kÞ to Að1 þ kÞ.
 4.4 THE ARMSTRONG SYSTEM 125 Assume a coordinate system in which the phasor A sin oc t rotates anticlockwise at an angular velocity oc. Suppose that the rotating phasor is used as a new reference system so that it is represented by a horizontal phasor of value A. In terms of this reference system, the term ð1 Amf Þ sinðoc þ os Þt is represented by a phasor of value 2 1 2 Amf rotating in an anticlockwise direction with an angular velocity of os . Similarly, the term ð1 Amf Þ sinðoc À os Þt is represented by a phasor of equal value rotating in a 2 clockwise direction with an angular velocity of os . At time t ¼ 0, the component of each rotating phasor in the horizontal direction is zero. Therefore the two phasors must be parallel to each other but at right angles to the horizontal phasor A. This situation is depicted in Figure 4.12(a). The resultant is a phasor which apparently has a maximum value qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ A ð1 þ m2 Þ f ð4:4:6Þ and a maximum angular displacement of c ¼ tanÀ1 ðmf Þ: ð4:4:7Þ Since mf is small, c is small and c % mf : ð4:4:8Þ The apparent variation of the amplitude of the FM signal is due to the fact that this analysis has not taken into account the many sidebands present in FM. For comparative purposes the AM system is treated similarly. An AM signal is represented by Equation (2.2.7): kA kA vam ðtÞ ¼ A sin oc t þ cosðoc À os Þt À cosðoc þ os Þt: ð4:4:9Þ 2 2 Again the carrier A sin oc t is represented by a horizontal phasor of value A and the two sidebands by two counterrotating phasors of value kA=2 rotating at os . At time t ¼ 0, the components of both of the sideband in the horizontal direction are zero since they are cosine terms and A is a sine term. The phasors representing the two sidebands must be at right angles to the A phasor as shown in Figure 4.12(b). Note that one is positive and the other negative. At some other time t > 0, the phasor representing the combination of the sidebands subtracts from or adds to the phasor A. The amplitude of the resultant therefore varies from Að1 À kÞ to Að1 þ kÞ but at all times it is in the horizontal position. The conclusion is that in a narrowband (Doc ( oc ) frequency modulated system, the phase difference between the carrier and the DSBSC signal is 90 . This is the basis of the Armstrong system. A block diagram of the FM transmitter is shown in Figure 4.13. 4.4.1 Practical Realization A crystalcontrolled oscillator generates the carrier frequency A cos oc t. This signal is fed to two blocks. The ﬁrst is a 90 phase shift circuit which, as the name suggests,
 126 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER Figure 4.13. Block diagram of the basic Armstrong system FM transmitter. This is an example of an indirect generation of FM signal. shifts the phase by 90 and therefore its output is A sin oc t. The second block is a balanced modulator. The other input to the balanced modulator is, of course, the modulating signal. But according to Equation (4.2.8), mf ¼ Doc =os . The modulat ing (audio) signal contains a band of frequencies from approximately 20 Hz to 15 kHz and therefore as os increases, Do must increase or the modulation index mf must decrease. However, in FM the frequency of the carrier changes proportionately to the amplitude of the modulating signal, not to the frequency of the modulating signal. In order to satisfy this condition, the amplitude of the modulating signal has to be reduced by onehalf whenever the frequency doubles. This amounts to putting the signal through a lowpass ﬁlter with a slope of 6 dB=octave. An integrator with its corner frequency below the lowest modulating frequency is required. The amplitude of the modulating signal frequency band is thereby ‘‘predistorted’’ by the integrator to conform to the above condition. The need for the integrator is evident from Equation (4.2.7). If the modulating signal is B sin os t the output of the integrator will be ðB=os Þ cos os t. This signal is fed to the balanced modulator which produces as an output the product of its two inputs, namely, ðk 0 AB=os Þ sin oc t cos os t, where k 0 is a constant. This signal and the output of the 90 phase shifter go to the adder which gives an output k 0 AB vo ðtÞ ¼ A sin oc t þ sin oc t cos os t: ð4:4:10Þ os The signal goes through a series of multipliers to bring the frequency up to the operating value. A power ampliﬁer raises the signal to the proper level for radiation by the antenna.
 4.4 THE ARMSTRONG SYSTEM 127 In a practical FM transmitter, the carrier is generated at a lower frequency and the modulation process carried out. The frequency is then multiplied up to the operating value. If it is assumed that the subcarrier frequency is again 200 kHz – a frequency at which a suitably robust crystal can be found – the required multiplication factor to place it in the middle of the commercial FM frequency band is then about 500 (29 ¼ 512). The maximum frequency deviation for a subcarrier at 200 kHz was calculated in Section 4.3.4 to be 150 Hz. The ratio of the subcarrier frequency to the maximum frequency deviation may not be the most convenient in a practical system. In order to produce a highﬁdelity signal, that is, maintain a high level of linearity, it is an advantage to make the carrier frequency independent of the frequency deviation. This can be done by splitting the multiplication operation in two and inserting a mixer between them so that the carrier frequency can be changed without affecting the frequency deviation. To help explain the process, an example is given in Figure 4.14. Suppose the subcarrier frequency is 200 kHz and the maximum deviation is 20 Hz. To get the subcarrier frequency up to the normal operating frequency of about 100 MHz, a cascade of frequency multipliers equal to 29 (512) will be required. Multiplication of the carrier also multiplies the frequency deviation so that the corresponding frequency deviation will be ð512 Â 10 Hz) ¼ 10,240 Hz. This is much lower than the limit allowed, which is 75 kHz. On the other hand, in order to convert the 20 Hz frequency deviation into the required 75 kHz, the multiplication factor is 3750 (approximately 3 Â 210 ¼ 3072). However, multiplying the sub carrier by this factor will give a carrier frequency of 614.4 MHz, which is outside the commercial FM radio band. To correct this, the multiplication process is split into two stages and a mixer is inserted between them. The ﬁrst stage of multi plication may be 96 (3 Â 25 ). The carrier frequency is then 19.2 MHz and the corresponding frequency deviation is 1.92 kHz. The signal is now mixed with a ‘‘local oscillator’’ whose output frequency is 16.2 MHz to produce a carrier frequency of 3.0 MHz but the frequency deviation remains unchanged at 1.92 kHz. The second stage of multiplication (32 ¼ 25 ) produces a carrier frequency of 96.0 MHz and a frequency deviation of 61.4 kHz. This is not quite at the allowed limit but close enough for practical purposes. The ‘‘local oscillator’’ signal may be derived from the 200 kHz crystalcontrolled oscillator by using a suitable frequency multiplier (81 ¼ 34 ). 4.4.2 Component Circuit Design In the block diagram of the Armstrong system given in Figure 4.14, four new components were added, namely the 90 phase shifter, the balanced modulator, the integrator, and the adder. The design of these circuit components now follow. 4.4.2.1 The 90 Phase Shift Circuit. In the circuit shown in Figure 4.15(a), the resistances RC and RE are equal. Since the collector and emitter currents are, for all practical purposes, equal, it follows that the voltages vC and vE must be equal in magnitude. But the phase angle between them is 180 . The voltages vC and vE are
 128 Figure 4.14. Block diagram of a practical Armstrong system FM transmitter.
 4.4 THE ARMSTRONG SYSTEM 129 represented on the phasor diagram shown in Figure 4.15(b). The voltage which appears across R and Z is ðvC þ vE Þ. If the impedance Z is purely reactive (capacitive or inductive), it follows the phasors vR and vZ will always be at right angles to each other. It follows then that the point A must lie on a circle whose radius is equal to the magnitude of vC as shown. The output voltage is then vo . As frequency goes from zero to inﬁnity, point A will trace out a semicircular locus. The output voltage vo changes its phase angle from zero to 180 but its magnitude remains constant. It can be seen that, with the appropriate choice of R and Z at a given frequency, vo can be made to lead or lag vin by 90. One major disadvantage of this circuit is that its load must be a very high impedance, preferably opencircuit, otherwise the magnitude of the output voltage vo will not remain constant for all frequencies. This circuit is a simple example of a class of networks known as allpass ﬁlters. Example 4.4.1 90 phase shift circuit. Design an allpass circuit with a phase shift of 90 at 200 kHz. The dc supply voltage is 12 V and it may be assumed that the circuit drives a load of very high impedance. The b of the transistor is 100. Solution. A suitable circuit for the phase shifter is shown in Figure 4.16 with the impedance Z replaced by a single capacitance C. Since the gain is unity vC ¼ vE and the stage will have the maximum dynamic range when the transistor is biased with VE at Vcc =4 and Vc at 3Vcc =4, that is, at 3 and 9 V, respectively. The maximum signal voltage that can be applied to the RC series circuit is then 12 V peaktopeak. The equivalent circuit is then as shown in Figure 4.17. Let the peak current in the RC circuit be approximately equal to 1 mA. Then R ¼ 4:2 kO and the reactance of the capacitor must also be 4.2 kO so that at 200 kHz, C ¼ 190 pF. Figure 4.15. (a) An active 90 phase shift circuit. (b) Phasor diagram for the circuit in (a).
 130 FREQUENCY MODULATED RADIO TRANSMITTER Figure 4.16. Circuit diagram used in Example 4.4.1. The dc collector current in the transistor must be chosen so that the 1 mA taken by the RC circuit will have negligible effect on the transistor operation. A collector current of 10 mA will be adequate. Under quiescent conditions, the emitter voltage is 3 V. Hence RE ¼ 300 O and RC ¼ 300 O. Since the b of the transistor is 100, the base current is 100 mA. Allowing a current 10 times the base current in the resistive chain (i.e. 1 mA) makes ðR1 þ R2 Þ ¼ 12 kO. But the voltage at the base is 3.7 V and therefore R2 ¼ 3:7 kO and R1 ¼ 8:3 kO. The coupling capacitor has to be chosen so that it is essentially a shortcircuit at 200 kHz; a 0.1 mF capacitor is adequate. 4.4.2.2 The 90 Phase Shift Circuit: Operational Ampliﬁer Version. When the frequency of operation is within the bandwidth of an operational ampliﬁer, the circuit shown in Figure 4.18 can be used to realize a 90 phase shift. The analysis of the circuit is simpliﬁed by the application of superposition. The ﬁrst step is to separate the inverting input from the noninverting input. With the noninverting input connected to ground, and vin connected to the inverting input, it can be shown that the output is R2 v01 ¼ À v : ð4:4:11Þ R1 in Figure 4.17. An equivalent circuit of the 90 phase shift circuit shown in Figure 4.15(a).
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