Tự điển Food Science, Technology And Nutrition - Vần X,Y,Z

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Tự điển Food Science, Technology And Nutrition - Vần X,Y,Z

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  1. 516 work See energy. wormseed See epazote. wort Aqueous extract of malt in brewing. See beer. WPC Whey protein concentrate. wraplings See wuntun. WTO World Trade Organization, web site http://www.wto.org/. wuntun (wonton) Chinese; small dough parcels containing meat, boiled or deep fried. Also known as chiao-tzu or wraplings. X XangoldTM Natural source esters of the carotenoids xanthophyll and lutein. xanthaemia See carotinaemia. xanthan gum Complex polymer made by bacterial fermentation; stable to wide range of pH and temperatures; used as thickening agent to form gels, increase viscosity in foods. xanthelasma Yellow fatty plaques on the eyelids, due to hypercholesterolaemia. xanthine A purine, intermediate in the metabolism of adenine and guanine to uric acid. caffeine (in coffee and tea) is 1,3,7- trimethylxanthine; theophylline (in tea) is 1,3-dimethylxan- thine; theobromine (in cocoa) is 3,7-dimethylxanthine. xanthoma Yellow skin lesion associated with disorders of lipid metabolism, and especially hypercholesterolaemia. xanthophylls Hydroxylated carotenoids. Occur in all green leaves together with chlorophyll and carotene, also present in egg yolk, cape gooseberry, etc. Most have no vitamin a activity. Include flavoxanthin (E-161a), lutein (161b), cryptoxanthin (E- 161c, is vitamin A precursor), rubixanthin (161e), rhodoxanthin (161f), canthaxanthin (161g). xanthoproteic reaction Test for proteins (actually for the aro- matic rings of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan). Yellow colour on boiling with nitric acid, turns orange on adding ammonia. xanthosis Yellowing of the skin associated with high blood con- centrations of carotene. XenicalTM See orlistat. xenobiotic Substances foreign to the body, including drugs and some food additives. xerophilic See osmophiles. xerophthalmia Advanced vitamin a deficiency in which the epithelium of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye deteriorates because of impairment of the tear glands, resulting in dryness then ulceration, leading to blindness.
  2. 517 xerosis Abnormal dryness of conjunctiva, skin or mucous membranes. xerostomia Dry mouth, a common side effect of a variety of drugs. See also ptyalism. X-ray diffraction Technique for determination of crystal struc- tures (e.g. of proteins) by analysis of the diffraction pattern of a beam of X-rays shone through the crystal. xylanase Mixture of enzymes of fungal or bacterial origin that hydrolyse xylans: β-1,4-endoxylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) and β-d- xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.32). Sometimes added to poultry and pig feed to increase the digestibility of cereal non-starch polysaccharides. xylans Polysaccharides of xylose, not digested, part of non- starch polysaccharide; a major component of hemicellulose. xylitol A five-carbon sugar alcohol found in raspberries, endive, lettuce; 80–100% of the sweetness of sucrose; used in sugar-free hard sweets and gelatine gums. Apart from being of low cario- genicity, xylitol is said to have an effect in suppressing the growth of some of the bacteria associated with dental caries (see tooth- friendly sweets). xyloascorbic acid Term used for ascorbic acid (vitamin c) to distinguish from isoascorbic acid (see erythorbic acid), which is araboascorbic acid and has only slight vitamin C activity. xyloglucan One of the hemicelluloses in plant cell walls, linking cellulose fibres. A component of non-starch polysaccharide. xylose Pentose (five-carbon) sugar found in plant tissues mainly as polysaccharides (xylans); 40% as sweet as sucrose. Also known as wood sugar. Mainly excreted unmetabolised, and used to test carbohydrate absorption. xylulose Pentose (five-carbon) sugar occurring as a metabolic intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway. Y YAC Yeast artificial chromosome, a specialised cloning vector that can carry large DNA inserts. YakultTM yogurt containing live Lactobacillus spp. which are pro- biotics. Originally Japanese name for yoghurt fermented with L. casei. yam Tubers of perennial climbing plants of a number of species of Dioscorea, D. rotundala white yam, and D. cayenensis, yellow or Guinea yam, water, trifoliate or Chinese yam. A major food in parts of Africa and also the Far East. In USA sweet potatoes (see potato, sweet) are sometimes called yam.
  3. 518 Composition/100 g: (edible portion 86%) water 70 g, 494 kJ (118 kcal), protein 1.5 g, fat 0.2 g, carbohydrate 27.9 g (0.5 g sugars), fibre 4.1 g, ash 0.8 g, Ca 17 mg, Fe 0.5 mg, Mg 21 mg, P 55 mg, K 816 mg, Na 9 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Cu 0.2 mg, Mn 0.4 mg, Se 0.7 µg, vitamin A 7 µg RE (83 µg carotenoids), E 0.4 mg, K 2.6 mg, B1 0.11 mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.6 mg, B6 0.29 mg, folate 23 µg, pan- tothenate 0.3 mg, C 17 mg. A 130 g serving is a source of vitamin B6, folate, a good source of Cu, Mn, a rich source of vitamin C. yang See macrobiotic diet. Yarmouth bloater See red herrings. yautia See tannia. yeast Unicellular organisms, sometimes grouped with the fungi; eukaryotic organisms with more complex subcellular organisa- tion than bacteria. Some types are of major importance in the food industry. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis are used in brewing, wine-making and baking. Yeasts such as Candida utilis (formerly Torula utilis) are grown on carbohydrate or hydrocarbon media as animal feed and potential human food, since they contain about 50% protein (dry weight) and are very rich in B vitamins. Some yeasts are pathogenic (especially Candida spp., which cause thrush); many are used in biotechnology for production of hormones (see hormones, human) and other proteins. yeast extract A preparation of the water-soluble fraction of autol- ysed brewers’ yeast, valuable both as a source of B vitamins and for its strong savoury flavour; used as a drink or a breadspread. Composition/100 g: water 37 g, 661 kJ (158 kcal), protein 27.8 g, fat 0 g, carbohydrate 11.8 g, fibre 3 g, ash 23.4 g, Ca 86 mg, Fe 3.7 mg, Mg 180 mg, P 104 mg, K 2600 mg, Na 3600 mg, Zn 2.1 mg, Cu 0.3 mg, Se 18 µg, vitamin B1 9.7 mg, B2 14.3 mg, niacin 97 mg, B6 1.3 mg, folate 1010 µg, B12 0.5 µg. A 6 g serving is rich source of vitamin B1, B2, niacin, folate. yeast fermentation, bottom Or deep fermentation; fermentation during the manufacture of beer with a yeast that sinks to the bottom of the tank. Most beers are produced this way; ale, porter and stout being the principal beers produced by top fermentation. YeastrelTM, YeatexTM See yeast extract. yeheb A nut, fruit of Cordeauxia edulis, originally from the Horn of Africa. yellow fats See spread, fat. yerba dulce The leaves of the Paraguayan shrub, Stevia rebaudi- ana, the source of stevioside and rebaudioside. yerba maté See maté. Yersinia enterocolitica Food poisoning organism that invades intestinal epithelial cells. Infective dose 106–107 organisms; onset 3–5 days; duration weeks; TX 4.1.3.1.
  4. 519 TM Yestamin A variety of preparations of dried debittered brewers’ yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) used to enrich foods. yield Weight of food after processing as a percentage of unprocessed material. yin See macrobiotic diet. ylang-ylang oil Aromatic oil from flowers of Philippine tree Cananga odorata used as a flavouring in soft drinks, confec- tionery and baked goods. YN A synthetic phospholipid (ammonium phosphatide) devel- oped by Cadbury to replace lecithin as an emulsifying agent in chocolate manufacture. yogurt Milk (from a variety of animals but usually cows) coagu- lated and fermented with two types of bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The two organisms are symbiotic; each produces compounds that promote the growth of the other. Both act to precipitate and gel proteins; main flavour development is from the slower formation of d- lactic acid by L. bulgaricus, although S. thermophilus has a greater capacity to metabolise lactose to l-lactate. Stirred yogurt is prepared in bulk; set yogurt is fermented in the plastic containers in which it will be sold. Strained (Greek style) yogurt is prepared by removing some of the whey by straining through a cloth or by centrifugation. Drinking yogurt is a low- viscosity drink made by blending yogurt with fruit juice and sugar. May be pasteurised, when most of the bacteria are destroyed, otherwise termed live yogurt. Bioyogurts also contain Lacto- bacillus acidophilus (see milk, acidophilus) and Bifidobacterium bifidum, which are claimed to enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. See also milk, fermented. yolk index Index of freshness of an egg; ratio between height and diameter of yolk under defined conditions. As the egg deterio- rates, the yolk index decreases. youngberry Cross between blackberry and dewberry. yukwa Korean; snack food made by deep frying dried dough pre- pared by steeping waxy rice for 1–2 weeks. yusho disease Caused by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls which contaminated edible oil on the Japanese island of Kyushu in 1968. Z zabaglione (zabaione) Italian; frothy dessert made from egg yolks, sugar and wine (usually marsala) whisked over gentle heat until thick. French sabayon is similar.
  5. 520 ZAG Zinc α2 glycoprotein, secreted by various tumours; acti- vates lipolysis and contributes to loss of adipose tissue in cachexia. zampone Italian; pork sausage in which meat is stuffed into a boned pig’s trotter instead of casing. zearalenone Trichothecene mycotoxin produced when cereals are infected with Fusarium spp. zeaxanthin One of the carotenoid pigments in maize, egg yolk and Physalis (cape gooseberry); has no vitamin A activity; used as a colouring. See also lutein. zébrine Variety of aubergine with purple and white stripes. zedoary root Root of the Indian plant Curcuma zedoaria, a member of the ginger family. Used in the manufacture of flavours and bitters. zeer Sudanese; earthenware vessel used for preparation of kawal. zein A prolamin, the major protein of maize (Zea mays), very poor in lysine and tryptophan. Z-enzyme Enzyme (β-1,3-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.58) found associ- ated with amylases, that hydrolyses the few β-1,3-links present in amylose. Pure, crystalline β-amylase will convert only 70% of amylose to maltose; it requires the presence of the Z-enzyme for complete conversion. ZeocarbTM An ion-exchange resin. zest Outer skin of citrus fruits. See flavedo. zinc An essential mineral which forms the prosthetic group of a large number of enzymes, and the nuclear receptor proteins for steroid and thyroid hormones and vitamins a and d. Deficiency results in hypogonadism and delayed puberty, small stature and mild anaemia; it occurs mainly in subtropical regions where a great deal of zinc is lost in sweat, and the diet is largely based on unleavened wholemeal bread, in which much of the zinc is unavailable because of the high content of phytic acid. Intestinal absorption of zinc requires an (as yet unidentified) organic zinc binding ligand secreted in pancre- atic juice. Deficiency may also lead to functional vitamin A deficiency because of impaired synthesis of retinol binding protein. zitoni See pasta. zizanie See rice, wild. zNoseTM A surface acoustic wave-based sensor that permits extremely rapid gas chromatography with very high sensitivity – an ‘electronic nose’. See also eNose.
  6. 521 Zollinger–Ellison syndrome Excessive secretion of gastric acid due to high levels of circulating gastrin secreted by a pancreatic tumour. zomotherapy Treatment of convalescents with raw meat or meat juice, long since discontinued. zoopherin Obsolete name for vitamin b12. zooplankton See plankton. zucchini Italian variety of marrow developed to be harvested when small. American and Australian name for courgette. Zucker rat A genetically obese strain of rat used in research. z value See decimal reduction time. zwieback German; twice-baked bread or rusk. zwitterions An ionised molecule with both positive and negative charges, e.g. the amino acids. Zygosaccharomyces Yeasts that grow in high concentrations of sugar (osmophilic) that cause spoilage of honey, jams, and syrups. zymase Obsolete name for the mixture of enzymes in yeast which is responsible for fermentation. zymogens The inactive form in which some enzymes, especially the protein digestive enzymes, are secreted, being activated after secretion. Also called proenzymes, or enzyme precursors. zymotachygraph An instrument that measures the gas produced in a fermenting dough and the amount escaping from the dough, as an index of bread-making properties.
  7. Appendix
  8. 525 Table 1 Units of physical quantities and multiples and submultiples of units Physical quantity Unit Symbol Definition Amount of substance mole mol SI base unit Electric charge coulomb C sA Electric conductance siemens S A V−1 Electric current ampere A SI base unit Electric potential difference volt V J A−1 s−1 Electric resistance ohm Ω V A−1 Electrical capacitance farad F A s V−1 Energy joule J m2 kg s−2 calorie cal 4.186 J Force newton N J m−1 Frequency hertz Hz s−1 Illuminance lux lx cd sr m−2 Length metre m SI base unit ångstrom Å 10−10 m Luminous flux lumen lm cd sr Luminous intensity candela cd SI base unit Magnetic flux weber Wb Vs Magnetic flux density tesla T V s m−2 Mass kilogram kg SI base unit Plane angle radian rad SI base unit Power watt W J s−1 Pressure pascal Pa N m−2 bar bar 105 Pa Radiation dose absorbed gray Gy J kg−1 Radioactivity becquerel Bq s−1 Solid angle steradian sr SI base unit Temperature degree Celsius °C thermodynamic temperature −273.15 K Temperature (thermodynamic) kelvin K SI base unit Time second s SI base unit Volume litre (cubic L or (dm3) 10−3 m3 decimeter) multiple prefix symbol submultiple prefix symbol 101 deca da 10−1 deci d 102 hecta h 10−2 centi c 103 kilo k 10−3 milli m 106 mega M 10−6 micro µ 109 giga G 10−9 nano n 1012 tera T 10−12 pico p 1015 peta P 10−15 femto f 1018 exa E 10−18 atto a 1021 zetta Z 10−21 zepto z
  9. 526 Table 2 Labelling reference values for foods USA: European Union: European Union: reference proposed by required by daily intake Scientific Committee EU Directive for Food, 1993 Vitamin A, µg 1500 500 800 Vitamin D, µg 10 5 5 Vitamin E, mg 30 – 10 Vitamin C, mg 60 30 60 Thiamin, mg 1.5 0.8 1.4 Riboflavin, mg 1.7 1.3 1.6 Niacin, mg 20 15 18 Vitamin B6, mg 2.0 1.3 2.0 Folate, µg 400 140 200 Vitamin B12, µg 6.0 1.0 1.0 Biotin, µg 300 – 150 Pantothenic acid, mg 10 – 6 Calcium, mg 1000 550 800 Copper, mg 2.0 0.8 – Iodine, µg 150 100 150 Iron, mga 18 7, 14 14 Magnesium, mg 400 – 300 Phosphorus, mg 1000 – 800 Selenium, µg – 40 – Zinc, mg 15 7.5 15 a The Scientific Committee for Food proposed separate figures for iron for women (14 mg) and men (7 mg).
  10. Table 3 US/Canadian recommended dietary allowances and acceptable intakes, 1997–2001 Age Vit A Vit D Vit E Vit K Vit B1 Vit B2 niacin Vit B6 folate Vit B12 Vit C Ca P Mg Fe Zn Cu Se I Cr Mn Mo µg µg mg µg mg mg mg mg µg µg mg mg mg mg mg mg µg µg µg µg mg µg 0–6 months 400 5 4 2.0 0.2 0.3 2 0.1 65 0.4 40 210 100 30 – 2 200 15 110 0.2 – 2 7–12 months 500 5 5 2.5 0.3 0.4 4 0.3 80 0.5 50 270 275 75 11 3 220 20 130 5.5 0.6 3 1–3 years 300 5 6 30 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 15 500 460 80 7 3 340 20 90 11 1.2 17 4–8 years 400 5 7 55 0.5 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 25 800 500 130 10 5 440 30 90 15 1.5 22 Males 9–13 years 600 5 11 60 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 45 1300 1250 240 8 8 700 40 120 25 1.9 34 14–18 years 900 5 15 75 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 75 1300 1250 410 11 11 890 55 150 35 2.2 43 19–30 years 900 5 15 120 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 90 1000 700 400 8 11 900 55 150 35 2.3 45 31–50 years 900 5 15 120 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 90 1000 700 420 8 11 900 55 150 35 2.3 45 51–70 years 900 10 15 120 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 90 1200 700 420 8 11 900 55 150 30 2.3 45 >70 years 900 15 15 120 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 90 1200 700 420 8 11 900 55 150 30 2.3 45 Females 9–13 years 600 5 11 60 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 45 1300 1250 240 8 8 700 40 120 21 1.6 34 14–18 years 700 5 15 75 1.0 1.0 14 1.2 400 2.4 65 1300 1250 360 15 9 890 55 150 24 1.6 43 19–30 years 700 5 15 90 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 2.4 75 1000 700 310 18 8 900 55 150 25 1.8 45 31–50 years 700 5 15 90 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 2.4 75 1000 700 320 18 8 900 55 150 25 1.8 45 51–70 years 700 10 15 90 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 75 1200 700 320 8 8 900 55 150 20 1.8 45 >70 years 700 15 15 90 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 75 1200 700 320 8 8 900 55 150 20 1.8 45 Pregnant 770 5 15 90 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 2.6 85 1000 700 350 27 11 1000 60 220 30 2.0 50 Lactating 900 5 16 90 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 120 1000 700 310 9 12 1300 70 290 45 2.6 50 Figures for infants under 12 months are Adequate Intakes (AI), based on the observed mean intake of infants fed principally on breast milk; for nutrients other than vitamin K figures are RDA, based on estimated average requirement + 2 SD; figures for vitamin K are AI, based on observed average intakes. Figures for calcium, chromium, manganese are AI. 527
  11. 528 Table 4 EU population reference intakes of nutrients, 1993 Age Protein vit A vit B1 vit B2 niacin vit B6 folate vit B12 vit C Ca P Fe Zn Cu Se I g µg mg mg mg mg µg µg mg mg mg mg mg mg µg µg 6–12 months 15 350 0.3 0.4 5 0.4 50 0.5 20 400 300 6 4 0.3 8 50 1–3 years 15 400 0.5 0.8 9 0.7 100 0.7 25 400 300 4 4 0.4 10 70 4–6 years 20 400 0.7 1.0 11 0.9 130 0.9 25 450 350 4 6 0.6 15 90 7–10 years 29 500 0.8 1.2 13 1.1 150 1.0 30 550 450 6 7 0.7 25 100 Males 11–14 years 44 600 1.0 1.4 15 1.3 180 1.3 35 1000 775 10 9 0.8 35 120 15–17 years 55 700 1.2 1.6 18 1.5 200 1.4 40 1000 775 13 9 1.0 45 130 18+ years 56 700 1.1 1.6 18 1.5 200 1.4 45 700 550 9 9.5 1.1 55 130 Females 11–14 years 42 600 0.9 1.2 14 1.1 180 1.3 35 800 625 18 9 0.8 35 120 15–17 years 46 600 0.9 1.3 14 1.1 200 1.4 40 800 625 17 7 1.0 45 130 18+ years 47 600 0.9 1.3 14 1.1 200 1.4 45 700 550 16* 7 1.1 55 130 Pregnant 57 700 1.0 1.6 14 1.3 400 1.6 55 700 550 * 7 1.1 55 130 Lactating 63 950 1.1 1.7 16 1.4 350 1.9 70 1200 950 16 12 1.4 70 160 *8 mg iron post-menopausally; supplements required in latter half of pregnancy.
  12. Table 5 UK reference nutrient intakes, 1991 Age vit B1 vit B2 niacin Vit B6 Vit B12 folate vit C vit A vit D Ca P Mg Na Fe Zn Cu Se I mg mg mg mg µg µg mg µg µg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg µg µg 0–3 months 0.2 0.4 3 0.2 0.3 50 25 350 8.5 525 400 55 210 1.7 4.0 0.2 10 50 4–6 months 0.2 0.4 3 0.2 0.3 50 25 350 8.5 525 400 60 280 4.3 4.0 0.3 13 60 7–9 months 0.2 0.4 4 0.3 0.4 50 25 350 7 525 400 75 320 7.8 5.0 0.3 10 60 10–12 months 0.3 0.4 5 0.4 0.4 50 25 350 7 525 400 80 350 7.8 5.0 0.3 10 60 1–3 years 0.5 0.6 8 0.7 0.5 70 30 400 7 350 270 85 500 6.9 5.0 0.4 15 70 4–6 years 0.7 0.8 11 0.9 0.8 100 30 500 450 350 120 700 6.1 6.5 0.6 20 100 7–10 years 0.7 1.0 12 1.0 1.0 150 30 500 550 450 200 1200 8.7 7.0 0.7 30 110 Males 11–14 years 0.9 1.2 15 1.2 1.2 200 35 600 1000 775 280 1600 11.3 9.0 0.8 45 130 15–18 years 1.1 1.3 18 1.5 1.5 200 40 700 1000 775 300 1600 11.3 9.5 1.0 70 140 19–50 years 1.0 1.3 17 1.4 1.5 200 40 700 700 550 300 1600 8.7 9.5 1.2 75 140 50+ years 0.9 1.3 16 1.4 1.5 200 40 700 10 700 550 300 1600 8.7 9.5 1.2 75 140 Females 11–14 years 0.7 1.1 12 1.0 1.2 200 35 600 800 625 280 1600 14.8 9.0 0.8 45 130 15–18 years 0.8 1.1 14 1.2 1.5 200 40 600 800 6254 300 1600 14.8 7.0 1.0 60 140 19–50 years 0.8 1.1 13 1.2 1.5 200 40 600 700 550 270 1600 14.8 7.0 1.2 60 140 50+ years 0.8 1.1 12 1.2 1.5 200 40 600 10 700 550 270 1600 8.7 7.0 1.2 60 140 Pregnant +0.1 +0.3 +100 +10 +100 10 Lactating +0.1 +0.5 +2 +0.5 +60 +30 +350 10 +550 +440 +50 +6.0 +0.3 +15 529
  13. 530 Table 6 Recommended nutrient intakes for vitamins, FAO 2001 Age Vit A Vit D Vit K Vit B1 Vit B2 niacin Vit B6 folate Vit B12 Vit C panto biotin µg µg µg mg mg mg mg µg µg mg mg µg 0–6 months 375 5 5 0.2 0.3 2 0.1 80 0.4 25 1.7 5 7–12 months 400 5 10 0.3 0.4 4 0.3 80 0.5 30 1.8 6 1–3 years 400 5 15 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 160 0.9 30 2.0 8 4–6 years 450 5 20 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 30 3.0 12 7–9 years 500 5 25 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 35 4.0 20 Males 10–18 years 600 5 35–55 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 40 5.0 30 19–50 years 600 5 65 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 45 5.0 30 50–65 years 600 10 65 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 45 5.0 30 >65 years 600 15 65 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 45 5.0 30 Female 10–18 years 600 5 35–55 1.1 1.0 16 1.2 400 2.4 40 5.0 25 19–50 years 600 5 55 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 2.4 45 5.0 30 50–65 years 600 10 55 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 45 5.0 30 >65 years 600 15 55 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 45 5.0 30 Pregnant 800 5 55 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 2.6 55 6.0 30 Lactating 850 5 55 1.5 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 70 7.0 35
  14. 531 Table 7 Food additives permitted in the EU Colours Yellow and orange colours E100 Curcumin E101 (i) Riboflavin, (ii) Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (vitamin B2) E102 Tartrazine (= FD&C Yellow no. 5) E104 Quinoline yellow E110 Sunset Yellow FCF; Orange Yellow S (= FD&C Yellow no. 6) Red colours E120 Cochineal; Carminic acid; Carmines E122 Azorubine; Carmoisine E123 Amaranth E124 Ponceau 4R; Cochineal Red A E127 Erythrosine (= FD&C Red no. 3) E128 Red 2G E129 Allura Red AC (= FD&C Red no. 40) Blue colours E131 Patent Blue V E132 lndigotine; Indigo Carmine (= FD&C Blue no. 2) E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (= FD&C Blue no. 1) Green colours E140 Chlorophylls and chlorophyllins (the natural green colour of leaves) E141 Copper complexes of chlorophyll and chlorophyllins E142 Green S Brown and black colours E150a Plain caramel E150b Caustic sulphite caramel E150c Ammonia caramel E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel E151 Brilliant Black BN; Black PN E153 Vegetable carbon E154 Brown FK E155 Brown HT Derivatives of carotene E160a Carotenes E160b Annatto; Bixin; Norbixin E160c Paprika extract; Capsanthian; Capsorubin E160d Lycopene E160e Beta-apo-8′-carotenal (C30) E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8′-carotenoic acid (C30) Other plant colours E161b Lutein E161g Canthaxanthin E162 Beetroot Red; Betanin E163 Anthocyanins Other compounds used as colours E170 Calcium carbonate E171 Titanium dioxide E172 Iron oxides and hydroxides E173 Aluminium
  15. 532 Table 7 (continued) E174 Silver E175 Gold E180 Litholrubine BK Preservatives Sorbic acid and its salts E200 Sorbic acid E202 Potassium sorbate E203 Calcium sorbate Benzoic acid and its salts E210 Benzoic acid E211 Sodium benzoate E212 Potassium benzoate E213 Calcium benzoate E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate E217 Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate Sulphur dioxide and its salts E220 Sulphur dioxide E221 Sodium sulphite E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite E223 Sodium metabisulphite E224 Potassium metabisulphite E226 Calcium sulphite E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite Biphenyl and its derivatives E230 Biphenyl; diphenyl (for surface treatment of citrus fruits) E231 Orthophenyl phenol (for surface treatment of citrus fruits) E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol (sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxide) Other preservatives E234 Nisin E235 Natamycin (NATA, for surface treatment of cheeses and dried cured sausages) E239 Hexamethylene tetramine (hexamine) E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate E1105 Lysozyme (an antibacterial enzyme found in tears) Pickling salts E249 Potassium nitrite E250 Sodium nitrite E251 Sodium nitrate E252 Potassium nitrate (saltpetre) Acids and their salts E280 Propionic acid E281 Sodium propionate E282 Calcium propionate
  16. 533 Table 7 (continued) E283 Potassium propionate E284 Boric acid E285 Sodium tetraborate; borax Antioxidants Vitamin C E300 Ascorbic acid E301 Sodium ascorbate E302 Calcium ascorbate E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (a lipid-soluble derivative of the vitamin) Vitamin E E306 Tocopherols (natural source, mixed isomers) E307 Alpha-tocopherol E308 Gamma-tocopherol E309 Delta-tocopherol Other antioxidants E310 Propyl gallate E311 Octyl gallate E312 Dodecyl gallate E315 Erythorbic acid (the d-isomer of vitamin C, little vitamin activity) E316 Sodium erythorbate E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) E321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) Sweeteners Sugar alcohols used as bulk sweeteners E420 (i) Sorbitol, (ii) Sorbitol syrup E421 Mannitol E953 lsomalt E965 (i) Maltitol, (ii) Maltitol syrup E966 Lactitol E967 Xylitol Intense (synthetic) sweeteners E950 Acesulfame K E951 Aspartame E952 Cyclamic acid and its Na and Ca salts E954 Saccharin and its Na, K and Ca salts E957 Thaumatin E959 Neohesperidine DC Emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents E322 Lecithins (found especially in egg yolk and soya bean) Alginates E400 Alginic acid E401 Sodium alginate E402 Potassium alginate E403 Ammonium alginate E404 Calcium alginate E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate
  17. 534 Table 7 (continued) Plant gums (soluble fibre) E406 Agar E407 Carrageenan E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed E410 Locust bean gum; carob gum E412 Guar gum E413 Tragacanth E414 Acacia gum; gum arabic E415 Xanthan gum E416 Karaya gum E417 Tara gum E418 Gellan gum E425 Konjac Polysorbates E432 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate; Polysorbate 20 E433 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate; Polysorbate 80 E434 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate; Polysorbate 40 E435 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate; Polysorbate 60 E436 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate; Polysorbate 65 Cellulose derivatives E460 Cellulose E461 Methyl cellulose E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose E464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose E466 Carboxy methyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose E468 Cross-linked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose E469 Enzymatically hydrolysed carboxy methyl cellulose Fatty acid derivatives and modified fats E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E472e Mono- and diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids E474 Sucroglycerides E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids E479b Thermally oxidised soya bean oil interacted with mono and diglycerides of fatty acids E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate E483 Stearyl tartrate
  18. 535 Table 7 (continued) E491 Sorbitan monostearate E492 Sorbitan tristearate E493 Sorbitan monolaurate E494 Sorbitan monooleate E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate Other compounds E440 Pectins (found naturally in fruit, especially apples) E442 Ammonium phosphatides E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins E1103 Invertase Other additives Acid, acidity regulators, anti-caking agents, anti-foaming agents, bulking agents, carriers and carrier solvents, emulsifying salts, firming agents, flavour enhancers, flour treatment agents, foaming agents, glazing agents, humectants, modified starches, packaging gases, propellants, raising agents and sequestrants Acidity regulators Carbon dioxide and carbonates E170 Calcium carbonates E290 Carbon dioxide E500 Sodium carbonates E501 Potassium carbonates E503 Ammonium carbonates E504 Magnesium carbonates Acetic acid and its salts E260 Acetic acid (vinegar is dilute acetic acid) E261 Potassium acetate E262 Sodium acetate E263 Calcium acetate Lactic acid and its salts E270 Lactic acid (the acid of sour milk) E325 Sodium lactate E326 Potassium lactate E327 Calcium lactate Citric acid and its salts E330 Citric acid E331 Sodium citrates E332 Potassium citrates E333 Calcium citrates E380 Triammonium citrate Tartaric acid and its salts E334 Tartaric acid (l-(+)) E335 Sodium tartrates E336 Potassium tartrates (cream of tartar) E337 Sodium potassium tartrate E353 Metatartaric acid E354 Calcium tartrate
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