Từ vựng và Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh 10 (Nâng cao) - Unit 9 to 16

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  1. SÔÛ GIAÙO DUÏC & ÑAØO TAÏO ÑOÀNG THAÙP TRÖÔØNG THPT THOÁNG LINH  TÖØ VÖÏNG, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH 10 (NAÂNG CAO) Units Units 9-16 Bieân so n: LEÂ NGOÏC THAÏCH TAØI LIEÄU THAM KHAÛO (Löu haønh noäi boä)
  2. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch UNIT 9: UNDERSEA WORLD ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 113-116) improvement (n) söï caûi thieän humpback whale (n) caù voi guø touch (v) sôø, chaïm lobster (n) toâm huøm human (n) con ngöôøi sea horse (n) haûi maõ behavior (n) thaùi ñoä star fish (n) sao bieån specialist (n) chuyeân gia mammal (n) ñoäng vaät coù vuù caution (n) söï caån thaän rescue (v) cöùu contact (n) söï tieáp xuùc victim (n) naïn nhaân harm (n,v) laøm haïi assist (v) help: giuùp ñôû disturb (v) quaáy raày shipwreck (n) ñaém taøu beg (v) van naøi vision impairment (n) suy yeáu thò löïc habitat (n) moâi tröôøng soáng patient (n) beänh nhaân danger (n) söï nguy hieåm B. LISTENING (pages 116-117) squeak (v) keâu the theù harpoon (n) caây lao moùc bellow (v) gaøo harpoon gun (n) suùng baén lao shriek (v) heùt rock (v) laéc lö passionate wail (n) tieáng reân soâi noåi reef (v) cuoán meùp fate (n) soá phaän switch (v) chaïm tale (n) chuyeän keå tape spin (n) voøng xoay cuûa baêng assume (v) cho laø grunt (v) caøu nhaøu tune (n) giai ñieäu C. SPEAKING (pages 117-120) explore (v) khaùm phaù explanation (n) söï giaûi thích shell (n) voû fatty (adj) coù môõ exhale (v) thôû ra allergic (adj) dò öùng blowhole (n) loã phun nöôùc bone (n) xöông get stuck (v) dính vaøo patience (n) söï kieân nhaãn oil slick (n) veát daàu loang pet (n) vaät nuoâi (trong nhaø) bury (v) choân D. WRITING (pages 121-123) join (v) tham gia drop… a line (v) goïi ñieän thoïai Aquarium (n) hoà nuoâi scuba diving (n) moân laën coù bình döôõng get-together (n) cuoäc hoïp maët khí welcome (v) chaøo ñoùn Association (n) hieäp hoäi advisor (n) ngöôøi khuyeân baûo out of touch (exp) maät lieân laïc drop by (v) taït vaøo thaêm offer (v) ñöa ra E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 123-125) bite bit bitten (v) caén giraffe (n) höôu cao coå Down’s syndrome (n) hoäi chöùng Ñao 1
  3. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch neck (n) coå creature (n) sinh vaät cruel (adj) ñoäc aùc export (v) xuaát khaåu sympathy (n) söï thoâng caûm species (n) loøai fin (n) vaây caù annoy (v) laøm khoù chòu puffer fish (n) caù noùc classify (v) phaân loïai long (v) ao öôùc effect (v) aûnh höôûng WORD STUDY Compound Adjectives Ex: They are warm-blooded animals. Comp Adj Adjective + Noun-ED Compound Adjective Ex: I don’t like a student who has a strong head. I don’t like a strong-headed student. GRAMMAR I. Relative Clauses 1. Restrictive Relative Clauses DANH TÖØ CHUÛ TÖØ TUÙC TÖØ Ngöôøi WHO/ THAT WHOM/ THAT Vaät/Ñoäng vaät WHICH/ THAT WHICH/ THAT MÑQH giôùi haïn laø MÑQH boå nghóa cho danh töø (ñaïi töø) phía tröôùc chöa ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Ex: - I saw the teacher. You talked to him yesterday. I saw the teacher whom you talked to yesterday. - The book is on wild animals. It attracts a lot of readers. The book which attracts a lot of readers is on wild animals. 2. Non-restrictive Relative Clauses DANH TÖØ CHUÛ TÖØ TUÙC TÖØ Ngöôøi WHO WHOM Vaät/Ñoäng vaät WHICH WHICH MÑQH khoâng giôùi haïn laø MÑQH boå nghóa cho danh töø (ñaïi töø) phía tröôùc ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. MÑQH khoâng giôùi haïn luoân ñöùng sau daáu phaåy; (ta khoâng duøng THAT trong MÑQH khoâng giôùi haïn) Ex: - Nguyen Du is a famous Vietnamese poet. He wrote Kieu’s Story. Nguyen Du, who wrote Kieu’s Story, is a famous Vietnamese poet. - We are talking about Tokyo. It is the capital city of Japan. We are talking about Tokyo, which is the capital city of Japan. 2
  4. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch II. The Passive Voice 1. Form Ex: Active: She arranges the books on the shelves every weekend. S V O Passive: The books are arranged on the shelves (by her) every weekend. S be V3/ed by O Active: S + V + O + ……. Passive: S + be + V3/ed + (by O) + …… 2. Rules Khi ñoåi töø chuû ñoäng sang bò ñoäng, ta chuù yù caùc böôùc sau: a. Xaùc ñònh S (Chuû töø), V (Ñoäng töø), O (Tuùc töø) vaø thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng. Ex: Active: She arranges the books on the shelves every weekend. S V1 O b. Ñem O leân laøm S, chuyeån S xuoáng laøm O ñaët sau by. Ex: (P) The books are arranged on the shelves (by her) every weekend. S by O c. Theâm ñoäng töø to be (phuø hôïp vôùi thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng), vaø chuyeån ñoäng töø chính sang V3/ed. Ex: (P) The books are arranged on the shelves (by her) every weekend. be V3/ed 3. Notes: a. Trong caâu bò ñoäng: by O luoân ñöùng sau adverbs of place (traïng töø chæ nôi choán) vaø tröôùc adverbs of time (traïng töø chæ thôøi gian). Ex: (P) The books are arranged on the shelves (by her) every weekend. b. Trong caâu bò ñoäng, coù theå boû: by people, by us, by them, by someone… Ex: Passive: A new bridge has been built across the river (by them). Active Passive S + V1 + O S + am/is/are + V3/ed S + am/is/are + V-ing + O S + am/is/are + being +V3/ed S + has/have + V3/ed + O S + has/have + been + V3/ed S + V2/ed + O S + was/were +V3/ed S + was/were + V-ing + O S + was/were + being +V3/ed S + had + V3/ed + O S + had + been + V3/ed S + will/shall + Vo + O S + will/shall + be +V3/ed 3
  5. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch UNIT 10: CONSERVATION ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 126-128) damage (n,v) laøm, söï hö hoûng amphibian (n) ñoäng vaät löôõng cö solution (n) giaûi phaùp insect (n) coân truøng destruction (n) söï phaù huõy ecotourist (n) ngöôøi ñi du lòch s.thaùi extinction (n) söï tuyeät chuûng landscape (n) phong caûnh poaching (n) söï saên troäm contribute (v) ñoùng goùp trading (n) söï buoân baùn biosphere (n) sinh quyeån conserve (v) baûo toàn reserve (n) khu baûo toàn heritage (n) di saûn trace (v) theo daáu mosaic (n) ñoà khaûm prey (n) con moài establish (v) thieát laäp peacock (n) con coâng exploit (v) khai thaùc ecotour (n) chuyeán du lòch sinh thaùi ecotourism (n) du lòch sinh thaùi flourishing (v) phaùt ñaït flora (n) heä thöïc vaät promote (v) phaùt huy fauna (n) heä thöïc vaät fund (n) voán reptile (n) ñoäng vaät boø saùt authority (n) chính quyeàn B. LISTENING (pages 128-129) tease (v) choïc gheïo rare (adj) hieám preserve (v) giöõ gìn bush (n) buïi caây lifestyle (n) phong caùch soáng feed (v) cho aên natural resources (n) taøi nguyeân TN harm (n,v) laøm haïi chop (v) chaët, ñoán C. SPEAKING (pages 129-131) recycle (v) taùi söû duïng deforestation (n) naïn phaù röøng energy (n) naêng löôïng littering (n) xaû raùc reduce (v) caét giaûm disposable (adj) duøng moät laàn protect (v) baûo veä control (v) kieåm soùat D. WRITING (pages 131-133) regret (n) söï aân haän acceptance (n) söï chaáp nhaän surprise (n) ñieàu ngaïc nhieân refusal (n) söï töø choái unforgettable (adj) khoâng queân salutation (n) söï chaøo hoûi wedding (n) leã cöôùi politely (adv) moät caùch lòch söï volunteer work (n) coâng vieäc tình delight (n) söï vui möøng nguyeän E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 133-136) destroy (v) phaù huõy dynamite (n) chaát noå construction (n) söï xaây döïng tanker (n) taøu chôû daàu poacher (n) ngöôøi saên troäm leak (v) roø ró 4
  6. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch toxic chemical (n) hoùa chaát ñoäc haïi polar bear (n) gaáu baéc cöïc discharge (v) thaû fur (n) loâng thuù rhino (n) con teâ giaùc dump (v) ñoå vaøo horn (n) caùi söøng comet (n) sao choåi dweller (n) ngöôøi daân endure (v) chòu ñöïng exhaust gas (n) khí thaûi (töø xe coä) sewage (n) raùc thaûi suffer (v) chòu ñöïng disaster (n) thaûm hoïa WORD STUDY Noun Forms - act action collect collection - prepare preparation examine examination Verb + ion/ation Noun GRAMMAR I. The Modal Auxiliary: Should 1. Form: S + should + Vo….. 2. Use: Dieãn ñaït yù neân laøm gì hoaëc lôøi khuyeân (ñoàng nghóa vôùi ought to). Ex: We should reduce the amount of garbage in the city. II. Conditional Sentences (If Sentences): Type 2 (see Unit 8 – Type 1) 1. Form If clause Main clause If + S + V2/ed….., S + would/could + Vo…… (be were) 2. Use Dieãn taû moät ñieàu kieän khoâng theå xaûy ra ôû hieän taïi. Ex: - If he had much time, he would help you. (He doesn’t have much time now) - If I were in your position, I could do that. (I am not in your position now) III. Conditional Sentences (If Sentences): Type 3 (see Unit 8 – Type 1) 1. Form If clause Main clause If + S + had + V3/ed….., S + would/could + have + V3/ed…. 2. Use Dieãn taû moät ñieàu kieän khoâng theå xaûy ra trong quaù khöù. Ex: If we had studied hard last year, we would have got good marks. 5
  7. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch (We didn’t study hard last year and we didn’t get good marks) 6
  8. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch UNIT 11: NATIONAL PARKS ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 137-140) extract (n) ñoïan trích maintain (v) duy trì endangered species (n) loøai vaät coù nguy balance (v) caân baèng cô tuyeät chuûng ecology (n) heä sinh thaùi ox (n) con boø ñöïc Aborigines (n) ngöôøi baûn xöù nöôùc buffalo (n) con traâu Australia. chopsticks (n) ñoâi ñuûa noble (adj) cao quyù gaur (n) boø gaâu reptile (n) ñoäng vaät boø saùt rim (n) vaønh ñai amphibian (n) ñoäng vaät löôõng cö canyon (n) heûm nuùi caretaker (n) ngöôøi chaêm soùc rainfall (n) löôïng möa manager (n) ngöôøi quaûn lí cover (v) che phuû graph (n) bieåu ñoà unique (adj) duy nhaát spidergram (n) hình nheän B. LISTENING (pages 140-141) cafeteria (n) quaùn aên nhoû measure (n) möùc ñoä vacant (adj) troáng ecotour (n) chuyeán du lòch sinh thaùi go trekking (v) ñi baèng xe boø guide (v) höôùng daãn serious (adj) nghieâm troïng protect (v) baûo veä C. SPEAKING (pages 141-143) permission (n) söï cho pheùp vehicle (n) xe coä bubble (n) lôøi noùi coøn ñeå troáng breathe (v) thôû shoot shot shot: baén fell (v) ñoán caây public (adj) coâng coäng dump trash (v) ñoå raùc transportation (n) giao thoâng complicated (adj) phöùc taïp D. WRITING (pages 143-145) percent (n) phaàn traêm interpret (v) thoâng dòch diaper (n) taõ loùt graph (n) bieåu ñoà debris (n) maûnh vôõ survey (n) ñieàu tra occur (v) xaûy ra identify (v) chæ ra gas blowout (n) söï noã ga respondent (n) ngöôøi traû lôøi prediction (n) söï döï ñoùan E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 145-147) original state (n) hieän traïng goác arrest (v) baét giöõ painting (n) böùc veõ inappropriate (adj) khoâng thích hôïp gallery (n) phoøng tröng baøy profit (n) lôïi nhuaän guest (n) khaùch cancel (v) huõy boû purchase (v) = sell: baùn snow (n) tuyeát 7
  9. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch WORD STUDY Preserve vs. Reserve - Preserve (v): giöõ gìn, baûo quaûn preservation (n) söï giöõ gìn, söï baûo quaûn - Reserve (v): ñeå daønh, ñaët tröôùc reservation (n) söï ñeå daønh, söï ñaët tröôùc - Reservation (n) vuøng ñaát daønh rieâng cho ngöôøi Mó baûn xöù sinh soáng. GRAMMAR I. Reduced Relative Clauses 1. Duøng V-ing : Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå CHUÛ ÑOÄNG hoaëc laø BE. Ex: - Those people who are taking photos over there come from Sweden. Those people taking photos over there come from Sweden. - Fans who want to buy tickets started queuing early. Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early. 2. Duøng V3/ed : Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå BÒ ÑOÄNG. Ex: - The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting. The books written by To Hoai are interesting. - Most students who were punished last week are lazy. Most students punished last week are lazy. II. The Passive Voice with Different Verb Forms and with Modals 1. The Passive Voice with Different Verb Forms Trong caùc thì coù caùc trôï ñoäng töø (Auxiliary verbs) nhö: am/ is/ are, was/ were, has/ have, had…… Ex: - Active: They have built a new bridge across the river. S Aux V O Passive: A new bridge has been built across the river (by them). S Aux be V3 by O - Active: Mai was watching a cartoon at 8 o’clock last night. S Aux V O Passive: A cartoon was being watched by Mai at 8 o’clock last night. S Aux be V-ed by O Active: S + Aux + V + O + ……. Passive: S + Aux + be + V3/ed + (by O) + …… Active Passive S + V1 + O S + am/is/are + V3/ed S + am/is/are + V-ing + O S + am/is/are + being +V3/ed S + has/have + V3/ed + O S + has/have + been + V3/ed 8
  10. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch S + V2/ed + O S + was/were +V3/ed S + was/were + V-ing + O S + was/were + being +V3/ed S + had + V3/ed + O S + had + been + V3/ed S + will/shall + Vo + O S + will/shall + be +V3/ed 2. The Passive Voice with Modal Verbs Caùc ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát (Modal verbs) nhö: can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, had better, would rather, have to, be going to, used to, ought to, …. Ex: - Active: Nam can do this exercise right now. S M.V Vo O Passive: This exercise can be done by Nam right now. S M.V be V3 by O - Active: People are going to solve the problem next month. S modal verb Vo O Passive: The problem is going to be solved (by people) next month. S modal verb be V-ed by O Active: S + Modal Verbs + Vo + O + ……. Passive: S + Modal Verbs + be + V3/ed + (by O) + …… UNIT 12: MUSIC ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 148-150) symphony (n) baûn nhaïc giao höôûng indispensable (adj) o theå thieáu ñöôïc emerge (v) noåi lean, xuaát hieän instrument (n) nhaïc cuï beat (n) nhòp, phaùch classical (adj) coå ñieån hit (n) söï thaønh coâng audience (n) khaùn giaû solo (n) ñoïn ca, ñoäc taáu romantic (adj) tröõ tình transmit (v) truyeàn appeal (n) söï haáp daãn orally (adv) ñöôøng mieäng emotional (adj) xuùc caûm, xuùc ñoäng tune (n) giai ñieäu stimulation (n) söï kích thích generation (n) theá heä composer (n) nhaø soaïn nhaïc version (n) phieân baûn B. LISTENING (pages 151-152) ban (v) caám dove (n) boà caâu exist (v) toàn taïi sail (n) laùi pretend (v) giaû vôø cannonball (n) ñaïn ñaïi baùc die (v) cheát strike (v) taán coâng death (n) caùi cheát C. SPEAKING (pages 153-155) duet (n) song ca attitude (n) thaùi ñoä chorus (n) daøn ñoàng ca, hôïp xöôùng 9
  11. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch experience (n) kinh nghieäm intriguing (adj) haáp daãn, say ñaém description (n) söï mieâu taû lyric (n) ca töø, lôøi nhaïc touch (v) chaïm vaøo stuff (n) thöù, moùn rhythm (n) nhòp ñieäu appreciate (v) ñaùnh giaù cao nostalgic (adj) hoaøi coå, hoaøi nieäm energized (adj) maïnh meõ melodious (adj) eâm tai, du döông princess (n) coâng chuùa D. WRITING (pages 155-156) profile (n) tieåu söû thought-provoking (adj) gôïi nhieàu suy snapshot (n) böùc aûnh chuïp nghó influence (n) söï aûnh höôûng organize (v) toå chöùc release (v) phaùt haønh spice (v) theâm gia vò reflect (v) phaûn aùnh antiwar (n) phaûn chieán religious (adj) thuoäc veà ñaïo legacy (n) gia taøi, di saûn legend (n) huyeàn thoaïi finite (adj) haïn cheá contemporary (adj) ñöông thôøi # infinite (adj) voâ haïn anthemn (n) baøi quoác ca nourish (v) nuoâi döôõng E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 157-159) negotiate (v) baøn baïc adopt (v) löa choïn record (v) thu revolutionary (adj) thuoäc caùch maïng deposit (n) tieàn ñaët coïc inspiring (adj) gaây caûm höùng fossil fuel (n) nhieân lieäu coå reunion (n) söï ñoøan tuï protest (n) söï phaûn ñoái popularity (n) tính ñaïi chuùng recital (n) buoåi bieåu dieãn pass away (v) = die: cheát patriotic (adj) yeâu nöôùc army (n) quaân ñoäi WORD STUDY Prefix “Non-“ non- means “not” Ex: nonrestrictive, nonclassical, nonracial, ……. Non + Adjective Adjective GRAMMAR I. Information Questions (see Unit 2) Baét ñaàu baèng caùc töø ñeå hoûi nhö: Who, whom, which, what, whose, when, where, why, how (old, long, far, much, many,……..) II. It Was not Until…… That…..: Maõi ñeán khi….. thì….. Ex: - He did not know to write until 1990. It was not until 1990 that he knew how to write. - They built a new house after they had saved enough money. It was not until they had saved enough money that they built a new house. 10
  12. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch => It Was not Until…… That + S + V2/ed….. CONSOLIDATION 3 ☺ VOCABULARY A. LISTENING (pages 160-161) unfair (adj) khoâng coâng baèng oxygen (n) khí oâxy intermission (n) giôø nghæ giaûo lao disappear (v) bieán maát miss (v) boû qua absorb (v) huùt, haáp thuï save (v) ñeå daønh, tieát kieäm carbon dioxide (n) ñioâxit cacbon afford (v) coù ñuû khaû naêng unsatisfactory (adj) khoâng haøi loøng exhaust (v) caïn kieät, meät moûi B. VOCABULARY (pages 162-164) switch on (v) môû coâng taéc plate (n) caùi ñóa destination (n) ñieåm ñeán mushroom (n) nuùm rôm contribution (n) söï ñoùng goùp poison (n) chaát ñoäc decade (n) thaäp nieân ivory (n) ngaø voi autobiography (n) töï truyeän recite (v) trích daãn indispensable(adj) khoâng theå boû ñöôïc suspect (v) nghi ngôø indistinct (adj) khoâng khaùc bieät specialist (n) chuyeân gia operator (n) ngöôøi söû duïng maùy transmit (v) truyeàn director (n) ñaïo dieãn C. GRAMMAR (pages 164-166) surge (n) soùng coàn fume (n) khoùi thaûy töø xe coä ultimately (adv) cô baûn, cuoái cuøng dust (n) buïi firefighter (n) lính cöùu hoûa hurricane (n) côn baûo shelter (n) nôi truù nguï separate (v) taùch rôøi landslide (n) söï lôû ñaát breach (v) phaù vôõ lumberjack (n) ngöôøi ñoán caây D. READING (pages 167-168) observe (v) quan saùt role (n) vai troø accompany (v) quen vôùi serve (v) phuïc vuï brand (n) nhaõn hieäu function (n) chöùc naêng obvious (adj) roõ raøng motivate (v) thuùc ñaåy soothe (v) traán tónh unite (v) lieân keát nerve (n) söï sôï haõi promote (v) thuùc ñaåy profound (n) saâu saéc patriotism (n) loøng yeâu nöôùc impact (n) söï taùc ñoäng advertiser (n) nhaø quaûng caùo imply (v) aån yù consumer (n) ngöôøi tieâu thuï soften (v) laøm nheï laïi E. WRITING (page 168) introduce (v) giôùi thieäu consult (v) tö vaán interest (n) sôû thích yourself (pron) chính baïn plan (n) keá hoïach 11
  13. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch UNIT 13: THEATER AND MOVIES ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 169-172) playwright (n) nhaø vieát kòch aspect (n) maët, khía caïnh actor/ actress (n) nam/ nöõ dieãn vieân satisfaction (n) söï haøi loøng hero (n) anh huøng perception (n) söï caûm nhaän victory (n) chieán thaéng extend (v) traûi roäng contest (n) cuoäc thi extraordinary (adj) to lôùn, khaùc thöôøng opposing (adj) choáng ñoái spiritual (adj) thuoäc veà tinh thaàn outcome (n) keát quaû comedy (n) haøi kòch execution (n) daøn döïng tragedy (n) bi kòch work of art (n) taùc phaåm ngheä thuaät drama (n) vôûï kòch brushwork (n) phong caùch veõ character (n) nhaân vaät instrument (n) thieát bò, duïng cuï issue (n) söï kieän director (n) ñaïo dieãn exaggerated (adj) phoùng ñaïi management (n) söï quaûn lí B. LISTENING (pages 172-174) technique (n) kó thuaät motion picture (n) phim aûnh generation (n) theá heä image (n) hình aûnh gifted (adj) coù naêng khieáu civil war (n) noäi chieán moviemaker (n) nhaø laøm phim art form (n) hình thöùc ngheä thuaät studio (n) xöôûng phim perfect (v) laøm hoaøn haûo decade (n) thaäp kó C. SPEAKING (pages 174-176) unmarried (adj) chöa keát hoân preference (n) söï öa chuoäng review (v) oân laïi stretch (v) traûi daøi sex scene (n) caûnh phim sex imagination (n) söï töôûng töôïng behavior (n) thaùi ñoä memorable (adj) deã nhôù misleading (adj) meâ muoäi, laàm ñöôøng moral lesson (n) baøi hoïc ñaïo ñöùc thrilling (adj) hoài hoäp adult (n) ngöôøi lôùn energizing (adj) maïnh meõ innocent (adj) ngaây thô simplistic (adj) ñôn giaûn D. WRITING (pages 176-177) direct (v) daøn döïng seemingly (adv) veû ngoøai the truth (n) söï thaät stupid (adj) ngu mentally slow: chaäm veà maët tinh thaàn transform (v) chuyeån ñoåi honesty (n) tính trung thöïc invaluable (adj) voâ giaù reward (n) phaàn thöôûng irreplaceable (adj)khoâng theå thay theá respect (v) toân troïng restate (v) khaúng ñònh laïi 12
  14. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 177-179) flood-hit (adj) bò luõ luït enthusiastic (adj) haêng haùi, nhieät tình prejudice (n) thaønh kieán horror movie (n) phim kinh dò exact (v) ñoøi hoûi, daãn ñeán breathtaking (adj) kinh ngaïc precede (v) laøm, ñeán tröôùc stunt (n) bieåu dieãn nhaøo loän physical (adj) veà theå chaát doubt (n) nghi ngôø encounter (v) gaëp comic (n) kòch vui prestigious (adj) uy tín WORD STUDY Adjectives of Attitudes Caùc tính töø taän cuøng laø: -ed/ing, -ic, -ive, -al, -ful, -able…… Ex: excited, frightening, breathtaking, dramatic, appreciative, original, delightful, invaluable, ……. GRAMMAR ARTICLES (A, AN, THE) I. Indefinite Articles: A/ AN 1. A/An ñöôïc duøng tröôùc: -danh töø ñeám ñöôïc, soá ít. Ex: a doctor, a bag, an animal, an *An: ñöùng tröôùc nguyeân aâm (a, o, e, u, i) hour……… hoaëc “h” caâm. Ex: an animal, an hour……… -trong caùc caáu truùc: so + adj + a/an + noun Ex: She is so pretty a girl. such + a/an + noun - It’s such a beautiful picture. as + adj + a/an + noun + as - She is as pretty a girl as her sister. How + adj + a/an + noun + verb! - How beautiful a girl you are! -tröôùc caùc danh töø trong ngöõ ñoàng vò. Ex: Nguyen Du, a great poet, wrote that novel. -trong caùc cuïm töø chæ soá löôïng. Ex: a pair, a couple, a lot of, a little, a few, a large/great number of…….. 2. A/An khoâng ñöôïc duøng: -tröôùc caùc danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc. Ex: Coffee is also a kind of drink. -tröôùc caùc danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu Ex: Dogs are faithful animals. II. Definite Article: THE 1. THE ñöôïc duøng tröôùc: -nhöõng vaät duy nhaát. Ex: the sun, the moon, the world…. -caùc danh töø ñöôïc xaùc ñònh bôûi cuïm -The house with green fence is hers. tính töø hoaëc meänh ñeà tính töø. -The man that we met has just come. -caùc danh töø ñöôïc xaùc ñònh qua ngöõ Ex: Finally, the writer killed himself. 13
  15. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch caûnh hoaëc ñöôïc ñeà caäp tröôùc ñoù. - I have a book and an eraser. The book is now on the table. -caùc danh töø chæ söï giaûi trí. Ex: the theater, the concert, the church.. -tröôùc teân caùc taøu thuyeàn, maùy bay. Ex: The Titanic was a great ship. -caùc soâng, bieån, ñaïi döông, daõy nuùi Ex: the Mekong River, the China Sea, the Pacific Ocean, the Himalayas -moät nhoùm caùc ñaûo hoaëc quoác gia. Ex: the Philippines, the United States. -tính töø duøng nhö danh töø taäp hôïp. Ex: You should help the poor. -trong so saùnh nhaát. Ex: Nam is the cleverest in his class. -teân ngöôøi ôû soá nhieàu (chæ gia ñình). Ex: The Blacks, The Blues, the Nams -caùc danh töø ñaïi dieän cho moät loaøi. Ex: The cat is a lovely home pet. -caùc traïng töø chæ thôøi gian, nôi choán. Ex:in the morning, in the street, in the water -soá thöù töï. Ex: the first, the second, the third…. -chuoãi thôøi gian hoaëc khoâng gian. Ex: the next, the following, the last... 2. THE khoâng ñöôïc duøng: -tröôùc caùc danhtöø soá nhieàu noùi chung Ex: They build houses near the hall. -danh töø tröøu töôïng,khoâng ñeám ñöôïc. Ex: Independence is a happy thing. -caùc danh töø chæ maøu saéc. Ex: Red and white make pink. -caùc moân hoïc. Ex: Math is her worst subject. -caùc vaät lieäu, kim loaïi. Ex: Steel is made from iron. -caùc teân nöôùc, chaâu luïc, thaønh phoá. Ex:Ha Noi is the capital of VietNam. -caùc chöùc danh, teân ngöôøi. Ex: President Bill Clinton, Ba, Nga -caùc böõa aên, moùn aên, thöùc aên. Ex: We have rice and fish for dinner -caùc troø chôi, theå thao. Ex: Football is a popular sport in VN. -caùc loaïi beänh taät. Ex: Cold is a common disease. -ngoân ngöõ, tieáng noùi. Ex:English is being used everywhere -caùc kì nghæ, leã hoäi. Ex: Tet, Christmas, Valentine… -caùc muõi ñaát (nhoâ ra bieån), hoà, nuùi. Ex: Cape Horn, Lake Than Tho, Mount Caám, Mount Rushmore….. UNIT 14: THE WORLD CUP ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 180-182) Abbreviation (n) töø vieát taét title (n) danh hieäu tournament (n) voøng ñaáu forward (n) tieàn ñaïo competition (n) söï thi ñaáu control (n) vieäc kieåm soùat 14
  16. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch participate (v) tham gia powerful (adj) maïnh meõ elimination game (n) traän ñaáu loïai popularity (n) tính ñaïi chuùng region (n) khu vöïc host (n) chuû nhaø qualify (v) ñuû tieâu chuan SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory trophy (n) cuùp Syndrome: hoäi chöùng suy hoâ haáp permanently (adv) vónh vieãn emerge (v) noãi leân honor (v) toân vinh attempt (v) coá gaéng B. LISTENING (pages 183-184) aloft (adv) ôû treân khoâng athlete (n) vaän ñoäng vieân breaststroke (n) kieåu bôi eách whistle (n) caùi coøi freestyle (n) bôi töï do penalty (n) quaû phaït ñeàn incredible (adj) ngaïc nhieân kick (v) ñaù attack (v) taán coâng cross-court (adv) baêng qua saân consistently (adv) kieân ñònh opponent (n) ñoái thuû bishop (n) quaân töôïng approach (v) tieán ñeán castle (n) quaân xe post (n) coät moác knight (n) quaân maõ fence (n) haøng raøo pressure (n) aùp löïc jockey (n) ngöôøi cöôûi ngöïa commentary (n) baøi bình luaän C. SPEAKING (pages 184-186) score (v) ghi baøn court (n) saân bat (v) ñaùnh boùng dribble (v) reâ boùng hurdles (n) nhaûy raøo defender (n) = halfback: haäu veä equipment (n) duïng cuï midfielder (n) tieàn veä rule (n) quy taéc forward (n) = striker: tieàn ñaïo frame (n) khung defense (n) söï phoøng thuû net (n) löôùi halftime (n) giôø giaûi lao D. WRITING (page 187) announcer (n) ngöôøi thoâng baùo announcement (n) thoâng baùo Foundation Day (n) ngaøy thaønh laäp Youth League (n) Ñoøan Thanh Nieân manager (n) quaûn lí E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 187-189) goalie (n) = goalkeeper: thuû moân ambition (n) tham voïng guard (v) baûo veä referee (n) troïng taøi cooperation (n) söï phoái hôïp GRAMMAR To Infinitive (to-V) 1. Expressing Purposes Ex: - Nam went abroad to study English. = To study English, Nam went abroad. - We turn on the TV to watch a soccer match. 15
  17. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch * Duøng ñeå chæ muïc ñích cuûa haønh ñoäng trong meänh ñeà phía tröôùc. 2. As Modifiers Ex: - A good plce to eat is Song Tra Hotel. - They have a lot of books to read. * Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø hoaëc ñaïi töø ñöùng tröôùc. UNIT 15: THE PACIFIC RIM ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 190-193) official (adj) chính thöùc dynamism (n) tính naêng ñoäng descent (n) doøng doõi advanced (adj) cao caáp producer (n) nhaø saûn xuaát western (adj) phöông Taây wool (n) len natural source (n) nguoàn löïc töï nhieân wheat (n) boät mì Far East (n) Vieãn Ñoâng dairy product (n) saûn phaãm söõa human source(n) nguoàn löïc con ngöôøi foodstuff (n) loaïi thöùc aên productivity (n) tính saûn xuaát multiracial (adj) ña saéc toäc theorist (n) lí thuyeát gia independent (adj) ñoäc laäp refocus (v) taäp trung laïi stimulate (v) kích thích extend (v) môû roäng export (n) haøng xuaát khaåu rank (v) phaân loaïi import (n) haøng nhaäp khaåu exporter (n) nhaø xuaát khaåu banking (n) ngaønh ngaân haøng Common Wealth (n) khoái coängñoàng authorized (adj) chính thöùc comprise (v) bao goàm chief (adj) chuû yeáu territorial (adj) thuoäc laõnh thoå shoreline (n) ven bôø B. LISTENING (pages 193-194) diamond-shaped island (n) ñaûo coù hình North Pole (n) Baéc Cöïc vieân kim cöông pumpkin (n) bí ngoâ shipping route (n) haûi trình pie (n) baùnh pa-teâ climate (n) khí haäu emblem (n) bieåu töôïng cosmopolitan (adj) goàm nhieàu ngöôøi töø Merlion (n) ñoäng vaät ñaàu sö töû thaân caù caùc nöôùc ranch (n) trang traïi C. SPEAKING (pages 194-195) province (n) tænh surrounding area (n) khu vöïc bao boïc presentation (n) baøi phaùt bieåu D. WRITING (pages 195-197) island (n) hoøn ñaûo postcard (n) böu thieáp grotto (n) hang ñeïp nhö tranh spectacular (adj) ngoaïn muïc lie (v) lying: naèm cave (n) hang ñoäng coastal (adj) bôø bieån 16
  18. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 197-199) arouse (v) gôïi leân expert (n) chuyeân gia nostalgia (n) hoøai nieäm occupy (v) chieám giöõ latter (n) ngöôøi, vaät (ñöôïc ñeà caäp sau) independent (adj) ñoäc laäp densely (adv) daøy ñaëc architecture (n) kieán truùc populated (adj) sinh soáng, cö nguï GRAMMAR COMPARISONS I. Comparison of equality 1. Affirmative: as + adj/adv + as (baèng/ nhö) Ex: - I’m as tall as Tom. - John works as hard as his father. 2. Negative: not as/so + adj/adv + as (khoâng baèng/ nhö) Ex: - This watch is not as/so expensive as mine. (= my watch) - She does not sing as/so well as her sister. II. Comparative of adi/ adv 1. Short adj/ adv: adj/adv + ER + than Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén laø töø coù moät vaàn hay hai vaàn taän cuøng baèng “y”. fast, cold, thick, lucky, happy .… Ex: - John is stronger than his brother. - This athlete runs faster than that one. 2. Long adj/ adv: more + adj/adv + than Tính töø/traïng töø daøi laø töø coù hai vaàn trôû leân. modern, patient, difficult, fluently, beautifully, … Ex: - This problem is more difficult than we thought. - He speaks English more fluently than his friend. III. Superlative of adj/ adv 1. Short adj/ adv: the + adj/adv + EST Ex: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. 2. Long adj/ adv: the + MOST + adj/adv Ex: She is the most beautiful girl in the class. * Tính töø/ traïng töø baát qui taéc Adj/ Adv Comparative Superlative good/well (toát) better the best bad/badly (xaáu, dôû) worse the worst far (xa) farther/further the farthest/furthest little (ít) less the least many/much (nhieàu) more the most 17
  19. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch 18
  20. Vocabulary & Grammar for English 10 Leâ Ngoïc Thaïch UNIT 16: HISTORICAL PLACES ☺ VOCABULARY A. READING (pages 200-202) influence (n) aûnh höôûng establishment (n) thieát laäp property (n) taøi saûn emperor (n) hoaøng ñeá maintenance (n) baûo quaûn imperial (adj) thuoäc hoaøng ñeá register (v) ñaêng kí temple (n) ñình, ñeàn edge (n) bôø shrine (n) ngoâi ñeàn florish (v) phaùt ñaït palace (n) dinh thöï status (n) vò trí fabulous (adj) ñeïp khoâng töôûng retain (v) giöõ laïi enthronment (n) leã taán phong highlight (n) ñieåm noåi baät anniversary (n) = ceremony = ritual: fairy tail (n) chuyeän thaàn kì nghi leã ceremony (n) nghi leã B. LISTENING (pages 202-204) flight (n) chuyeán bay citadel (n) thaønh trì connection (n) söï keát noái perfume (n) höông architectural work (n) coâng trình kieán Court Music (n) nhaïc cung ñình truùc mandarin (n) oâng quan dynasty (n) trieàu ñaïi artisan (n) thôï thuû coâng varied (adj) ña daïng handicraft (n) haøng thuû coâng royal tomb (n) moä hoaøng gia cyclo (n) xích loâ dish (n) moùn aên C. SPEAKING (pages 204-205) event (n) söï kieän moss-walled: töôøng roâng reâu well-preserved (adj) baûo toàn toát worship (n) söï thôø cuùng attract (v) thu huùt tiled-roof (n) maùi ngoùi foreign (adj) nöôùc ngoaøi seaport (n) caûng bieån D. WRITING (page 206) witness (n) söï chöùng kieán heart (n) traùi tim, trung taâm comospolitan (n) goàm nhieàu ngöôøi bend (n) choã uoán square (n) quaûng tröôøng E. LANGUAGE FOCUS (p. 207-209) slippery (adj) trôn tröôït Dynasty (n) trieàu ñaïi accommodation (n) choã ôû king (n) vua package tour (n) chuyeán ñi du lòch troïn tomb (n) moä goùi tidal wave (n) soùng thaàn line up (v) xeáp haøng figure (n) con soá archeologist (n) nhaø khaûo coå favorable (adj) coù trieån voïng relic (n) di tích 19
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