Upgrading to Windows Vista: Is your Hardware Ready? Are You?

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Upgrading to Windows Vista: Is your Hardware Ready? Are You?

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With Windows Vista® finally shipping, customers who want to upgrade or migrate to Windows Vista have a number of choices and decisions to make. Before you decide, you need to know if it will work with your current system’s hardware and software. Bear in mind that a great majority of the “upgrades” to Windows Vista will come from:

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  1. Expert Reference Series of White Papers Upgrading to Windows Vista: Is your Hardware Ready? Are You? 1-800-COURSES www.globalknowledge.com
  2. Upgrading to Windows Vista: Is your Hardware Ready? Are You? Mark Mizrahi, Global Knowledge Instructor, MCSE+Security/MCT Introduction With Windows Vista® finally shipping, customers who want to upgrade or migrate to Windows Vista have a number of choices and decisions to make. Before you decide, you need to know if it will work with your cur- rent system’s hardware and software. Bear in mind that a great majority of the “upgrades” to Windows Vista will come from: • A new PC purchase with the new operating system installed, or • The purchase of a Windows Vista-ready PC with a sticker, certificate, or placard that will allow a free or discounted purchase toward an upgrade. More importantly, will the machine you already own meet the strict hardware requirements? New PCs that are being sold with Windows XP are being “branded” as Windows Vista Capable and/or a Windows Vista Premium Ready PCs, thereby guaranteeing the upgrade success on the hardware; as will be described later in this white paper. Should you or shouldn’t you upgrade - that is the question. The intent of this white paper is not to elaborate on the features of the Windows Vista operating system (with the exception of a few worth noting), but rather as an aid in your decision to upgrade. Your choices will become clear as a result of the education you will receive by reading this article. There are two major items to consider: • Is the hardware compatible and • To which version of Windows Vista should you upgrade and from which previous operating system. This white paper is divided into three sections: • Section 1 describes the different versions of Windows Vista. • Section 2 lists the hardware choices necessary to run the different versions of Vista. • Section 3 is discusses tools available to help determine and decide if Windows Vista will load on your machine and also run your applications. Section 1: The Software There are six (6), yes, six, versions of Windows Vista to which you can upgrade, migrate, or do a clean install. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 2
  3. Figure 1. Four Most Commonly Used Versions of Vista The following chart from Microsoft’s website shows the features of the four most commonly used of the six Windows Vista versions. Features Home Basic Home Premium Business Ultimate     Most Secure Windows ever with Windows Defender and Windows Firewall Quickly find what you need with Instant     Search and Windows Internet Explorer 7 Elegant Windows Aero desktop experience    with Windows Flip 3D navigation    Best Choice for laptops with enhanced Windows Mobility Center and Tablet PC Support Collaborate and share documents with    Windows Meeting Space   Experience photos and entertainment in your living room with Windows Media Center   Enjoy Windows Media Center on TVs throughout your home with Xbox 360TM and other devices Help protect against hardware failure with   advanced business backup features Business networking and remote desktop for   easier connectivity Better Protect your data against loss or theft  with Windows BitlockerTM Drive Encryption Table 1. Features offered with four of Windows Vista versions. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 3
  4. So, what are the other two versions? They are the Starter Version and Enterprise Version. However, Microsoft says that the Vista Starter is not available in the United States. Their descriptions are as follows: Windows Vista Starter Available in 119 emerging markets, Windows Vista Starter provides individuals and families with the basic ben- efits of Windows Vista at an affordable price. Designed for first-time PC users, Windows Vista Starter is easy to learn and includes help features tailored to beginner users. Maintaining the goal of making technology accessible to customers in emerging markets, Windows Vista Starter offers a basic set of features targeted to beginner users at a price that fits their budget, thereby avoid- ing piracy. Windows Vista Starter will be available* at an affordable price from OEM and system builder part- ners, and through government-sponsored programs. Windows Vista Starter includes more help features for first-time PC users. With localized and customized sup- port, step-by-step guidance, and interactive video demonstrations to help perform the most popular tasks, Windows Vista Starter makes it easy to use a PC in any language. *Note: Windows Vista Starter is not currently scheduled to be available in the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia, New Zealand, or other high-income markets as defined by the World Bank. Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Enterprise was designed to help global organizations and enterprises with complex IT infra- structures lower IT costs, reduce risk, and stay connected. If your organization has these requirements, Windows Vista Enterprise will provide additional layers of protection for your sensitive data. Building on the features in HYPERLINK "http://www.microsoft.com/windowsvista/getready/editions/business.mspx" Windows Vista Business, Windows Vista Enterprise provides higher levels of data protection using hardware-based encryption technology. It also includes tools to improve application compatibility and enables organizations to standardize by using a single worldwide deployment image. It also adds BitLocker full drive encryption, Virtual PC express, the subsystem for UNIX and full multilingual support. Advanced networking and the Domain Model is supported. Windows Vista Enterprise is available only to Volume License customers who have PCs covered by Microsoft Software Assurance. These customers are also eligible to acquire an optional subscription license for the Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack for Software Assurance. This software extends the value of Windows Vista Enterprise by: • Reducing application deployment costs • Enabling delivery of applications as services, and • Allowing for better management and control of enterprise desktop environments. Together, these technologies deliver the most cost-effective and flexible Windows desktop management solution. So, here is what it comes down to as far as the “street” is concerned. Retail customers have four choices: Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 4
  5. Windows Vista Home Basic is for cost-conscious PC buyers who want basic functionality without a lot of extras. It provides the simplified Vista user interface but does not support DVD burning or Media Center fea- tures; nor does it support any of the highly publicized 3-D graphics, TV Tuning, and Tablet PC support. This ver- sion might be installed on entry-level PCs for manufacturers who want to advertise a more popularly priced PC. This can provide opportunities to sell upgrades to a version with more features; get ready for the sales pitch. Windows Vista Home Premium adds the Aero interface; integrated desktop search; Media Center features; and support for DVD burners, TV Tuning, and Tablet PC. This will be the default installation for most mid-range PCs. In fact, it’s a simple test: If the computer has a DVD burner, it will probably get Vista Home Premium. Windows Vista Business adds the Aero interface, support for Tablet PCs, integrated desktop search, collabo- ration tools, full disk backup, networking and remote desktop features, as well as all of the base features of the operating system, TV Tuning, and Tablet PC. This is the baseline operating system for business customers. Advanced Networking and Domain Support are also included. Windows Vista Ultimate is positioned as the one that “has it all.” It includes all the features in the other retail versions as well as corporate features like BitLocker drive encryption. It includes a host of other features such as Photo Gallery, Movie Maker, Media Center, TV Tuning, and Tablet PC. Advanced Networking and Domain Support are also included. Are you ready for the Biggest Change of All? These four retail versions are included on either CD or DVD. The product key, which is entered at the beginning of the installation process, determines which version gets installed. That’s potentially very good news for retail customers, who should be able to use any Windows Vista media to reinstall the operating system (provided they haven’t lost the product key). Corporate customers who have PCs covered by Microsoft Software Assurance or a Microsoft Enterprise Agreement have it easiest of all: They get one version, Windows Vista Enterprise, which includes BitLocker encryption, Virtual PC Express, the Aero interface, and more. The idea is to give corporate customers a single image that they can customize and deploy to meet their own needs. With a single media source, it should be possible for a Windows user to upgrade to a more feature-rich version without a lot of hassle. Buy a new product key from a retailer or direct from Microsoft (the price would depend on the specifics of the upgrade – jumping from Home Basic to Ultimate would incur a higher cost than going from Basic to Home Premium or from Home Premium to Ultimate). If the upgrade premium cost is low enough, this could be the ultimate “upsell” opportunity vendors look for. You want Media Center features? Buy a $50 upgrade (actual price may vary), get the product ID via e-mail, and install the new version from your existing media. For that matter, you could upgrade a handful of comput- ers on a home or small business network with one DVD and a quick visit to an online license reseller. Now let’s upgrade, but from what? From how far back can I upgrade? Upgrade Planning for Windows Vista For many of you, the Windows Vista experience will begin with the purchase of a new PC. For others, however, the experience begins by upgrading their current PC, and it’s important to know and understand the upgrade options. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 5
  6. Your upgrade options are dependent on the version of Windows that is currently running on your PC. Below is some information to help you start planning for an upgrade to Windows Vista. The Options You can upgrade from your current edition of Microsoft Windows XP or Windows 2000 to a corresponding or better edition of Windows Vista by purchasing and installing an upgrade copy of Windows Vista. Depending on which edition of Windows you are running and the edition of Windows Vista you would like to install, you have two options for the installation process: In-place upgrade You can upgrade in-place, which means you can install Windows Vista and retain your applications, files, and settings as they were in your previous edition of Windows. Clean install Upgrading to Windows Vista with a clean install means that you should use Windows Easy Transfer to auto- matically copy all your files and settings to an extra hard drive or other storage device, and then install Windows Vista. After the installation is complete, use Windows Easy Transfer and reload your files and settings onto your upgraded PC. You will then need to reinstall your applications. This is also known as a migration in some tech support environments. I ran Windows Easy Transfer and it’s very similar to the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard in Windows XP, which works by collecting your profile and copying it through various transfer methods from the old to the new PC. This tool is built around the fact that the default locations for saving your documents, settings, favorites, and mail store locations are saved to your profile folder under the parent folder of Document and Settings. This entire location can be transferred, if you choose. Table 2. The Upgrade Options Mapped to the Different Windows Vista editions. Note that any Microsoft operating system prior to Windows 2000 cannot be upgraded to Windows Vista. Also note that an upgrade from Windows 2000 is not an upgrade at all, it is a clean install. Get ready to back up your data and reinstall you applications. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 6
  7. The following chart presents a bit more detail with the four versions of Windows Vista with regard to the major features available, or not available, suggested retail price (actual prices may vary), and upgrade path summary. Window Vista Edition Home Basic 1 Home Premium 2 Business 3 Ultimate 4 Features: Windows Defender and Firewall Yes Yes Yes Yes Aero and Windows Flip 3D Yes Yes Yes Windows Mobility and Tablet PC Yes Yes Yes Support Windows Meeting Space Yes Yes Yes Windows Media Center Yes Yes Business Backup and Networking, Yes Yes Remote Desktop BitLocker Drive Encryption Yes Price: Suggested Full Price $199 $239 $299 $399 Suggested Upgrade Price $100 $159 $199 $259 Footnotes: 1 Allows in-place upgrades from XP Home. 2 Allows in-place upgrades from XP Home Media Center. 3 Allows in-place upgrades from XP Home, Media Center, and Professional. 4 Allows in-place upgrades from XP Home, Media Center, Pro, and Tablet PC. Table 3. Windows Vista Major Features. Window Vista is being released for the first time as a true x64-bit operating system. “Intel Core 2 Duo” and “AMD Turion 64 X2 Dual-Core” are x64-bit CPU chips available at an affordable price, so your choice to move from 32-bit to 64-bit computing becomes much more realistic. I have loaded the 64-bit version of the operating system, and I did not notice any significant performance increase. I was not running any demanding applications that would make use of 64-bit processing, such as CAD or Video and Imaging applications. It’s hard to tell the two different bit versions apart, but when it comes down to getting drivers to function on the 64-bit version, well, that’s another story. Hardware makers are get- ting up to speed on 32-bit drivers for these devices; 64-bit drivers are scarcer. As time passes, this too will get better. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 7
  8. In addition, Windows Vista will be Microsoft’s first operating system to truly support, from the initial load of the operation system IPv6, the next version of TCP/IP; which expands the current 32-bit address space to 128-bit on each individual PC. Another feature carried forward from Windows XP is Fast User Switching. This is now supported with a Domain Model. Section 2:The Hardware When Microsoft posted the minimum hardware requirements to run Windows Vista, any veteran of previous operating system knew that, yes, it will run, but probably not as fast and without all the features. The fol- lowing chart from Microsoft lists the specifications that are the bare bones (not very realistic) minimums that define a PC that meets the minimum supported system requirements to run the core features of Windows Vista with the basic user experience. Processor 800 MHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) Processor 1 System Memory 512 MB CPU SVGA (800 x 600) Graphics Memory -- HDD 20 GB HDD Free Space 15 GB Optical Drive CD-ROM drive 2 Audio -- Internet -- Footnotes: 1 Processor speed is specified as the nominal operational processor frequency for the device. Some proces- sors have power management, which allows the processor to runast a lower rate to save power. 2 The CD-ROM may be external (not integral, not built into the system) Table 4. Windows Vista Minimum Supported System Requirements A reality check of what a machine can run dictates a more demanding configuration. Microsoft has classi- fied two categories of PCs that can run Windows Vista. They are a Windows Vista-Capable PC and a Windows Vista Premium-Ready PC. Microsoft defines these two categories as follows: Windows Vista-Capable PC A new PC that carries the Windows Vista-Capable PC logo can run Windows Vista. All editions of Windows Vista will deliver core experiences such as innovations in organizing and finding information, security, and reliability. All Windows Vista-Capable PCs will run these core experiences at a minimum. Some features Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 8
  9. available in the premium editions of Windows Vista, like the new Windows Aero user experience, may require additional or advanced hardware. The Windows Vista Premium-Ready program denotes hardware that can deliver these premium experiences, including Windows Aero, a productive, high-performing desktop interface. Features available in specific premi- um editions of Windows Vista, such as BitLocker Drive Encryption, may also require additional hardware. The detailed information below can help IT professionals make informed buying decisions today. Figure 2. PC Hardware Specifications. Windows Vista-Capable PC includes at least: • A modern processor (at least 800MHz • 512 MB of system memory. • A graphics processor that is DirectX 9 capable. What Is a Windows Vista Premium-Ready PC? A Window Vista Premium Ready PC is a new PC capable of delivering an even better experience than a Windows Vista Capable PC. These are PC’s meeting the Windows Vista Premium Ready requirements that can deliver the Windows Aero user experience that includes additional benefits such as: • Improved productivity • Real-time thumbnail previews • New 3-D task switching • Interface scaling • Enhanced visual quality • Glitch-free window redrawing • Visual-style translucent window frames and taskbar • Enhanced transitional effects Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 9
  10. A Graphics Processor Unit (GPU), also known as your video graphics card, which supports the Windows Driver Display Model (WDDM), is an important part of the Windows Vista Premium-Ready requirements, such as the ability to watch and record live TV. However, this feature may require additional hardware such as TV tuner. Windows Vista Premium-Ready PC includes at least: • 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor • 1 GB of system memory • Support for DirectX 9 graphics with a WDDM driver, 128 MB of graphics memory (minimum), Pixel Shader 2.0 and 32 bits per pixel • 40 GB of hard drive capacity with 15 GB free space • DVD-ROM Drive • Audio output capability • Internet access capability Look for the Express Upgrade to Windows Vista Logo as shown below Figure 3. Windows Vista Express Upgrade Logo Feature-Specific Requirements. TV Tuning: Requires a TV tuner card and a remote control that complies with the Windows Vista Remote Control Specification for TV functionality and an optimal TV viewing experience. One (1) GB of system memory is recommended for best Media Center performance. BitLocker Drive Encryption: Requires an integrated Trusted Platform Module (TPM) 1.2 chip, or the encryp- tion key can be stored on a USB 2.0 key. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 10
  11. Tablet PC: These features require a PC that meets the Tablet PC specification, which includes an electromag- netic digitizer pen. Section 3:Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor Want to see if your Windows XP-based PC and applications can run Windows Vista? Just download, install, and run the Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor, also known as the VUA. Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor (VUA) will help you determine if your current PC is ready for an upgrade to Windows Vista. It will also help you to choose the edition of Windows Vista that’s right for you. Download the VUA and run an analysis of your current PC, then use the detailed feedback to ensure that your PC is ready for the edition of Windows Vista that you want. This small software tool will scan your computer and create an easy-to-understand report of all known system, device, and program compatibility issues, and recommend ways to resolve them. UVA can also help you choose the edition of Windows Vista that best fits the way you want to use your computer. Minimum specifications to run this tool require the .NET Framework as well as MSXML. If these are not present, then the tool will install them automatically for you. I deliberately ran this tool on a PC that had less that the 512 RAM required to run Windows Vista, and the tool gave me an error message saying that the tool cannot run with less than 512 of RAM. You can safely assume that if you cannot run the tool on a PC, then you cannot run Windows Vista. The Windows VUA works with 32-bit versions of Windows XP and Windows Vista. Yes, you can run it on Windows Vista to see if your PC will be able to run the enhanced features. It will not work with Windows 98, Windows 2000, or Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. “Big Bummer!” For these systems you will have to manually compare the system’s capabilities to the information available on the Microsoft Get Ready site. In general, PCs purchased within the last two years have a better chance of being able to run Windows Vista as is, or with an affordable improvement and upgrade to the system hardware. Running Windows Vista Upgrade Advisor is a great first step for anyone considering whether to install Windows Vista on a PC they already own. Windows Vista Readiness Assessment (VRA) tool. This tool is aimed at small- to medium-sized organizations and is in Beta as of this writing. VRA will let you scan multiple computers from a central location and generate a compatibility report for each of the machines. Windows Vista Hardware Assessment is an assessment and inventory tool designed to help customers and partners quickly check readiness for Windows Vista upgrades network-wide with a single networked PC. It is designed to remotely connect to PCs on a network, assess their hardware and device compatibility with Windows Vista, and automatically create a comprehensive report with assessment results and upgrade recom- mendations for each PC. This tool does not require the installation of any software agents on PCs to perform the assessment. The Windows Vista Hardware Assessment will provide the following information to output results into Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel: • Deployment Blockers: Devices and BIOS versions that are not compatible with Windows Vista • Windows Vista Experience: Windows Vista experience based on currently available system resources • Upgrade Recommendations: Specific recommendations for upgrading PC hardware to improve the Windows Vista experience. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 11
  12. Transfer your files In the past, administrators who wanted to move users from Windows 2000 desktop computers to Windows XP had two choices: upgrade existing computers to Windows XP or install a fresh copy of Windows XP on a new computer and migrate the user's files and program settings from the old computer to the new one. While upgrading is the easiest option (since it automatically migrates user settings), it has two disadvantages: users are stuck with older hardware, and a messed-up computer just gets messier. That's why, when it comes to desktop computers, I have always preferred migrations instead of upgrades. Likewise, if you wanted to migrate from Windows 2000 to Windows XP, you had two tools to use: the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard (for migrating individual machines in a small business or home office environment) or the User State Migration Tool (USMT) for enterprise environments that need greater control over migrating large numbers of machines. Things are essentially the same in Windows Vista, only they have been updated. First, a new version of USMT, version 3.0, will be available for migrating older versions of Microsoft Windows to Windows Vista. And second, the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard has now been replaced by the easier-to-use Windows Easy Transfer tool. Windows Easy Transfer You can use Windows Easy Transfer to transfer user files and settings from a Windows 2000 or later machine to one running the latest build of Windows Vista. To begin the transfer, click the start button on the Windows Vista machine and type "easy" (without the quotes) into the Start Search box and press enter to start Windows Easy Transfer (this is easier than finding it in System Tools under Accessories). If you get a User Account Control (UAC) prompt, click continue to allow the program to run. Windows Easy Transfer is a data transfer wizard that helps you transfer the data that is important to you, including: • User accounts • Files and folders • Program data files and settings • E-mail messages, settings, and contacts • Photos, music, and videos • Windows settings • Internet settings Windows Easy Transfer transfers your settings and files - it's not meant for transferring your computer programs. You can either transfer all the data in your entire user account, as well as any other user accounts on your original computer, or you can select the specific data and folders you want to transfer. Windows Easy Transfer provides a number of ways for you to connect two computers to transfer your data. These include: Easy Transfer Cable. This is a special USB cable that is designed to work with Windows Easy Transfer by creating a direct link between your old PC and your new PC. Using one of these cables is the easiest and fastest method for transfer and particularly recommended if you don’t have the availability of a network. Easy Transfer Cables will work on PCs running Windows 2000 (files only), Windows XP, and Windows Vista. Home or small business network. If you already have a wired or wireless network, this is a great way to connect your computers and transfer your data. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 12
  13. Removable hard drive. If you own a removable hard drive, you can use Windows Easy Transfer to copy your data to that drive while it is connected to your old computer. Then, once you connect it to your new com- puter, Windows Easy Transfer will copy data from that drive to your new computer. CD and DVD. Windows Easy Transfer can use your computer's CD or DVD burner to transfer user data. This is a great solution if you are moving only a small amount of data that can fit onto one disc. With all of these options, Windows Easy Transfer offers a transfer solution for nearly every type of user. If you're a novice computer user who is looking to replace a Windows XP-based computer with a Windows Vista- based computer, you can use an Easy Transfer Cable and, in a couple of clicks, transfer all of your personal data. If you're a more advanced computer user and have purchased a third computer, you can connect it to your home network and then select the specific folders, file types, and settings you want to transfer. Standard User Analyzer (SUA) This tool helps developers and IT professionals diagnose issues that would prevent a program from running properly without administrator privileges. On Windows Vista, even administrators run most programs with standard user privileges by default, so it is important to ensure that your application does not have administra- tor access as a dependency. Using the Standard User Analyzer to test your application can identify the following administrator dependen- cies and return the results in a graphical interface: • File access • Registry access • INI files • Token issues • Security privileges • Name space issues • Other issues This tool also complements the Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) 5.0. ACT 5.0 includes a User Account Control agent that you can deploy to user desktops to identify applications that require administrative privi- leges. The Standard User Analyzer is designed to be run on the developer or tester’s workstation to test and troubleshoot a specific application. Issues identified with the Standard User Analyzer can also be entered into you ACT 5.0 database so you can track the application compatibility across your environment. Summary Microsoft is making every attempt to provide an easy and efficient way to move to this new platform. There are five choices of the Windows Vista operating system. Four retail versions either preload on a new PC pur- chase or one purchased separately; they are: Windows Vista Home Basic, Windows Vista Home Premium, Windows Vista Business, and Windows Vista Ultimate that can be included on a new PC purchase or purchased separately. For the corporate customer that has an Enterprise Licensing Agreement with Microsoft they have the Windows Vista Enterprise edition available to them. In this white paper, I have listed the machine requirements and features of the different editions of the opera- tion system. I have included the tools Microsoft has made available to help determine if your machine and Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 13
  14. your applications are capable of running this new operating system. I have also included the tools Microsoft suggest to use to migrate your setting between machines. What are you waiting for? It’s not a matter of how easy or efficient you think it is, it’s more: If not now, when? If past performance is any indicator, it is just a matter of time until our machines become so outdated or sim- ply stop working altogether. In either case, we will have little choice but to move forward and submit to the operating system of the day. That day is now and Windows Vista is a choice we can accept. Enjoy your new operating system. See you in cyberspace. Bye. Learn More Learn more about how you can improve productivity, enhance efficiency, and sharpen your competitive edge. Check out the following Global Knowledge courses: Migrating to Windows Vista Implementing and Maintaining Windows Vista For more information or to register, visit www.globalknowledge.com or call 1-800-COURSES to speak with a sales representative. Our courses and enhanced, hands-on labs offer practical skills and tips that you can immediately put to use. Our expert instructors draw upon their experiences to help you understand key concepts and how to apply them to your specific work situation. Choose from our more than 700 courses, delivered through Classrooms, e-Learning, and On-site sessions, to meet your IT and management training needs. About the Author Mark Mizrahi has been an MCSE since NT3.51 with a specialty in Security. He is an MCT and currently teaches Microsoft curriculum for Global Knowledge. He is President of Standard Computer Services and consults for various Fortune 500 companies. He designs and implements web-based Internet security and video surveillance systems for a diversified customer base. Keeping up with the new technologies of Windows Vista and Long- horn platforms is part of his daily intake of information, and he loves sharing it with his clients and students. Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved. Page 14
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