Văn phạm tiếng anh căn bản

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Văn ph m Anh văn



VĂN PH M ANH VĂN


Các thì trong ti ng Anh

Kevin Khoâi Tröông vaø Nam Phöông

1- HI N T I ðƠN/HI N T I ðƠN TI P DI N

1- THÌ HI N T I ÐƠN


The English alphabet consists of 26 letters.

The sun rises in the east.

She goes to school every day.

Thì hi n t i ñơn gi n di n t hành ñ ng có The boy always wakes up at 8 every
th t trong quá kh , hi n t i, và tương lai. morning.
Thì hi n t i ñơn gi n cũng di n t thói quen
và ho t ñ ng hàng ngày. SAI:

CH T + Ð NG T (ñ ng t thì hi n They are always trying to help him.
t i, ñ ng t thêm "S" hay "ES" n u ch t
là ngôi 3 s ít: She, he, it, Mary, John) We are studying every day.

Thì hi n t i ñơn gi n có th di n t th i ÐÚNG:
gian trong tương lai khi ý nghĩ ñó thu c v
th i khóa bi u. They always try to help him.

We study every day.

The game starts in ten minutes.

My class finishes next month.


C m t và t ng ch th i gian: Always, usually, often, sometimes etc., (a fact, habit, or
repeated action), every time, as a rule, every day (every other day), once (a month),
once in a while




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THÌ HI N T I TI P DI N


I'm typing right now.
Thì hi n t i ti p di n di n t hành ñ ng
It is raining at the moment.
ñang x y ra.
Shhh! The baby is sleeping.
CH T + IS/ARE/AM + Ð NG T
THÊM -ING
She is taking ESL 107 this semester.
M t hành ñ ng gì ñó ñang x y ra tu n này,
Tammy is writing a letter to her mom
tháng này, ho c năm này.
tomorrow.
Thì hi n t i ti p di n có th di n t th i
Jack is visiting his relatives tomorrow.
gian trong tương lai khi ý nghĩ ñó là 1 s
ñ nh s n.
SAI: It is raining tomorrow. (Rain không
th là 1 s d ñ nh trư c


C m và t ng ch th i gian: Right now, at the moment, at present, now, shhh!, listen!,
look!, this semester.

Kevin Khôi Trương




SIMPLE PRESENT

Tóm t t:

Present simple ñ ch :

1) S vi c x y ra trong hi n t i

2) Nh ng s th t hi n nhiên, s vi c l p ñi l p l i h ng ngày: Thí d : Trái ñ t quay
xung quanh m t tr i.
H ng ngày tôi th c d y lúc 7 gi sáng

3) Nh ng ñ ng t không nh hư ng ñ n th i gian: ñ ng t tĩnh (static verbs)

To belong to, to cost, to know, to believe, to like,
to love, to mean, to see, to understand ...
I (dis)like / love / hate / want that girl



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I believe / suppose / think you’re right
I hear / see / feel the world around us
It tastes / smells good

4) Sau nh ng liên t WHEN, AS SOON AS

5) TH NGHI V N:
Thêm ñ ng trư c DO hay DOES (ngôi th 3 s ít)

6) TH PH Ð NH:
thêm DON'T , DOESN'T

__________________

The simple present is used to express actions which take place in the present or which
occur regularly (Things that happen repetedly) .
It also serves to express general or absolute statements not anchored in a particular time
frame (Things in general)

I work at home.
The earth revolves around the sun
Politics are a dirty business.
Jill speaks four languages fluently.

I get up at seven o’clock every morning
Mrs. Smith teaches English at my school
On Sundays, we like to fish.




INTERROGATIVE FORM

In the interrogative, the present is generally introduced by a form of the verb "to do"
("do / does"):
Does your father like to cook?
Do you have time to stop by my place?


NEGATIVE FORM

The appropriate form of the verb "to do" will also be used for the negative:
I do not (don't) work at home.
No, he does not (doesn't) like to cook.

AFTER WHEN AS SOON AS ...


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After the conjunctions "when," "as soon as," etc., the present is used, even though
actions expressed may refer to the future:
She'll come when she can.
He'll pay us as soon as we finish.


Forming the simple present
The present is extremely regular in its conjugation. As a general rule, one uses the
base form of the infinitive (minus the preposition "to").

For the third person singular ("he," "she," "it"), an "-s" is added if the verb ends
in a consonant,

or "-es" if the verb ends with a vowel:

To work

I work
you work
he / she / it works
we work
they work


To go

I go
you go
he / she / it goes
we go
they go

However:

verbs ending with "consonant + y" (for example, "to try," "to cry," "to bury,"
etc.) will end in "-ies" in the third person singular:

To bury

I bury
you bury
he / she buries
we bury
they bury



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"To have", "to be"
The only irregular verbs in the present are "to have," "to be," and the modal
verbs.

To have

I have
you have
he / she has
we have
they have

To be

I am
you are
he / she is
we are
they are



PRESENT CONTINUOUS

TÓM T T


1) Ð nói s v t x y ra trong lúc ta ñang nói chuy n

2) Nói m t vi c mà ta ñã chu n b ñ làm.
M t tương lai ch c ch n ñã so n s n

3) Nh ng ñ ng t tĩnh trong ý nghĩa hi n t i

____________________________

1* To say that st is happening at or around the time of speaking

2* you are talking about what you have already arranged to do

3* Les verbes statistiques dans le sens du présent simple

***

1)
Don’t interrupt while I’m talking to somebody else



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Please be quiet, I’m watching a good programme

He’s trying to get the car to start /Not now, I’m thinking


2)
I can’t meet you tomorrow because my parents are coming to see me

What are you doing tomorrow evening ?
- I’m going to the theatre

This is Tom’s diary for next week:
he’s playing tennis on Monday, he’s going to the dentist on Tuesday, he’ having dinner
on Friday...

3)
What are you thinking about ?

We’re not seeing a lot of him these days

Are you not feeling well today ?

We’re tasting the wine to see if it’s alright



Nam Phương




2- HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH/HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N

THÌ HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH
She has never seen snow.
CH T + HAVE/ HAS + QUÁ KH
PHÂN T (PAST PARTICIPLE)
I have gone to Disneyland several times.
Thì hi n t i hoàn thành di n t hành ñ ng
We have been here since 1995.
ñã x y ra ho c chưa bao gi x y ra 1 th i



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gian không xác ñ nh trong quá kh . They have known me for five years.

Thì hi n t i hoàn thành cũng di n t s l p
ñi l p l i c a 1 hành ñ ng trong quá kh .

Thì hi n t i hoàn thành cũng ñư c dùng
v i i since và for.

Since + th i gian b t ñ u (1995, I was
young, this morning etc.) Khi ngư i nói
dùng since, ngư i nghe ph i tính th i gian
là bao lâu.

For + kho ng th i gian (t lúc ñ u t i bây
gi ) Khi ngư i nói dùng for, ngư i nói
ph i tính th i gian là bao lâu.
C m và t ng ch th i gian: Never, ever, in the last fifty years, this semester, since,
for, so far, up to now, up until now, up to the present, yet, recently, lately, in recent
years, many times, once, twice, and in his/her whole life
THÌ HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N
Thì hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n nh n
m nh kho ng th i gian c a 1 hành ñ ng ñã
I have been waiting for you about 20
x y ra trong quá kh và ti p t c t i hi n t i
minutes.
(có th t i tương lai).
The child has been sleeping all afternoon.
CH T + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + Ð NG
T THÊM -ING
C m và t ng ch th i gian: All day, all week, since, for, for a long time, almost every
day this week, recently, lately, in the past week, in recent years, up until now, and so far

Kevin Khôi Trương




PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS



I have been doing
You have been doing
He has been doing



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We have been doing
You have been doing
They have been doing

TÓM T T:

Ð nói m t hành ñ ng kéo dài trong quá kh và V A M I ng ng.

Ð h i vi c x y ra bao nhiêu lâu trong quá kh và ta h ng thú câu chuy n: hành ñ ng
chưa ch m d t.


**************************

This tense is formed with the modal "HAVE" or "HAS" (for third-person singular
subjects) plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

1* To talk about a long action which began in the past and has just stopped.

2* To ask or say how long st has been happened. The action began in the past & is still
happening or has just stopped

how long ; for ( for 5 years ; for over an hour ); since ; today ; recently ;

3* For actions repeated over a period of time ( how long ; for ; since )

*** To say how long st has been happening .

*** We are interested in the action : the action has not been finished .


1* I have been working in the garden all morning.
George has been painting that house for as long as I can remember.
You're out of breath . Have you been running ?
She has been running and her heart is still beating fast.
Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing ?
That man over there is bright red. I think he's been sunbathing.
Janet is hot and tired . She has been playing tennis.
Ann is very tired . She has been working hard
It has just been raining.

2* It is raining now. It began to rain 2 hours ago and it is still raining . It has been
raining for 2 hours
Have you been working hard today ?
How long have you been learning English ?
I've been waiting here for over an hour


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I've been watching TV since two 2 o'clock .
George hasn't been feeling well recently.

3* She has been playing tennis since she was eight
How long have you been smoking ?
It's raining : How long has it been raining ?
My foot is hurting : How long has your foot been hurting ?
Kevin is studying He has been studying for 3 hours
Mary is working in London . She started working there on 20 May . She has been
working since 20 May.

Nam Phương




3- QUÁ KH /QUÁ KH TI P DI N

THÌ QUÁ KH ÐƠN
Thì quá kh ñơn di n t hành ñ ng ñã x y
I went to the library last night.
ra và k t thúc trong quá kh v i th i gian
xác ñ nh.
She came to the U.S. five years ago.
CH T + Ð NG T QUÁ KH
He met me in 1999.
When + thì quá kh ñơn (simple past)
When they saw the accident, they called
the police.
When + hành ñ ng th nh t
C m và t ng ch th i gian: last night, last year, last time, etc., ago, in 1999, today,
yesterday, then = at that time, in the 1800's, in the 19th century, when, and for

Today ñôi khi ñư c dùng thì hi n t i ti p di n và tương lai ñơn. For ñôi khi ñư c
dùng thì hi n t i hoàn thành (present perfect).
THÌ QUÁ KH TI P DI N
In (a), 2 hành ñ ng ñã x y ra cùng lúc.
Nhưng hành ñ ng th nh t ñã x y ra s m
a. What were you doing when I called you
hơn và ñã ñang ti p t c x y ra thì hành
last night?
ñ ng th hai x y ra.
b. He was watching TV while his wife was
CH T + WERE/WAS + Ð NG TÙ
cleaning the bedroom.
THÊM -ING




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While + thì quá kh ti p di n (past
progressive)

In (b), 2 hành ñ ng ñã x y ra cùng m t
lúc.



C m và t ng ch th i gian: While, at that very moment, at 10:00 last night, and this
morning (afternoon)

Kevin Khôi Trương




SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS



I was doing
You were doing
He was doing
We were doing
You were doing
They were doing



TÓM T T:

Hành ñ ng kéo dài, ti p t c, m t th i ñi m nào ñó trong quá kh

Ð nói hành ñ ng kéo dài, ñang gi a công vi c, trong m t th i gian nào ñó. Không
cho bi t khi nào ch m d t.

*********************************

1* The PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE indicates continuing action, something that was
happening, going on, at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the helping "to
be" verb, in the past tense, plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

2* To say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time.

3* To say that st happend in the middle of st.



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4* It doesn't tell us wether an action was finished or not.

5* To tell how long something has been happening


Examples:

1* I was riding my bike all day yesterday.
Joel was being a terrible role model for his younger brother.
Dad was working in his garden all morning.

During the mid-50s, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in Central
Florida, and innocent people were investing all their money in bogus development
projects.

Was he being good to you?

2* This time last year I was living in Spain. What were you doing at 10 o'clock last
night ?

3* Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the lunch

While I was working in the garden , I hurt my back.

I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the grass.

It was raining when I got up .

Carlos lost his watch while he was running.I was sleeping on the couch when Bertie
smashed through the door.

5* Tom was cooking the dinner . (He was in the middle of cooking, we don't know
wether he finished or not).


COMPARE:

When Tom arrived,
- we were having dinner. (We had already started dinner before Tom arrived )
- we had dinner ( Tom arrived and we had dinner )

You've been smoking too much recently. You should smoke less.

Ann has been writing letters all day.



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Nam Phương




4- QUÁ KH HOÀN THÀNH/QUÁ KH HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N

THÌ QUÁ KH HOÀN THÀNH
I had just finished watering the lawn when
Thì quá kh hoàn thành di n t 1 hành it began to rain.
ñ ng ñã x y ra và k t thúc trong quá kh
trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác cũng x y ra và k t She had studied English before she came to
thúc trong quá kh . the U.S.

CH T + HAD + QUÁ KH PHÂN T After he had eaten breakfast, he went to
school.
THÌ QUÁ KH HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N
Thì quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n nh n
m nh kho ng th i gian c a 1 hành ñ ng ñã
ñang x y ra trong quá kh và k t thúc trư c
1 hành ñ ng khác x y ra và cũng k t thúc We had been living in Santa Ana for 2
trong quá kh . years before we moved to Garden Grove.

CH T + HAD + BEEN + Ð NG T
THÊM -ING




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C m và t ng ch th i gian: Until then, by the time, prior to that time, before, after

Dùng thì quá kh hoàn thành cho hành ñ ng th nh t. Dùng thì quá kh cho hành ñ ng
th hai.

M o: Quí v có th nh theo cách này.

Ch cái ti ng Anh A B C.......

"A" ñ ng v trí th nh t và "A" là ch cái ñ u tiên c a ch "After". Cho nên After +
hành ñ ng th nh t.

Trư c tiên: Alex had gone to bed.

Sau ñó': He couldn't sleep.

After Alex had gone to bed, he couldn't sleep.

Trư c tiên: Jessica had cooked dinner.

Sau ñó': Her boyfriend came.

Jessica's boyfriend came after she had cooked dinner.

"B" ñ ng v trí th hai, và "B" là ch cái ñ u tiên c a ch "Before". Cho nên Before
+ hành ñ ng th 2.

Trư c tiên: Kimberly had taken the test.

Sau ñó': She went home yesterday.

Kimberly had taken the test before she went home yesterday.

Trư c tiên: Brandon had brushed his teeth.

Sau ñó': He went to bed.

Before Brandon went to bed, he had brushed his teeth.

Kevin Khôi Trương




PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS



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TÓM T T:

Ð di n t m t hành ñ ng kéo dài, ÐÃ CH M D T m t th i di m trong quá kh .

Không có Past perfect progressive cho "To be". "Had been Being" ñư c di n t b ng
"Had been" .



***


THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE indicates a continuous action that was
completed at some point in the past.

This tense is formed with the modal "HAD" plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of
the verb (with an -ing ending):

"I had been working in the garden all morning. George had been painting his house for
weeks, but he finally gave up."

I hadn't been going
You hadn't been going
He hadn't been going
We hadn't been going
You hadn't been going
They hadn't been going


To say how long st had been happening before something else happened

It had been raining (the sun was shining and the ground was wet it had stopped raining.
)

I was very tired when I arrived home , I had been working hard all day

He was out of breath . He had been running

The house was quiet when I got home. Everybody had gone to bed.

Tom wasn't there when I arrived : he had just gone out

The man was a complete st ranger to me . I had never seen before.



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Bill no longer had his car: he had sold it


NOTE:

There is no past perfect progressive for the "to be" verb. "Had been being" is expressed
simply as "had been":

"We had been successful before, but we somehow lost our knack."

Nam Phương




5- TƯƠNG LAI/TƯƠNG LAI TI P DI N

THÌ TƯƠNG LAI ÐƠN
Khi quí v ñoán (predict, guess), dùng will
ÐOÁN: Dùng c WILL l n BE GOING
ho c be going to.
TO
Khi quí v ch d ñ nh trư c, dùng be
According to the reporter, it will be sunny
going to không ñư c dùng will.
tomorrow. HO C
CH T + AM (IS/ARE) GOING TO +
According to the reporter, it is going to be
Ð NG T ( hi n t i: simple form)
sunny tomorrow.
Khi quí v di n t s tình nguy n ho c s
I'm going to study tomorrow. (không ñư c
s n sàng, dùng will không ñư c dùng be
dùng WILL)
going to.
I will help you do your homework. (không
CH T + WILL + Ð NG T ( hi n t i:
ñư c dùng BE GOING TO)
simple form)
THÌ TƯƠNG LAI TI P DI N
Thì tương lai ti p di n di n t hành ñ ng s
I will be watching the "Wheel of Fortune"
x y ra 1 th i ñi m nào ñó trong tương lai.
show when you call tonight.
CH T + WILL + BE + Ð NG T
Don't come to my house at five. I am
THÊM -ING ho c
going to be eating.



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CH T + BE GOING TO + BE + Ð NG
T THÊM -ING




C m và t ng ch th i gian: In the future, next year, next week, next time, and soon

Kevin Khôi Trương




6- TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH/TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N

THÌ TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH
Thì tương lai hoàn thành di n t 1 hành
ñ ng trong tương lai s k t thúc trư c 1 I'm going to go to school at eight. My
hành ñ ng khác trong tương lai. friend is going to come to my house at nine
tomorrow. By the time my friend comes to
CH T + WILL + HAVE + QUÁ KH my house, I will have gone to school.
PHÂN T (PAST PARTICIPLE)
She will have put on some make-up prior
C m và t ng ch th i gian: By the time to the time her boyfriend comes tonight.
and prior to the time (có nghĩa là before)
THÌ TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N
Thì tương lai hoàn thành ti p di n nh n
m nh kho ng th i gian c a 1 hành ñ ng s He will have been studying for four hours
ñang x y ra trong tương lai và s k t thúc by the time he takes his examination
trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác trong tương lai. tonight.

CH T + WILL + HAVE + BEEN + Kevin Khôi Trương
Ð NG T THÊM -ING




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M o t - Articles
Nam Phương

Tóm t t:

Indefinite articles: a, an


** Có 2 d ng "A" và "AN"** AN khi ñ ng trư c môt nguyên âm : vowel

a cat
an accident
some dogs

Ngo i tr trư c U nhưng ph i ñ c là "ju" (phát âm như ch "yêu" ti ng Vi t.


Thí d

a University

a unit
not a one
a unicorn

Definite articles: The

Gi ng như adjectives (possessive, demonstratives, numeral, ...) m o t " THE "dùng ñ
b nghĩa cho danh t .

Nó ñ ng trư c danh t . (Ti ng Vi t: cái , con, trái... như cái hoa, con nai, trái cam...)

** Dùng ñ ch ngư i, v t, nơi ch n... mà ta ñã xác ñ nh r i. Thí d như "con gái hông
hàng xóm", ta bi t là ai r i, nên ta dùng definite article "the". N u như m t ngư i nào
ñó, thì dùng indefinite article "a".

** Dư i d ng ghi v n và ph ñ nh, m o t không thay ñ i.

** Trư c m t nguyên âm, "the" ñư c ñ c là "ñi"

** Không dùng m o t khi:


*Danh t tr u tư ng,



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* S nhi u c a "a"
* Ngày, tháng, năm
* Ch c v

o0o


KHI DÙNG CH C TƯ C NGH NGHI P

He interviewed the president yesterday
We saw the Queen on TV
The Doctor left an hour ago


Exception:
« The Emperor » et « The Tsar »



DANH T RIÊNG S nhi u (proper names, noms propres)

The Wilsons, the Bakers



DANH T Ð A DƯ S nhi u :
The West Indies, the USA, the British Isles


Exception: The United Kingdom


H (of) Lacs
The lake of Geneva


TÊN BI N, Ð I DƯƠNG, GIÒNG NƯ C

The Thames, the Mississippi, The Pacific
The Mediterranean [‘rein]



TÊN DÃY NÚI

The Alpes, the Rocky Mountains


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TÊN ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M (Có ch "of" ñ ng trư c)

The House of Parliament


Khi nào không dùng m o t ?

Khi ch c tư c, ngh nghi p ñư c ti p theo b ng TÊN c a ngư i ñó
( Titre, grade, profession.. ils sont suivis du nom de la personne )

He interviewed Pr. Kennedy
We saw Queen Elizabeth on TV
Doctor Qeen left an hour ago
President Mitterrand completed two terms.
We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant.
She met with Doctor Schmidt.


DANH T RIÊNG S ÍT
Christ


DANH T Ð A LÝ S ÍT


France, England

Wales (s ít)

HÔ, Ð NH NÚI, ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M
(Lacs, Sommets, Rues et monuments)


Lake Ontario

Mount Everest, Ben Nevis

Fith Avenue, Oxford Street Wesminter Abbey

NAM PHƯƠNG




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Văn ph m Anh văn



Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t chung (nouns in general), ñ t "a," "an," ho c "kho^ng
ma.o tu?`" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. "a" ñư c dùng trư c ph âm (b, c, d, f.....). "an"
ñư c dùng trư c nguyên âm (a, e, i, o, and u). "kho^ng ma.o tu?`" ñư c dùng trư c
danh t s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c. Quí v ch nên nh 5 nguyên âm. Ngoài ra
là phu âm ch không nên nh v a nguyên âm v a ph âm.
Danh t s ít He met a girl.
Danh t s ít I threw an apple away.
Books are made from paper. (không có
Danh t s nhi u
m ot trư c ch "books")
Milk is good for everyone. (không có m o
Danh t không ñ m ñư c
t trư c ch "milk")
NGO I L :

a uniform, a university, a union (u ñư c phát âm là "diu" và ñư c coi là 1 nguyên
âm "d".)

an honest girl, an honorable man (h câm)
Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t b t ñ nh (indefinite nouns), ñ t "a" ho c "some" trư c
nh ng danh t ñó. "some" ñư c dùng v i danh t b t ñ nh s nhi u và danh t b t ñ nh
không ñ m ñư c.
Danh t s ít Lan bought a shirt.
Danh t s nhi u Nancy wants to order some chairs.
Danh t không ñ m ñư c Andy got some mail today.
Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t xác ñ nh (definite nouns), ñ t "the" trư c nh ng danh
t ñó. Khi c ngư i nói l n ngư i nghe ñ u bi t v 1 danh t rõ ràng, ñ t "the." trư c
danh t ñó. "the" ñư c dùng v i danh t s ít, s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c.
Danh t s ít Where is the car, Joseph?
Danh t s nhi u She already talked to the children.
Danh t không ñ m ñư c Thank you for the advice, Amy.
Khi quí v bi t danh t ch có duy nh t 1, dùng "the".
Ch có 1 m t tr i The sun was bright yesterday.
Khi quí v nh c ñ n 1 danh t nào ñó t l n th 2 tr ñi, dùng "the".
We have just bought a house. The house is
Nhà ñư c nh c ñ n l n th 2.
beautiful. The house is big.
Khi quí v nói v 1 hi p h i hay liên ñoàn, dùng "the".
Nư c M có 50 ti u bang. Phi Lu t Tân The United States, the Philippines, the
dư c bao quanh b i hơn 7000 hòn ñ o. United Nations...




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Shall
Nam Phương

Ngôi th nh t s ít và s nhi u (I SHALL va WE SHALL): Thì Tương lai:


1) Câu h i:

Ð h i ý ki n hay l i khuyên b o

Shall I help you ?



2) Câu tr l i:

B i vì tôi không th làm khác hơn ñư c... hay tôi s làm n u vi c ñó không làm phi n tôi
...


Yes, I shall



3) Dùng I SHALL, WE SHALL khi:


a) B bó bu c, không có s ch n l a hay ý mu n..

b) Không ñư c t do

c) Hành ñ ng không th lay chuy n ñư c

d) Nh ng ho t ñ ng không c ý:
to know, understand, remember, forget

Now, Ernest, I will give you one more chance, and if you don’t say « come », I shall know
that you are self-willed and naughty

I shall always remember your calling me a liar

e) Cho nh ng c m giác và tình c m:
to be cold, glad, disappointed, to like, to enjoy, to hate...




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Văn ph m Anh văn




We shall be glad to meet your friend
We shall meet you when you have gone
We shall all be very tired


Thí d :

Shall I tell him about it ?
- What shall I do ? (Tôi s làm gì ñây?)

- What shall we have for lunch ? (Ta s ăn gì trưa nay?, h i ý ki n )
- How long shall we wait ?
- I shall not (shan’t) do it by myself. (I can't...)
- I shall be very grateful if you do
- I shall (not will) call you tomorrow. (tương lai)
- We shall (not will) be sure to keep in touch (tình c m)



Shall - Will

Võ Th Di u H ng

A - Shall

I) Ngôi th nh t (I, We)

1) Thì tương lai


Khi dùng ngôi th nh t (I và We), chia v i tr ñ ng t (auxiliary verb) SHALL +
ñ ng t chính nguyên m u , n u kèm theo nh ng tr ng t (adverb) ch th i gian
tương lai (tomorrow, next year, tonight...) thì shall dùng ñ nói v thì Tương lai

I shall be late home tonight. (Tôi s v nhà tr t i nay)
If you do that one more time, I shall be very cross. (N u... s ..)
I shall never forget you.
I shall have to call you back - there's someone at the front door.
Next month I shall have worked here for five years.(1)
Shall we be able to get this finished today, do you think?
I'm afraid I shall not/shan't be able to come to your party.
I shall hope to hear from you again soon.(Formal = hình th c)
I shall look forward to meeting you next week.(Formal)
So we'll see you at the weekend, shall we (= is that right)? (2)
We shall (= intend to = có ý ñ nh, có m c ñích) let you know as soon as there's any



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news.
This is an important point in my argument, and I shall (= intend to) come back to it.

***

(1) Future perfect = Hành ñ ng trong tương lai, bi t trư c s ñư c hoàn t t trong
năm năm t i, m t hành ñ ng trong tương lai nhưng x y ra trư c (th i gian năm
năm)

Thí d :

• She will have finished before eight o'clock. (Hành ñ ng "to finish" xong
TRƯ C "eight o'clock")
• Tomorrow morning they will all have left. (Hành ñ ng "to leave" xong trư c
"Tomorrow morning")
• They will already have finished eating by the time we get there.

(2) "We shall...": Vì có nhi u ý ki n khác nhau. Ý chúng tôi cũng có th s t i cũng
có th không ... ý c a các b n có thích chúng tôi t i không?

N u dùng "We will..." thì ta ch có m t con ñư ng duy nh t là "chúng tôi s ñ n g p
các b n cu i tu n này này"




2) Yêu c u (Suggestion)

a) Câu h i:
Dư i d ng câu h i: Tùy n i dung trong câu (v ng ) mà ta hi u ñó là s yêu c u
(suggestion ), s phán xét (judg(e)ment), ñ h i ý ki n hay l i khuyên b o, ñ nói
lên s yêu c u làm m t vi c gì ñó.

Shall I help you ?
I'm cold. Shall I close this window? (Tôi l nh. Tôi có th ñóng c a ñư c không?)
Shall we go out for dinner tonight? (Mình ñi ăn t i nhen?)
Shall I (= Do you want me to) pick the children up from school today?
What shall (=What do you suggest that) we do about this broken window?
Which restaurant shall we (=would you like us to) go to?


b) Câu tr l i:
B i vì tôi không th làm khác hơn ñư c... hay tôi s làm n u vi c ñó không làm phi n
tôi ...


Yes, I shall




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Văn ph m Anh văn


3) ý nguy n
Shall dùng ñ nói lên m t ý nguy n, m t l i h a, m t m nh l nh, m t công vi c mà
ta xác ñ nh, qu quy t M T CÁCH M NH M

Dùng ñ nói lên m t ý nguy n ch c ch n hay m t vi c ch n ch n s x y ra hay
chính b n kh ng ñ nh là vi c ñó s x y ra


Don't worry, I shall be there to meet the train.
I'm determined that she shall not be allowed to suffer.
The school rules state that no child shall be allowed out of the school during the day,
unless accompanied by an adult.(Hình th c)
You shall (=I promise that you will) go to the ball, Hương.




4) Tóm l i:
dùng I SHALL, WE SHALL khi:


a) B bó bu c, không có s ch n l a hay ý mu n..

b) Không ñư c t do

c) Hành ñ ng không th lay chuy n ñư c

d) Nh ng ho t ñ ng không c ý:
to know, understand, remember, forget

Now, Ernest, I will give you one more chance, and if you don’t say « come », I shall
know that you are self-willed and naughty

I shall always remember your calling me a liar

e) Cho nh ng c m giác và tình c m:
to be cold, glad, disappointed, to like, to enjoy, to hate...


We shall be glad to meet your friend
We shall meet you when you have gone
We shall all be very tired


Thí d :


Shall I tell him about it ?
- What shall I do ? (Tôi s làm gì ñây?)



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Văn ph m Anh văn


- What shall we have for lunch ? (Ta s ăn gì trưa nay?, h i ý ki n )
- How long shall we wait ?
- I shall not (shan’t) do it by myself. (I can't...)
- I shall be very grateful if you do
- I shall (not will) call you tomorrow. (tương lai)
- We shall (not will) be sure to keep in touch (tình c m)

f) ý nguy n ch c ch n hay m t vi c ch n ch n s x y ra hay chính ta kh ng ñ nh

I shall be there with you, don't worry.




B) Shall và Will

Vì Shall và Will ñ u ñư c rút g n gi ng nhau (I Will --> I'll , We shall --> We'll) nên
ta không ñ ý ñ n chúng n a. Nhưng th c s có s khác bi t:




1) N u ta dùng I, We v i Shall và You, He, Them v i will = Bình thư ng. Ý nghĩa
s khách quan, ta không có ý ki n gì trong ñó (objective, simple statement of fact)




I shall be in London tomorrow.

You will see a large building on the left

He will be wearing blue

We shall not be there when you arrive

You will find his office on the 7th floor

They will arrive late




2) N u ta dùng I và We v i Will và You, He Them v i Shall = qu quy t m nh
m , m nh l nh, l i h a, ý nguy n... Tùy theo nôi dung trong m nh ñ .




I will do everything possible to help (tôi quy t..)

You shall be sorry for this (anh ph i...)

It shall be done.



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Văn ph m Anh văn


We will not interfere.

You shall do as you're told

They shall give one month's notice (h h a...)




Cũng gi ng như lu t c a SHOULD VÀ WOULD, nhưng v i Should và Would thì nh
nhàng hơn, quý phái hơn:

I should be grateful if you would kindly send me your latest catalogue.




C) K t lu n
Will và Shall cho ta bi t cách di n t , ý c a ngư i nói, nghĩa là hành ñ ng có liên
quan ñ n quan ni m c a ngư i nói và tùy theo v ng (nh ng ch sau "shall"
hay"will") ñ bi t tác gi câu nói ñó ý như th nào.

Nhưng có m t ñi u rõ ràng là :

- Will ch s m t chi u, m t con ñư ng, không có ý ki n trái ngư c, như trong Kinh
thánh.

- Shall ch nhi u chi u hư ng có th x y ra., nh ng ý ki n trái ngư c, như trong
Khoa h c.. Tôi nói như v y là vì tôi nghĩ th cho dù ý ki n c a các b n có ñ i l p v i
tôi ñi chăng n a thì tôi cũng c nói

Ireland shall be free: M c dù nh ng ngư i khác nghĩ không gi ng tôi, m c dù không
ph i v y, nhưng tôi v n nói là Ireland s ñư c t do!

We shall overcome: Chúng ta s th ng l i. Có nhi u ngư i không ñ ng ý v i tôi,
không tin l i tôi nói, m c dù v y tôi v n c b o ñ m l i tôi nói! (Ch c trong Chính tr ,
các ng c viên ph i dùng thư ng xuyên "Shall") .

Ngoài ra cũng có ý hăm d a hay h a h n

- You will pay for this: V i câu nói này anh ch có m t con ñư ng là ph i tr ti n
chuy n quá rõ vì ngư i nghe không ch ng ñ i.

- You shall pay for this Cho dù anh không ch u ñi n a , tôi cũng b t anh ph i tr ti n
.

- Will you come with us ? = anh ñi v i chúng tôi ch ? (L i m i)

- Will you be coming with us ? = Anh s ñi v i chúng tôi không? (câu h i)




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- Will you lend your car please ? = l i th nh c u: Anh có mu n cho mư n xe
không?

- Will you be lending your car ? = Anh có s cho mư n xe không?

- Will you stay with us for the week-end ? = câu h i thư ng

- Shall you stay at home for the week-end ? = Câu h i tương lai

-Will you be staying at home for the week-end ? = Tương lai

-Yes, I will = Vâng r t s n sàng.

-Yes, I’m afraid I shall = H i ơi! Vâng, tôi nghĩ r ng s ph i nhà!

-You will go to the pictures and we shall stay here = Anh ñi xem chi u bóng còn
chúng tôi l i ñây ñ làm xong công vi c (m t s nh n xét bình thư ng, vì We thì
shall và You will)

- We will go to the pictures and = Chúng tôi ñi xem chi u bóng (thích l m!)

-You shall stay here to finish our work = Anh ph i l i ñ làm xong công chuy n
(ngư i nói nghiêm kh c ra l nh)

- He says he won’t do it = Anh ta nói không làm chuy n ñó (anh ta t ch i)

- He shall do it! = Anh ta ph i làm! (ngư i nói câu này nghiêm kh c ra l nh)

- She shan’t go to VN with you! = Cô ta không ñư c ñi VN v i anh! (Ngư i nói câu
này ch ng ñ i không mu n cô ta ñi nên dùng SHE SHAN'T)

- She won’t go to VN with you!. = Cô ta s không ñi v i anh. Ðây ch là m t nh n
xét thông thư ng là chính cô ta t ch i ñi VN v i anh ch ngư i nói không có liên can
gì c . B i vì SHE WON'T, câu nói thông thư ng.

- I shall be 18 next week = Tu n sau tôi s ñư c 18 tu i cho dù tôi có mu n hay
không




Tính t
Kevin Khôi Trương

TH T C A TÍNH T

Head
Determiner Observation Physical Description Origin Material Qualifier
Noun


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Size Shape Age Color
two lovely young children
her short white silk business suit
delicious
some Vietnamese food
inexpensive
my small old French oak dining chair
this comfortable big Canadian rocking chair
several small round white beads

Không nên dùng quá nhi u tính t trong 1 câu. Gi i h n t 2 ñ n 5 tính t trong 1 câu.

Dùng d u ph y gi a 2 tính t ch khi nào nh ng tính t này cùng lo i.

The short, yellow bristles of brass (2 tính t trong physical description)

A delicious, expensive Italian meal (không dùng d u ph y gi a expensive and
Italian)




TÍNH T V I ED VÀ ING

ING: Hi n T i Phân T ED: Quá Kh Phân T (Past
(Present Participle) Participle)
The work tires me. It is a tiring work. I'm a tired person.
The story amazes her. It is an amazing story. She is an amazed lady.
The dogs frightens me. It is a frightening dog. I'm a frightened guy.
They are disappointed
The news disappoints them. It is a disappointing news.
people.
The news shocks us. It is a shocking news. We are shocked people.
ING: Hi n T i Phân T (Present Participle) ch th ch ñ ng: Công vi c làm tôi m t.

ED: Quá Kh Phân T (Past Participle) ch th b ñ ng: Tôi b m t b i công vi c.

Quí v có th nghĩ theo cách này:




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Văn ph m Anh văn


H i: Ai làm hành ñ ng trong câu? Ngư i ñó hay v t ñó g i là giver.

Ai nh n hành ñ ng trong câu? Ngư i ñó hay v t ñó g i là receiver?

Nói v giver, dùng ING

Nói v receiver, dùng ED




Th s ít và s nhi u

Kevin Khôi Trương


V I DANH T


Nhi u danh t s ít tr thành s nhi u b ng cách thêm ch "S" ho c "ES" cu i.


S ÍT S NHI U
A cat Two cats
A hat Two hats


Khi danh t t n cùng b ng ch, s, sh, x, ho c z, ñ t "ES" cu i.


CH
There are two churches in this town.
There is a church in this town.
S
I gave her many kisses.
I gave her a kiss.
SH
He brought two dishes full of food.
He brought one dish full of food.
X
They received four faxes yesterday.
They received a fax yesterday.
Z
We heard a number of buzzes outside.
We heard a buzz outside.



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LU T "Y"


Khi 1 danh t t n cùng b ng 1 nguyên âm (A, E, I, O, U) và ch "Y", thêm ch "S" ñ
thành s nhi u.




S ÍT S NHI U


The child has several toys.
The child has only one toy. We saw some boys walking down the
We saw a boy walking down the street. street.
My boss gave me one day to finish this job. My boss gave me two days to finish this
They rescued a monkey in the zoo. job.
They rescued a few monkeys in the zoo.


Khi 1 danh t t n cùng b ng 1 ph âm và ch "Y", thay ch "Y" b ng ch "I" và thêm
"ES".


Her family is really poor.
Some families in the U.S are rich.
The lady is so beautiful.
The ladies are so beautiful.
Her duty is to lock the bank vault.
She has many duties.
A new baby was born yesterday.
Ten babies were born yesterday.
Give me a tray, please.
Give me two trays, please.
The study showed that what he said was
Many studies have been made recently.
wrong.


LU T "F" - "FE"


N u danh t t n cùng b ng ch "F" ho c "FE", thay ch "F" ho c "FE" b ng ch "V"
và thêm "ES".




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S ÍT S NHI U


She is drawing a calf. She is drawing a calves.
A leaf is falling down from a tree. Leaves are falling down from a tree.
She bought a loaf of bread. She bought several loaves of bread.
I bought her a scarf. I bought her two scarves (ho c scarfs).
Don't play with a knife. Don't play with knives.
You have one life to live. They risked their lives to rescue you.
His wife is nice. Their wives are selfish.


NGO I L : Vài danh t t n cùng b ng ch "F" có ch "S" cu i.
Belief --- Beliefs Chief --- Chiefs Cliff --- Cliffs
Proof --- Proofs Roof --- Roofs Safe --- Safes


LU T "OES" - "OS"


Ðôi khi danh t t n cùng b ng ch "O" có "ES" ho c "S" ho c c hai "ES" và "OS"
cu i.




OES
Echo --- Echoes Hero --- Heroes Potato --- Potatoes Tomato --- Tomatoes


OS
Auto --- Autos Concerto --- Concertos Kilo --- Kilos Memo ---
Memos
Photo --- Photos Piano --- Pianos Radio --- Radios Solo ---
Solos
Soprano --- Sopranos Studio --- Studios Tattoo --- Tattoos
Video --- Videos Zoo --- Zoos


C hai "OES" và "OS"


Mosquito --- Mosquitoes/Mosquitos Tornado --- Tornadoes/Tornados



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Volcano --- Volcanoes/Volcanos Zero --- Zeroes/Zeros


TH S NHI U C A DANH T B T QUY T C


M t vài danh t có th s nhi u b t quy t t.
Child --- Children Foot --- Feet Goose --- Geese Louse --- Lice Man --
- Men
Mouse --- Mice Ox --- Oxen Tooth --- Teeth Woman --- Women


TH S ÍT VÀ S NHI U GI NG NHAU


Vài danh t gi ng nhau c th s ít l n s nhi u.
Deer --- Deer Fish --- Fish Means --- Means Series --- Series Sheep ---
Sheep
Species --- Species


TH S NHI U ÐƯ C MƯ N T NH NG NGÔN NG KHÁC


M t vài th s nhi u c a danh t ñư c mư n t nh ng ngôn ng khác.

Criterion --- Criteria Appendix --- Appendices/Appendixes
Phenomenon --- Phenomena Index --- Indexes/Indices

Cactus --- Cacti/Cactuses Formula --- Formulas/Formulae
Stimulus --- Stimuli Vertebra --- Vertebrae
Alumnus --- Alumni
Syllabus --- Syllabi/Syllabuses

Analysis --- Analyses Bacterium --- Bacteria
Basis --- Bases Curriculum --- Curricula
Crisis --- Crises Datum --- Data
Hypothesis --- Hypotheses Medium --- Media
Parenthesis --- Parentheses Memorandum ---Memoranda
Oasis --- Oases Agendum --- Agenda
Thesis --- Theses


V I Ð NG T



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Trong thì hi n t i ñơn, r t nhi u ñ ng t có ch "S" ho c "ES" cu i khi ch t trong
câu là ngôi ba s ít.


Khi ñ ng t t n cùng b ng ch, s, sh, x, ho c z, ñ t "ES" cu i.


Watch --- Watches
CH
He watches TV every night.
Kiss --- Kisses
S She kisses her daughter before she goes to
work in the morning.
Brush --- Brushes
SH
The boy brushes his teeth each morning.
Fax --- Faxes
X She faxes at least two receipts to the
insurance company every day.
Buzz --- Buzzes
Z His left ear buzzes each time the plane
takes off.




Tr ng t - Adverbs
Nam Phương và Kevin Khôi Trương


Tóm t t:

Indefinite articles: a, an


** Có 2 d ng "A" và "AN"** AN khi ñ ng trư c môt nguyên âm : vowel

a cat
an accident




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some dogs

Ngo i tr trư c U nhưng ph i ñ c là "ju" (phát âm như ch "yêu" ti ng Vi t.


Thí d

a University

a unit
not a one
a unicorn

Definite articles: The

Gi ng như adjectives (possessive, demonstratives, numeral, ...) m o t " THE "dùng ñ
b nghĩa cho danh t .

Nó ñ ng trư c danh t . (Ti ng Vi t: cái , con, trái... như cái hoa, con nai, trái cam...)

** Dùng ñ ch ngư i, v t, nơi ch n... mà ta ñã xác ñ nh r i. Thí d như "con gái hông
hàng xóm", ta bi t là ai r i, nên ta dùng definite article "the". N u như m t ngư i nào
ñó, thì dùng indefinite article "a".

** Dư i d ng ghi v n và ph ñ nh, m o t không thay ñ i.

** Trư c m t nguyên âm, "the" ñư c ñ c là "ñi"

** Không dùng m o t khi:


*Danh t tr u tư ng,
* S nhi u c a "a"
* Ngày, tháng, năm
* Ch c v

o0o


KHI DÙNG CH C TƯ C NGH NGHI P

He interviewed the president yesterday
We saw the Queen on TV
The Doctor left an hour ago




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Exception:
« The Emperor » et « The Tsar »



DANH T RIÊNG S nhi u (proper names, noms propres)

The Wilsons, the Bakers



DANH T Ð A DƯ S nhi u :
The West Indies, the USA, the British Isles


Exception: The United Kingdom


H (of) Lacs
The lake of Geneva


TÊN BI N, Ð I DƯƠNG, GIÒNG NƯ C

The Thames, the Mississippi, The Pacific
The Mediterranean [‘rein]



TÊN DÃY NÚI

The Alpes, the Rocky Mountains



TÊN ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M (Có ch "of" ñ ng trư c)

The House of Parliament


Khi nào không dùng m o t ?

Khi ch c tư c, ngh nghi p ñư c ti p theo b ng TÊN c a ngư i ñó
( Titre, grade, profession.. ils sont suivis du nom de la personne )

He interviewed Pr. Kennedy


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We saw Queen Elizabeth on TV
Doctor Qeen left an hour ago
President Mitterrand completed two terms.
We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant.
She met with Doctor Schmidt.


DANH T RIÊNG S ÍT
Christ


DANH T Ð A LÝ S ÍT


France, England

Wales (s ít)

HÔ, Ð NH NÚI, ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M
(Lacs, Sommets, Rues et monuments)


Lake Ontario

Mount Everest, Ben Nevis

Fith Avenue, Oxford Street Wesminter Abbey

NAM PHƯƠNG


Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t chung (nouns in general), ñ t "a," "an," ho c "kho^ng
ma.o tu?`" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. "a" ñư c dùng trư c ph âm (b, c, d, f.....). "an"
ñư c dùng trư c nguyên âm (a, e, i, o, and u). "kho^ng ma.o tu?`" ñư c dùng trư c
danh t s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c. Quí v ch nên nh 5 nguyên âm. Ngoài ra
là phu âm ch không nên nh v a nguyên âm v a ph âm.
Danh t s ít He met a girl.
Danh t s ít I threw an apple away.
Books are made from paper. (không có
Danh t s nhi u
m ot trư c ch "books")
Milk is good for everyone. (không có m o
Danh t không ñ m ñư c
t trư c ch "milk")
NGO I L :



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Văn ph m Anh văn


a uniform, a university, a union (u ñư c phát âm là "diu" và ñư c coi là 1 nguyên
âm "d".)

an honest girl, an honorable man (h câm)
Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t b t ñ nh (indefinite nouns), ñ t "a" ho c "some" trư c
nh ng danh t ñó. "some" ñư c dùng v i danh t b t ñ nh s nhi u và danh t b t ñ nh
không ñ m ñư c.
Danh t s ít Lan bought a shirt.
Danh t s nhi u Nancy wants to order some chairs.
Danh t không ñ m ñư c Andy got some mail today.
Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t xác ñ nh (definite nouns), ñ t "the" trư c nh ng danh
t ñó. Khi c ngư i nói l n ngư i nghe ñ u bi t v 1 danh t rõ ràng, ñ t "the." trư c
danh t ñó. "the" ñư c dùng v i danh t s ít, s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c.
Danh t s ít Where is the car, Joseph?
Danh t s nhi u She already talked to the children.
Danh t không ñ m ñư c Thank you for the advice, Amy.
Khi quí v bi t danh t ch có duy nh t 1, dùng "the".
Ch có 1 m t tr i The sun was bright yesterday.
Khi quí v nh c ñ n 1 danh t nào ñó t l n th 2 tr ñi, dùng "the".
We have just bought a house. The house is
Nhà ñư c nh c ñ n l n th 2.
beautiful. The house is big.
Khi quí v nói v 1 hi p h i hay liên ñoàn, dùng "the".
Nư c M có 50 ti u bang. Phi Lu t Tân The United States, the Philippines, the
dư c bao quanh b i hơn 7000 hòn ñ o. United Nations...

KEVIN KHÔI TRƯƠNG




Ð i t - Pronouns

Nam Phương

Có nhi u lo i ñ i t :

CH T (SUBJECT) : I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They

TÚC T (OBJECT) Me, You, Him, Her, It, Us, You, Them




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Văn ph m Anh văn


PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Its, Ours, Yours, Theirs

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS : This one, That one, These ones, Those ones, She
who, He who, They who.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS : Who, Whom, Whose, That, Which, That which, What.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves,
Yourselves, Themselves

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS : Each other, One another



Cách dùng:

Túc t ñi sau d ng t :

• Did you buy it?
• You didn't buy it.
• You bought it.

• Will you come to the store with me?
• He left without her.

• I have spoken to her.
• I gave this present to them.
• Nhưng : I gave them this present.

Thư ng túc t gián ti p (indirect object) ñi sau gi i t "to", tr khi trư c nó có m t túc
t tr c ti p, lúc ñó m t gi i t "to":

I gave them this present



Th t các ñ i t :



Ch t ñ ng t túc t tr c ti p túc t gián ti p túc t gi i t
He gave it to me for Christmas




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Văn ph m Anh văn


• Don't tell that to him.
• He couldn't sell the car to them.

Ngo i tr :

Như ta ñã nói trên, ta có th b gi i t "to" khi túc t tr c ti p ñ ng trư c túc t gián
ti p



• He gave me it for Christmas.
• Don't tell him that.
• He couldn't sell them the car.



Các lo i ñ i t :

1) POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

• I --> mine
• your --> yours
• he, she, it --> his (masculine), hers (feminine), its (impersonal)
• we --> ours
• they --> theirs

Do ñó:

• I have my likes, and she has hers.
• If you give me one of yours, I'll give you one of mine.
• I like our house, but frankly, I am jealous of theirs!
• That's mine!



2) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

TÓM T T:

Chúng gi ng như demonstrative adjectives tr s ít thì thêm ONE vô

• These tomatoes are fresher than those.
• These are better than those.
• Would you like a little of this?
• That strikes me as really weird!
• The book is more interesting than that one.


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Văn ph m Anh văn


Trư c m t relative pronoun (thí d "who") thì nó bi n thành

"THE ONE" (the ones) ñ ch v t.

"HE/SHE WHO" , "THEY WHO" ñ ch ngư i.



• This film is the one that you hated so much.
• He who eats well works well.
• This pen is the one with which the President signed the new law.

3) RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Dùng ñ n i hai câu v i nhau:

• I found an apartment. This apartment has three rooms.

may be joined using a relative pronoun:

• I found an apartment which has three rooms

Các d ng c a relative pronouns

Relative pronouns có nhi u d ng khác nhau:who, whom, whose, that, which, that which,
what.

Specific person Specific thing Unspecific thing
That
That
Subject Who Which
Which
Whet
That
Who That
Direct object Which
Whom Which
What
Preposition + Prep + What
Object of a
Prep + Whom
preposition
Which That + Prep + Which
Special cases
Possession Time Space




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Văn ph m Anh văn


Whose
When Where
Of which

Ch t

Who : ñ ch ngư i

Which, that: ñ ch v t, ñ v t

• There's the man who stole my wallet!
• I read a novel that entertained me a great deal.
• He made a mistake which embarrassed him.

Khi không rõ là ai, dùng "what" (và "that which", nhưng không thông d ng b ng)

• What interests me in this film is the music.
• That which eludes us intrigues us the most.
• I don't know what happened.



Túc t

Whom : cho ngư i

That, Which: cho v t

• She is a person whom I respect a great deal.
• He ordered a beverage which he didn't drink.
• She is talking about the trip that we're going to take

Chú ý:

Ta có th b "Whom" hay "That", (nhưng không ñư c b "What" hay "That which") khi
nói ñ n specific antecedent.

• She is a person I respect a great deal.
• He ordered a beverage he didn't drink.
• She is talking about the trip we're going to take.

Khi antecedent (ch ñ ng trư c relative pronoun) không rõ ràng, ta dùng "What" (có th
dùng "That which" nhưng ít thông d ng)

• You can do what you want.



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Văn ph m Anh văn


• What they are doing seems useful.



4) POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

S h u (Possession): "whose" / "of which"

Whose : cho ngư i

Of which : cho v t

• The tourist whose ticket had expired filed a complaint.
• There is the man whose mother is our mayor.
• That was a good article, the point of which was to make us think.

5) PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS

Gi i t thư ng ñ ng trư c túc t c a nó

• Here's the pattern with which I made this shirt.
• The woman for whom I work is quite strict.
• Here's the tree next to which Newton was sitting.
• They went out for dinner, after which they went home.

Trong văn nói, gi i t có th ñ cu i câu.

Tuy nhiên v i pronoun What, c u trúc này ñư c dùng , ngay trong văn vi t

• Here's the pattern which I made this shirt with.
• The woman whom I work for is quite strict.
• Here's the tree which Newton was sitting next to.
• Tell me what you're thinking about.



6) Ð I T TH I GIAN

Pronoun "When" dùng v i danh t ch th i gian. Tuy nhiên nhi u khi cũng không c n
pronoun này nên b luôn

• I remember the day when we met.
• I remember the day we met.
• He arrived at the moment when we were speaking of him.
• He arrived at the moment we were speaking of him.




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7) Ð I T KHÔNG GIAN

Khi nh ng gi i t ñ c bi t ch nơi ch n (thí d "on", "under"...) không c n thi t, ta th
b ng pronoun "Where"

• Here's the house where my parents were born.
• She doesn't know where she's going.



8) REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS :

Ð ch hành ñ ng t mình làm cho mình (thí d tôi t h i, nó t mua cho nó...)

• I --> myself
• you (singular) --> yourself
• you (plural) --> yourselves
• he --> himself
• she --> herself
• it --> itself
• we --> ourselves
• they --> themselves



• I told myself it would never happen.
• She talks to herself all the time.
• Look at yourself in that mirror!
• I would like to give myself a raise

phía cu i câu, ta có th thêm reflexive pronouns ñ nh n m nh ch t trong câu. (còn
ñ ng t không ñư c nh n m nh)

• I would rather do that myself.
• Can you talk to him yourself?



9) RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

Ð ch hai ngư i, hành ñ ng l n nhau, ta dùng reciprocal pronouns "each other" hay
"one another".

thí d : "chúng thương nhau", "chúng tôi ñánh nhau"

• They hate each other.


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Văn ph m Anh văn


• They killed one another.
• We talk to each other often.




Gi i t - Prepositions
Nam Phương

Không gian

Gi i t dùng ñ ch v trí không gian và th i gian t m t v trí ñã ñ nh.

• I put the book on the table.
• She arrived before the others.
• He came toward me.

Có r t nhi u gi i t . Ðây là m t ph n c a danh sách, thí d :

• to -- He gave the book to his friend. (nơi ñ n; à)
• at -- They arrived at his house at 5 o'clock. ( , lúc; à)
• of -- It was the third day of the month. (c a; de)
• from -- That young women comes from Thailand. (t ; de)
• on -- She put the plate on the table. (trên; sur)
• under -- The cat crawled under the bed. (dư i; dư i)
• over -- The boy threw the rock over the tree. (trên cao; au-dessus)
• underneath -- The rabbit escaped underneath the fence. (bên dư i; au-dessous)
• before -- (time) She arrived before the movie started. (trư c khi, ch th i gian;
avant)
• after -- He called his mother after he finished shopping. (sau, après)
• in front of -- His mother parked her car in front of his apartment. (trư c m t, en
face)
• behind -- The dog ran behind the house. (sau lưng, derrière)
• for -- He went to the store for more milk. (ñ , pour)
• toward -- The criminal walked toward him with a gun.(British English: toward,
ñ c là [tơw d]. American Engish vi t là "towards" và ñ c là [tôdz]: v phía; vers)
• against -- Everyone was against that idea. (ch ng; contre)
• around -- The athletes ran around the track six times.(xung quanh, kho ng;
autour)
• close to -- He placed the food close to the squirrel. (sát; près de. "close" là
adverb.)
• far from -- He placed the food far from the lion. (xa; loin de)
• next to -- He was hot, so he sat down next to the air conditioning. (bên c nh; à
tôté de)


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• facing -- She sat down on the other side of the table, facing him. (sát trư c m t; en
face de)
• in the midst of -- I don't know where to find any free time in the midst of these
emergencies. ( gi a, trong s , gi ng ch "among"; en plein milieu, parmi)

Cách dùng gi i t

R t ph c t p, khó có th có m t lu t l bao quát m i v n ñ . Tuy nhiên, ch chú d n môt
cách ñ i lo i, có th giúp ích ph n nào thôi. Mu n ñi sâu vào văn chương Anh, ph i
tham kh o nhi u. B i m t ñ ng t có th có hàng trăm nghĩa khi ghép v i nh ng gi i t
hay tr ng t .

Ð a lý:

S chuy n ñ ng ñ n m t nơi nào ñó thì dùng TO (ñ n; à)

Còn ñi ra kh i nơi nào ñó thì dùng FROM (t ; de)

• When are you going to Canada.
• He went to Asia last year.
• I spent three years in London.
• She was born in Normandy.
• He comes from Mexico.



Chuyên ch

BY: di n t cách di chuy n như th nào.

IN và ON: ta TRONG xe

• I came by bike.
• Traveling by plane is my favorite.
• I was already on (in) the train when he arrived.
• She is waiting for me in the car.



Th i gian

GI

* AT (lúc; à)




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Văn ph m Anh văn


• Let's meet at six o'clock.
• They arrived at 4:45.

NGÀY

* ON

• His birthday is on Monday.
• It happened on March 3, 1997.

THÁNG

* IN

• My birthday is in September.
• We will begin work in August.


Ð DÀI TH I GIAN (duration)

* FOR, IN

• I am going away for a few days.
• He worked with them for three years.
• I can read that book in a day.



Gi i t "TO"

Thông thư ng, khi gi i t TO ñ ng TRƯ C danh t làm túc t gián ti p (indirect
object; complément d'objet indirect, vi t t t là COI) nó s bi n m t.

Thí d :

Give me your knowledge

Nhưng:

Give your knowledge TO me



Ð ng t v i m t gi i t




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Gi i t r t quan tr ng, nó làm thay ñ i hoàn toàn ñ ng t . M t ñ ng t có th có năm b y
ch c nghĩa khác nhau vì nh ng gi i t ñ ng bên nó và nh ng ch trong câu. Nên tôi ñã
vi t m t bài riêng v ñ ng t kèm gi i t l y yên là "Nh ng gi i t thông d ng c n bi t"
ñ các b n h c thu c nghĩa. Tôi s b túc thêm, s d ch ra ti ng vi t sau này, vì hi n gi
còn ph i vi t nh ng bài quan tr ng. B i bài này tôi ch d ch ra ti ng Pháp ñ d y h c sinh
c a tôi mà thôi.

• to speak -- to say words
• to speak up -- to speak loudly
• to speak down (to someone) -- to be condescending toward someone
• to speak for (someone) -- to speak in someone's place



• to put -- to set down
• to put up -- to place up high
• to put up -- to put in jars or cans
• to put away -- to put something back where it belongs
• to put down -- to release one's grasp of something
• to put out -- to place outside, or to take outside
• to put on -- to wear
• to turn -- to twist
• to turn on -- to make something function (a light, a motor)
• to turn off -- to remove the power to (a light, a motor)
• to turn around -- to turn to face the opposite direction
• to turn up -- to augment the sound, the light
• to turn down -- to diminish the sound, the light
• to turn out -- to become
• to turn red, white, etc. -- to change colors

C u trúc câu:

Khi câu có m t túc t (object), túc t s theo sau gi i t . N u túc t ñó ñư c thay b ng
m t ñ i danh t (personal object pronoun) thì ñ i danh t s ñ ng trư c :



• He turned on the television.
• He turned it on.
• She put away her books.
• She put them away.



Ð ng t v i nhi u gi i t :



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Văn ph m Anh văn


Có nhi u ñ ng t dùng hai gi i t :

• to put up with (something, someone) -- to tolerate someone
• to go out with -- to accompany someone
• to go off on (a digression, an adventure) -- to begin, to start
• to run away from -- to flee

C u trúc câu:

Khi ñ ng t ñư c theo sau b i 2 gi i t , túc t theo sau 2 gi i t này khi gi i t là ñ i
danh t (pronoun)



• How can you put up with him?
• Bill should not go out with Monica.



Ð ng t ñi ñôi v i gi i t :

Có nh ng ñ ng t luôn ñi ñôi v i gi i t và gi i t này luôn ñ ng trư c túc t . Tuy
nhiên ý nghĩa không thay ñ i



• to wait for
• to look for
• to look at
• to listen to
• to pay for
• to ask for
• to be happy with something
• to be mad at (or: with) someone
• to depend on
• to be interested in
• to thank fort
• to be busy with

Thí d câu:

• She's the one who paid for our dinner!
• I'm not asking for anything!
• I'm busy with my own stuff.
• That depends on you.



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Văn ph m Anh văn




M nh ñ Tr ng T
Kevin Khôi Trương

M nh ñ tr ng t là 1 nhóm t mà có subordinating conjunction (SC), ch t , và ñ ng
t . M nh ñ tr ng t là 1 m nh ñ ph và ph i ñư c n i v i 1 m nh ñ ñ c l p (có ch t
và ñ ng t ).




Khi quí v ñ t m nh ñ tr ng t ñ u câu, ph y "," cu i m nh ñ ñó.

Before I go to school in the morning, I
take a shower.
SC + CH T + Ð NG T + D U
PH Y + CH T + Ð NG T
While my niece was watching TV, I was
reading a book. (while nghĩa là trong lúc
ñó)

Khi m nh ñ tr ng t theo sau m nh ñ ñ c l p, không dùng ph y ","

CH T + Ð NG T + SC + CH T I take a shower before I go to school.
+ Ð NG T (không ph y)

NGO I L : Ph y "," cu i m nh ñ ñ c l p m c dù m nh ñ tr ng t theo sau m nh
ñ ñ c l p khi quí v dùng ch "WHEREAS ho c WHILE". Ch WHILE trong
trư ng h p này có nghĩa là ngư c l i ch không có nghĩa là trong lúc ñó.

She is rich, while I'm poor. (Cô ta thì giàu,
Jerry is strong, whereas Jack is weak.
ngư c l i tôi thì nghèo.)




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Văn ph m Anh văn



SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS THƯ NG DÙNG:

After As As soon as As long as Although Because Before By the time Even
if Even though

Every time If In case that In the even that Now that Once Only if Provided
that Providing that

Since So long as So that The first time The last time The next time Though
Unless Until When

Whenever Whereas Whether or not While




M nh ñ tính t

Kevin Khôi Trương




Quí v c n bi t s khác nhau gi a m nh ñ và c m t . M t m nh ñ là 1 nhóm t mà có
1 ch ng và ñ ng t . Nhưng 1 c m t là 1 nhóm t mà không có ch ng và ñ ng t .


Nh ng bư c ñ t o 1 m nh ñ tính t :


a. Nhìn vào câu th nh t và h i danh t nào mà quí v mu n b nghĩa (danh t nào quí
v mu n nói t i).


b. Nhìn vào câu th hai và tìm t nào mà ñ c p ñ n (có nghĩa là) danh t trong câu th
nh t..


c. Quy t ñ nh n u t trong câu th hai là ch t hay túc t và thay nó b ng ñ i danh t
làm ch t (WHO, WHICH, THAT) ho c ñ i danh t làm túc t (WHOM, THAT,
WHICH, NOTHING).




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DÙNG V I CH T (SUBJECT):

WHO cho ngư ii

WHICH cho v t

THAT cho c ngư i và v t


Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "my
1. I talked to my friend.
friend".
2. She lent me some money.
Do ñó t "She" nghĩa là "my friend", và
"She" là ch t c a câu th hai.
I talked to my friend who lent me some
"She" ñư c ñ i b ng "who" (b i vì "she"
money.
là ngư i) ho c "that."
I talked to my friend that lent me some
money.



Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "TV". 1. They have a TV.
2. It is very big.
Do ñó t "It" nghĩa là "TV" và "It" là ch
t c a câu th hai.

"It" ñư c ñ i b ng "which" (b i vì "It là They have a TV which is very big.
v t) ho c "that." They have a TV that is very big.


DÙNG V I TÚC T (OBJECT):

WHOM cho ngư i (ho c WHO nhưng không nên dùng)

WHICH cho v t

THAT cho c ngư i và v t

NOTHING ( không WHOM, WHICH, THAT: ch ñư c dùng v i túc t (object) mà



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Văn ph m Anh văn


thôi.




1. The girl is so cute.
Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "the 2. I talked with her at the library yesterday
girl". night .

Do ñó t "her" nghĩa là "the girl", và "her" The girl whom I talked with at the library
là túc t c a câu th hai. yesterday night is so cute.

"Her" ñư c ñ i b ng "whom" (b i vì "her" The girl who I talked with at the library
là ngư i), "who," "that," ho c "nothing." yesterday night is so cute. (không tr nh
tr ng và không nên dùng)
M t s ngư i không phân bi t ñư c s
khác nhau gi a "WHO" và "WHOM". The girl that I talked with at the library
yesterday night is so cute.
"WHO" ñư c dùng như là ñ i danh t làm
túc t trong trư ng h p không tr nh tr ng. The girl I talked with at the library
Quí v không nên dùng cách này. yesterday night is so cute. (không c n
whom ho c that gi a the girl và I)


1. The dress is expensive.
2. She bought it from Nordstrom.
Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "the
The dress which she bought from
dress". Do ñó t "It" nghĩa là "the dress",
Nordstrom is expensive.
và "It" là túc t c a câu th hai. "It" dư c
The dress that she bought from Nordstrom
ñ i b ng "which" (b i vì "It" là v t), "that,"
is expensive.
ho c"nothing."
The dress she bought from Nordstrom is
expensive. (không c n dùng which ho c
that gi a the dress và she)




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Văn ph m Anh văn




Vài ngư i không bi t t i sao ñôi khi chúng ta ñ t câu th hai cu i câu th nh t và ñôi
khi chúng ta ñ t câu th hai gi a câu th nh t. Quí v có th c m c gi ng v y không?
Ðây là lý do t i sao. Ð t m nh ñ tính t càng g n danh t mà nó b nghĩa ñ nh n
m nh ý.

1. I talked to my friend.
2. She lent me some money.

I talked to my friend who lent me some money.

1. The girl is so cute.
2. I talked with her at the library yesterday night .

The girl whom I talked with at the library yesterday night is so cute.



M NH Ð QUAN TR NG VÀ M NH Ð KHÔNG QUAN TR NG:
ESSENTIAL (Identifying, restrictive) AND NONESSENTIAL (Nondentifying,
nonrestrictive) CLAUSES:


Hãy t h i mình n u m nh ñ tính t c n thi t ñ nh n d ng danh t . N u m nh ñ c n
thi t, không nên dùng d u ph y. N u m nh ñ không c n thi t, dùng d y ph y b i vì
m nh ñ ch là ph n ph và quí v không c n dùng nó ñ nh nh d ng danh t . Thêm
vào ñó, có vài cách ñ quy t ñ nh n u m nh ñ là không quan tr ng. Nhìn vào danh t
mà m nh ñ b nghĩa cho nó.


Không nên dùng d u ph y khi m nh ñ tính t quan tr ng: Do not use comma(s)
when the adjective clause is essential:


a. The instructor who teaches ESL N49 is
a. Chúng ta không bi t giáo viên nào
an excellent lecturer.
chúng ta ñang nói ñ n. "Who teaches ESL
N49" r t là quan tr ng ñ nh n d ng ông ta
hay bà ta.
b. I lived in a city that has one million
b. Chúng ta không bi t thành ph nào
people.
chúng ta ñang bàn ñ n. "Which has one
million people" r t là quan tr ng ñ nh n
d ng thành ph nào. Thành ph mà có 1
tri u dân không ph i thành ph có 2 tri u
c. The girl who is wearing the short skirt is


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Văn ph m Anh văn


dân. a cheerleader.

c. Chúng ta c n m nh ñ tính t ñ nh n
d ng cô gái nào.


Dùng d u ph y cho m nh ñ tính t không quan tr ng: Use comma(s) for
nonessential adjective clauses:


1. Danh t riêng (tên ngư i ho c nơi ch n)
a. Mr. Lewis, who is an English instructor,
a. Tên ngư i has helped me a lot with my English.

b. Tên nơi ch n b. Vietnam, which is a beautiful country,
used to possess Nam Quan frontier.

2. Ðư c nh c ñ n trư c ñó ho c ñư c bi t
b i c hai ngư i nói và ngư i nghe.
a. Linh has a cousin who is living in
Canada. The cousin, who often contacts
a. Trong câu ñ u, "cousin" là danh t
Linh by email, is Eric.
chung. Nhưng mà trong câu th hai
"cousin" ñư c nh c ñ n trư c ñây. Do ñó,
b. The dress, which was beautiful,
m nh ñ tính t không quan tr ng.
belonged to Helen.
b. C ngư i nói và ngư i nghe ñ u bi t cái
c. After a work-out, one should drink
áo nào h ñang nói t i. H và Helen ñi
plenty of water, which is essential for his or
mua s m cu i tu n r i.
her health.
c. T t c chúng ta ñ u bi t nư c là gì.


3. Duy nh t (ch 1 cái duy nh t trên th
The sun, which contains more than 99.8%
gi i)
of the total mass of the Solar System, has a
diameter of 1,390,000 kilometers.
Ch có 1 m t tr i


a. Chickens, which have two wings, are
delicious food.
4. Dùng t ng quát
b. Rice, which is grown in Thailand, is
a. Ð c p ñ n t t c gà con good.




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Văn ph m Anh văn


b. M i ngư i ñ u bi t g o là gì c. A stool, which I bought yesterday, is too
high.
c. M i ngư i ñ u bi t cái gh ñ u là gì




5. M nh ñ tính t th a (không quan
tr ng)
Her boyfriend, who was drunk, asked her
"who was drunk" không quan tr ng. Quí v
to stay home.
có th b nó ñi.

"Her boyfriend asked her to stay home." là
ý chính và "who was drunk" ch là ph n
th a.




Irregular verbs
Nam Phương




to awake awoke awoken (se) réveiller Th c d y
to bear bore borne supporter. ch u ñ ng
to beat beat beaten battre. Ðánh
to become became become devenir. Tr thành
to begin began begun commencer. B t ñ u
to bend bent bent (se) courber., Cúi , cong
to bet bet bet parier. Cá cu c
to bid bid bid offrir (un prix). Cho giá


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to bind bound bound lier, relier. Trói, bu c
to bite bit bitten mordre.C n
to bleed bled bled saigner. Ch y máu
to blow blew blown souffler. Th i
to break broke broken casser. B
to breed bred bred élever (du bétail). Chăn nuôi
to bring brought brought apporter. Mang.
to build built built construire. Xây
to burn burnt burnt brûler. Ð t, cháy
to burst burst burst éclater. N
to buy bought bought acheter. Mua
to cast cast cast jeter. Ném
to catch caught caught attraper. Ch p b t
to choose chose chosen choisir. Ch n l a
to cling clung clung s'accrocher. Treo
to come came come venir. Ð n
to cost cost cost coûter. Giá
to creep crept crept ramper. Bò
to cut cut cut couper. C t
to deal dealt dealt distribuer. Phân phát
to dig dug dug creuser. Ðào
to do did done faire. Làm
to draw drew drawn dessiner. V
to dream dreamt dreamt rêver. Mơ
to drink drank drunk boire. U ng
to drive drove driven conduire. Lái
to dwell dwelt dwelt habiter.



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Văn ph m Anh văn



to eat ate eaten manger. Ăn
to fall fell fallen tomber. Té
to feed fed fed nourrir. Nuôi
to feel felt felt sentir, éprouver. C m nh n
to fight fought fought combattre. Chi n ñ u
to find found found trouver. Tìm ra
to flee fled fled s'enfuir. Tr n
to fling flung flung jeter violemment. Ném m nh b o
to fly flew flown voler. Bay
to forbid forbade forbidden interdire. C m
to forget forgot forgotten oublier. Quên
to forgive forgave forgiven pardonner. Tha th
to freeze froze frozen geler. Ðông l nh
to get got got obtenir. Có ñư c
to give gave given donner Cho
to go went gone aller. Ði
to grind ground ground moudre. Nghi n
to grow grew grown grandir. L n lên
to hang hung hung pendre, accrocher. Treo
to have had had avoir. Có
to hear heard heard entendre. Nghe.
to hide hid hidden (se) cacherTr n, gi u
to hit hit hit frapper, atteindre. Ðánh, Ð t ñ n
to hold held held tenir. C m
to hurt hurt hurt blesser. Làm t n thương
to keep kept kept garder. Gi
to kneel knelt knelt s'agenouiller. Quì



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Văn ph m Anh văn



to know knew known savoir, connaître. Bi t
to lay laid laid poser à plat. N m
to lead led led mener. D n ñ n
to lean leant leant s'appuyer. D a
to leap leapt leapt sauter. Nh y
to learn learnt learnt apprendre.
to leave left left laisser, quitter. R i xa
to lend lent lent prêter. Cho mư n
to let let let permettre, louer. Cho phép. Mư n
to lie lay lain être étendu. N m
to light lit lit allumer. B t ñén
to lose lost lost perdre. M t
to make made made faire, fabriquer. Làm
to mean meant meant signifier. Nghĩa là
to meet met met (se) rencontrer. G p
to pay paid paid payer. Tr ti n
to put put put mettre. Ð
to quit quit quit cesser (de). T b
to read read read lire. Ð c
to rid rid rid débarrasser. B
to ride rode ridden chevaucher. C i
to ring rang rung sonner. Reo
to rise rose risen s'élever, se lever. Lên
to run ran run courir. Ch y
to saw sawed sawn scier. Cưa
to say said said dire. Nói
to see saw seen voir. Th y



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to seek sought sought chercher. Tìm
to sell sold sold vendre. Bán.
to send sent sent envoyer. G i
to set set set fixer. Ð , ñ t
to sew sewed sewn coudre. May
to shake shook shaken secouer. L c
to shear sheared shorn tondre (des moutons). H t (lông c u)
to shed shed shed verser (des larmes) Ch y nư c m t
to shine shone shone briller. Sáng
to shoe shod shod ferrer, chausser. Ðóng móng ng a, ñi giày
to shoot shot shot tirer. B n
to show showed shown montrer. Ch
to shrink shrank shrunk rétrécir. Co rút
to shut shut shut fermer. Ðóng
to sing sang sung chanter. Hát
to sink sank sunk couler. Chìm
to sit sat sat être assis. Ng i
to sleep slept slept dormir. Ng
to slide slid slid glisser. Trư t
to sling slung slung lancer (avec force). Ném m nh
to slink slunk slunk aller furtivement. V i vàng ñi
to slit slit slit fendre, inciser. Ch
to smell smelt smelt sentir (odorat). Ng i
to sow sowed sown semer. Gieo
to speak spoke spoken parler. Nói
to speed sped sped aller à toute vitesse. Ði nhanh
to spell spelt spelt épeler. Ðánh v n



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to spend spent spent dépenser. Tiêu xài
to spill spilt spilt renverser (un liquide). Ð nư c
to spit spat spat cracher. Kh c
to split split split fendre. R ch
to spoil spoilt spoilt gâcher, gâter. Làm hư
to spread spread spread répandre. R i ra
to spring sprang sprung jaillir, bondir. phun nư c
to stand stood stood être debout. Ð ng
to steal stole stolen voler, dérober. Ăn c p
to stick stuck stuck coller. Dán
to sting stung stung piquer. Chíc
to stink stank stunk puer. Th i
to stride strode stridden marcher à grands pas. Ði r o bư c
to strike struck struck frapper. Ðánh
to string strung strung enfiler, tendre (une corde). Căng
to strive strove striven s'efforcer. Ép bu c
to swear swore sworn jurer. Th
to sweep swept swept balayer. Quét
to swell swelled swollen enfler
to swim swam swum nager. Bơi
to swing swung swung se balancer. Ðu ñưa
to take took taken prendre. L y
to teach taught taught enseigner. D y
to tear tore torn déchirer. Xé
to tell told told dire, raconter. Nói, k
to think thought thought penser. Nghĩ
to throw threw thrown jeter. Ném



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to thrust thrust thrust enfoncer. n xu ng
to tread trod trodden fouler aux pieds
to understand understood understood comprendre. Hi u
to wake woke woken (se) réveiller
to wear wore worn porter (des vêtements). M c áo
to weave wove woven tisser. D t
to weep wept wept pleurer. Khóc
to win won won gagner. Th ng
to wind wound wound enrouler. Bao
to wring wrung wrung tordre. V t
to write wrote written écrire. Vi t




Cách dùng OTHER(S)
Kevin Khôi Trương




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S ÍT S NHI U
Dùng Dùng OTHER(S)
ANOTHER
OTHER(S) nghĩa là 2 hay nhi u cái n a (2
ANOTHER nghĩa là 1 cái n a (1 cái khác) hay nhi u cái khác) trong cùng 1 nhóm.
trong cùng 1 lo i (nhóm).
Thí d : Có 5 trái cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã
Thí d : Có 5 trái cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã ăn 1 trái, và quí v mu n ăn thêm 2 trái
ăn 1 trái, và quí v mu n ăn thêm 1 trái n a. Quí v nên nói như sau:
n a. Quí v nên nói như sau:
I want other oranges. (other + oranges:
I want another orange. (another + orange: other là tính t .)
another là tính t , adjective.)
I want other ones. (other + ones: other là
I want another one. (another + one: tính t .)
another là tính t , adjective.)
I want others. (không có ch nào ñi theo
I want another. (không có ch nào ñi theo sau others: others ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh
sau another: another ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i t , pronoun.)
danh t , pronoun.)
LƯU Ý: oranges và ones là danh t s
LƯU Ý: orange và one là danh t s ít. nhi u.
Dùng THE OTHER(S)
Dùng THE OTHER
THE OTHER(S) nghĩa là nh ng cái cu i
cùng (nh ng cái còn l i) trong cùng 1
THE OTHER nghĩa là cái cu i cùng (cái
nhóm.
còn l i) trong cùng 1 nhóm.
Thí d : Có 4 (ho c 5 và nhi u hơn) trái
Thí d : Có 2 trái cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã
cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã ăn 2 trái. Ch còn
ăn 1 trái. Ch còn sót l i 1 trái. Quí v nên
sót l i 2 (ho c 3 và nhi u hơn) trái. Quí v
nói như sau:
nên nói như sau:
I want the other orange. (the other +
I want the other oranges. (the other +
orange: the other là tính t .)
oranges: the other là tính t .)
I want the other one. (the other + one: the
I want the other ones. (the other + ones:
other là tính t .)
the other là tính t .)
I want the other. (nothing after the other:
I want the others. (nothing after the others:
the other ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh t .)
the others ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh t .)
LƯU Ý: orange và one là danh t s ít.
LƯU Ý: oranges và ones là danh t s
nhi u.


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Văn ph m Anh văn



Khi quí v có s xác ñ nh 2, 3, 4, v.v, h u như quí v dùng ñư c THE OTHER(S). S ít
hay s nhi u là tuỳ theo câu cu i cùng.

Thí d :

There are two books on the table. One belongs to Mr. Lewis. The other belongs to
Nga.

I have three brothers. One is Vu. The others are Phong and Hai




Kevin's dictionary

Kevin Khôi Trương


A
Em ám ch gì ñó? What's that supposed to mean?
The frightened child sought Comfort
ð a bé tìm s an i nơi m nó.
from her mother.
Ð ng có an i tôi. Don’t try to Console me.
Không x y ra án m ng. (không có
There was no loss of life.
ngư i nào ch t c )
Nhi u th c ăn ñư c ăn b ng cách
Some food are eaten with Hands;
bóc; hãy b t chư c nh ng ngư i xung
take your lead from others.
quanh.
Anh cho con ăn chưa? Did you feed the baby?
Cô ta mu n tôi ñ n ăn cơm t i nhà She wants me to come to Dinner at
cô y. her house.
Em mu n ăn gì? (Anh có th n u cho
Could I Cook something for you?
em cái gì nè?)
You shouldn’t eat a Heavy Meal and
Anh không nên ăn no r i ñi ng li n.
then go to bed immediately.
Không ñư c ăn v ng món tráng
Get your Fingers out of the Dessert.
mi ng.
The Sky Grew Dark as the Storm
Tr i tr nên âm u khi cơn bão p t i.
Approached.
N u h n ân c n (chu ñáo) và ít nói, If he was Considerate and made
cha m cô ta ñã cho phép ñôi tr ñi small talks, her parents would allow
chơi quá gi gi i nghiêm. the couple to stay out past curfew.
N u ch b qua cái này, ch s ân h n If you ignore this, you will repent
ñó. later.
Nó (không) t o ñư c n tư ng ñ u He makes a good (poor) first
tiên t t v i tôi. Impression with me.
Chúng ta không nên ñi u (b t tuân We shouldn’t Jaywalk.


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lu t giao thông).
Ðám nhóc ñã ph i nhà vì có 1 cơn The children stayed home because a
bão ñang p ñ n. Storm was Approaching.



B
Bà ta là ngư i bà con
(thân thu c) còn s ng She is my only living Relative.
duy nh t c a tôi.
Bao lâu n a thì ch t i? How Soon can you get here?
H th ng báo cháy Smoke detector
Ch không bao gi ñòi h i You never ask for anything in
s báo ñáp. return.
Chúng tôi yêu c u ít nh t We Request at least 2 Weeks'
là 2 tu n báo trư c n u Notice if you decide to
anh quy t ñ nh b vi c. quit.
The admission is virtually a
B o ñ m có vi c làm khi
Guarantee of a good Job upon
t t nghi p.
Graduation.
Cô có b o hi m (xe)
Are you insured?
không?
H là nh ng ngư i b o
They are Conservative people.
th .
Tôi có nên bày t tình
c m c a tôi (v i cô/anh Should I reveal my feelings?
y) không?
Tôi ñã băng (băng keo
cá nhân) v t thương l i I put a bandage on it.
r i.
Two people were Gunned
Hai ngư i b b n ch t.
Down.
Chúng tôi chào t m bi t
cô ta m t cách b t ñ c We reluctantly bid her farewell.
dĩ.
Ông ta b chóng m t và He got dizzy and then passed
b t t nh sau ñó. out.
V t b n cà phê Coffee Stains
Hành ñ ng b n th u Dirty deed = dirty action
L n này tôi b y (làm
I Screwed up this time.
h ng) r i.
Ti ng b kh p tay Knuckles cracking
Tôi hy v ng tôi ñã không
I hope I didn't crack any egg.
làm b cái tr ng nào.
Tôi c m th y khó ch u
I am also feeling very bad that
r ng thay vì bênh v c
instead of Defending his father,
cho ba anh y, tôi ng i
I sat there and Listened.
ñó và l ng nghe.
Bà ta ñã ch t sau 1 cơn
She Died from a Long Illness.
b nh dai d ng.
H nên bào ch thu c They should make pills for



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cho lo i b nh này. this.
Ch khôn ngoan nh n
It is Astute of you to realize that
th c r ng ngư i ta ph i
one has to be taught how to
ñư c d y làm sao bày t
express Condolences.
l i chia bu n.
Em có mu n chơi bi da
Do you want to Shoot Pool?
không?
Cô ta ñã bi t ñư c bí
m t c a anh r i. Anh b She Cracked your Code.
b mánh r i.
ð ng nói cho cô ta bi t.
Don't tell her. She'll blow my
Cô ta s phá ho i bí m t
cover.
c a tôi.
Anh h t bia r i. You're running low in Beers.
Tôi cho anh bi t, ... For your information, ...
Cô ta ñư c bi t ñ n b i
s thành th t c a cô She is Known For her Honesty.
y.
Bình tĩnh ñi! Lighten up! = Calm down!
Em b nh bao lâu r i? How long have you been Sick?
Chân anh ñã b gãy. Tôi
ñang bó (b ng n p) nó Your leg broke. I'm splinting it.
l i ñây.
Nó b nhà ra ñi. He Ran away from Home.
Cô ta có th b rơi anh
She might chuck you as soon as
ngay khi có ngư i nào
someone better comes along.
t t hơn anh.
Tôi không ph i là ngư i
I'm not the girl who ditches her
b rơi b n bè ñ ñi v i
friends for her boyfriend.
b n trai ñâu.
Cái gì làm cho cô quy t What brought about your
ñ nh b vi c v y? Decision to Quit your Job?
Chú có mu n chơi bóng
Do you want to Go Bowling?
g không?
Tôi nhìn vào bóp c a tôi. I look in my wallet.
B giáo d c Department of Education
B trư ng tư pháp Attorney General
N i b n ch n trư c bu i
Preshow Jitters
trình di n
Tôi luôn luôn b n ch n
I am always Nervous around
(căng th ng) khi g p
women.
ñàn bà.
B i vì... On Account of… = Because of…
Nó s làm cho chúng ta It'll help alleviate all the
b t ñi s nghi ng l n superficial suspicions we have of
nhau. one another.
Búng ngón tay Snapping Fingers
Nó t c gi n và b c b i. He's angry and resentful.
Tôi b c mình khi 1 It bothers me that one of them



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ngư i trong s h nói Bad- Mouthed his father.
x u ba anh y.
M c dù tôi ñã bày t s Even though I expressed my
b c t c c a tôi v i cô exasperation, she didn't pick up
ta, cô y v n x b a bãi. after her.
Thư c a quí v s không Your letter won’t be delivered
ñư c g i ñi n u không ñ unless it has the correct
bưu phí. Postage.
Tôi không ñ ti n ñi xe I don’t have Enough Money to
buýt. take the Bus.


C
Ca làm vi c khuya (ca 3) Graveyard: 12AM-8AM
Ca 2 (làm t chi u t i khuya) Swing shift: 3 (4) PM-12AM
T i sao anh ñi cà nh c v y? Why are you limping?
Nó cách âm ñó. It’s Sounproof.
There’re some people in the
Vài ngư i trong chính ph ñang c g ng c i
thi n ñ i s ng dân nghèo.
government who are trying to improve
the lives of Poor people.
Ð ng cám d (quy n rũ) tôi. Don't Tempt me.
Cô ta can ñ m quá. She’s so Courageous.
Thank you for Inviting me to Go On the
Cám ơn ch ñã m i tôi ñi c m tr i.
picnic.
C m ch Dimple Chin
Bà có mang theo th căn cư c không? Do you have any ID On you?
Kéo căn nó ra. Keep it Taut.
Có câu h i nào v v n ñ ñó không? Any questions On that?
She was surprised by his Proposal
Nàng ng c nhiên b i l i c u hôn c a chàng.
of Marriage.
Anh là m t ngư i c u th . You're a slob.
Nư c cam này không chát l m. This lemonade isn't too Tart.
Anh ñang chà 2 tay v i nhau. You’re Rubbing your Hands together.
You’re Rubbing the top of your Desk
Anh ñang dùng tay chà m t bàn.
with your Hand.
H n không ch i ñ u. He leaves his Hair Unkempt.
Tôi ch y chân không qua c . I ran Barefoot through the Grass.
Xe c a tôi b ch t máy (trong lúc ñang lái
My car stalled
xe).




D
Anh d thương quá. You're so sweet.
D p gì v y? What's the occasion?
Nó ñ m vào b ng tôi. He punched me in the stomach.
Chúng ta có ñi m x u r i. We're cursed.


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Nó là 111-2222. Tôi ñ c l i có ñúng That's 111-2222. Is my read back
không? correct?
Anh ñã ñùa c t v i tình c m c a tôi. You trifled with my feeling.
Ngư i nào mu n ñ ng ñ n cô ta thì The first man that touches her will
ph i bư c qua (xác ch t c a) tôi. have to come through me.


E
Nó ñã ñư c ép nh a r i. It's Laminated.
H e th n và tr m l ng. They are shy and reticent.




G
N u cô ta ch nghĩ ñ n b n thân và không If she acts as if it's all about her and never
quan tâm (lo l ng, màng ñ n) anh thì anh about you, you should slash her from your
nên g t cô y ra kh i danh sách b n bè. buddy list.
N u như anh ph i gãi, nên th n tr ng (kín
If you have to scratch, be discreet.
ñáo) m t chút.
Tôi ganh t v i ch ñó. I Envy you.
Chúng tôi th nh tho ng g p nhau. We see each other once in a while.
Nó ñáng ghét l m. He seems to be cursed.
A big Sign indicates a "50 off".
Cái b ng ghi (ch ) là gi m 50 ph n trăm.
Tôi ñang vi t nh ng l i ghi chú v nh ng I’m making Notes about Questions I want
câu h i mà tôi mu n h i th y. to Ask the teacher.
Ghi s (n ) cho tôi ñi. Put it on my Tab.




H
Tôi hài lòng (vui m ng) v i nh ng gì tôi ñã
I’m Thrilled with what I got.
có.

Cô có l s hài lòng v i ñ cô mua. You will probably be Satisfied with your
purchase.
Coi ch ng ngư i ham ti n (trong quan h
Beware of a Moneygrubber.
tình c m).
Tôi hãnh di n quá. I’m Flattered.
ði cùng v i ý nghĩ c a s hào hoa, ngư i ta Along with the idea of Chivalry
cho r ng ñàn ông cung c p (nhi u th ) cho comes the assumption that men



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Văn ph m Anh văn


ph n . Provide for women.



I
Hush up! Be quiet! Pipe down!
Im ñi! Câm mi ng ñi!
Knock it off!
Im l ng là vàng Silence is Golden.


K
Use your hand to pull the skin taut and
Dùng tay kéo căng da (m t).
stretched.
I’m sorry I’m late. I was Held Up by the
Xin l i tôi ñ n tr . Tôi b k t xe
Rush Hour traffic.
trong gi cao ñi m.

Tôi m t 30 phút thay vì 15 phút ñ
It took 30 minutes for me to get here instead
ñ n ñây.
of 15.
Tôi không có k ho ch nào trư c c . I don’t have to do any advance Planning.
T t c nh ng gì ñã k trên... All of Aforementioned things...
A: Anh s b m t ch c ñó. A: You'll lose your command.
B: Thì k nó ñi. B: So be it.
H n kiêu ng o quá. He's conceited.




L
Nó la cà (chơi) v i ñám b n x u. He Hangs out with a Wrong crowd.
L c ngoài bi n Lost at sea
Ph i bao nhiêu tu i thì ngư i ta m i How Old does a person have to be to get a
ñư c lái xe? Driver’s License?
Bob và Don ñang lái xe trên ñư ng. Bob and Don are riding on a car.
Cô ta lái xe (t p) vô l . She pulled over to the side of the road.
A: Kêu h b vũ khí xu ng. A: Tell them to put their weapons down.
B: Làm theo l i anh ta ñi. B: Do as he said.
Tôi s lau nhà. I'll mop the floor.




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Văn ph m Anh văn



M
Em có tin là có ma không? Do you Believe in Ghost?
Có chuy n gì v y? Em trông gi ng What’s the matter? You look as if you had
như là v a g p ma v y ñó. seen a Ghost.
Không có cái màn che (t m ch n)
There isn’t a Screen on the window.
c as .
Con r n c n anh ta m t cá. The Snake Bit him on the Ankle.
Em m c (ñeo) cái này ñ p quá. It looks good on you.




N
ð ng có n n lòng. Don't get discourage.
Tôi s n m bãi bi n ñ t m n ng. I'll Lie on the beach in the sun.
San Francisco n m phía b c c a Los
San Francisco Lies to the north of LA.
Angeles.
Tôi ñã không th n n ná ñư c lâu vì có I couldn't Linger any longer because there
nhi u ngư i ñang ñ i. were other people waiting.
Tôi năn n mà. I insist.



O
ð m vào th n c a nó. ðánh cho nó ói máu Punch him in the Kidney. Make
luôn. him Puke Blood.
I Swerved to Avoid a big Pothole in
Tôi l ng (lách) ñ tránh gà l n trên ñư ng.
the street.
Mày n ào (nói nhi u, phi n ph c) quá ñi. You're Annoying.
Tôi chán quá, do ñó tôi không l i cho ñ n I was bored, so I didn’t Stay for the
h t phim. End of the movie.
Tôi (n m) trong m i tình tay ba. I'm in a love triangle.
yên t i ch . ð ng ñi ñâu h t (khi chương Stay tuned! Don’t go away.
trình TV ngưng ñ ch y qu ng cáo).
You should say "excuse me" when
Con nên nói "xin l i" khi con .
you burp


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Văn ph m Anh văn




P
Anh ñã phá ñám cư i c a tôi. You Sabotaged my wedding.
T i nó phá phách (cáu k nh) l m. They're cranky.
Khán gi ph n ñ i ngư i nam di n viên. The audience booed the actor.
M không ph n ñ i (c n) con g p anh ta. I don't Object you seeing him.
I was supposed to take a test
Tôi có b n ph n làm bài ki m hôm qua,
yesterday, but I wasn't admitted to
nhưng tôi không ñư c phép vào phòng thi
the testing because the examination
vì bài thi ñã b t ñ u.
hed already begun
Hãy cho cô ta m t tràng pháo tay th t l n. Give her a big Round of Applause




Q
Con quá ñáng r i. You're overreacting.
Cám ơn ông ñã cho tôi quá giang. Thanks for the lift.
Tôi không thích nghe ñi n tho i qu ng cáo. I don't take sollicitation calls.
Nó s qu u qu (cáu k nh) n u tôi không ñó. He'll be Cranky if I'm not there.
Tôi quen (g p) cô ta quán cà phê qua m y I Met her through friends at the local coffee
ngư i b n. shop.




R
Ngư i h t (thu) rác Garbage collector
Cái qu n c a tôi b rách r i = Tôi làm
My pants Split. = I ripped my pants.
rách qu n r i.
Rát quá (khi x c thu c). It Stings.
Tôi ph i b h c vì nh ng r c r i trong gia I had to quit school because of some
ñình. Trouble at home.
Răng r ng A tooth falls out




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Văn ph m Anh văn




S

Cô ta là 1 con m t sách. She's a Bookworm.
She went into Labor. She gave Birth to a
Cô ta ñã sanh (ñ ) r i. Cô y sanh con trai.
boy.
Sao x t Shooting star
Screwdrivers are used to Fasten screws into
Tu c nơ vit dùng ñ si t (v n) vít vô g .
wood.
Sue and Ron are Expecting a child. Sue is
Sue và Ron s p s a có con. Sue hy v ng có
Hoping for a boy.
con trai.

Cho b a ti c sinh nh t c a tôi, ... For my Birthday dinner Celebration,...




T

Ng i xu ng tâm s (b u b n) v i tôi ñi. Sit down and keep me Company.
Không t l m (khá l m) Not bad (very good)
Tiên, tham kh o ý ki n riêng. Tiên, huddle.
Tôi th ng th ng v i ch . I'm completely blunt with you.
She doesn’t want you just because your bank
Cô y không thương anh ch vì anh không ñ
account doesn’t match
ti n ñ cô ta ñi mua s m.
her Shopping Budget.
ð em ti n anh (ra c a). Let me show you to the door.
Em có tin vào ti ng sét ái tình không? Do you believe in Love at first sight?
Cô y trêu ch c v cách ăn m c c a tôi. She makes fun of what I wear.




U
Hôm nay tr i âm u quá. It’s a Gray day today.
ð ng có rũ (bu n, nhăn nhó) n a. Don't be Glum.
ðư c ưa chu ng trên th trư ng Popular in the Market Place




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Anh ng h em 100 ph n trăm. I’m Behind you 100 percent.




V
Có s va ch m nào gi a nh ng ngư i
Is there Friction between Her family members?
trong gia ñình cô ta không? Cô y có r i
Did she lose a Home that
xa căn nhà m n yêu c a cô ta không?
was Dear to her? Are her parents Alive and
Cha m c a cô y còn s ng và m nh
Well?
kh e không?
Tôi v a m i vá (ñ p) xong cái l th ng
I have just patched the hole.
trên mái nhà ñó.
Văn hoa bay bư m Flowery Langugage
Cathy v n âm thanh c a máy cassette Cathy Turned Down the Volume on the
nh l i. tape player.
Xin chào! Vào ñi. M i vào. Hi! Come on in.




X
Lái xe t Chicago ñ n Indiana có xa không? Is it a long drive from Chicago to Indiana?

ð ng coi tôi như ngư i xa l (k c , b trên)
Don't patronize me.
mà.




British English - American English

Nam Phương



BRITISH AMERICAN FRENCH

Aerial Antenna Antenne (télé)

Anywhere Anyplace Quelque part

Autumn Fall Automne



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Văn ph m Anh văn



Banknote Bill Billet de banque

Bank holiday National holiday Jour férié

Bill Check Addition, facture

Bonnet Hood Capot

Boot Trunk Coffre (voiture)

Brace Suspenders Bretelles

Caretaker, porter Janitor Concierge

Car Automobile Voiture

Centre Center Centre

Chemist’s Drugstore Pharmacie

Chips French fries Frites

Christian name First name Prénom

Movie house Movie
Cinema Salle de Cinéma
theater

City centre Downtown Centre ville

Class Grade Classe

Colour Color Couleur

Condom Rubber Préservatif

Crisps Chips Chips

Crossroads Intersection Carrefour




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Văn ph m Anh văn



Cupboard Closet Placard

Dinner-jacket Tuxedo Tenue de soirée

Don’t mention it ! You’re welcome Il n’y a pas de quoi

Ex-serviceman Veteran Ancien combattant

Film Movie Film

Flat Apartment Appartement

Fortnight Two weeks Deux semaines

Full stop Period Point

Grammar school High school Collège

Ill Sick Malade

Ground floor (First
First floor (second floor) Rez-de-chaussée
floor)

purse, pocket-book Handbag Sac à main

Holiday Vacation Vacances

Hoover (to) Vacuum (to) Passer l’aspirateur

Interval Intermission Entracte

Letter-box, pillard-
Mail box Boîte aux lettres
box

Lorry Truck Camion

Luggage Baggage Bagages




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Văn ph m Anh văn



Mark Grade Note

Motorway Free way Autoroute

Pavement Pedestrian Side walk Trottoir

(zebra ) Crossing Crosswalk Passage piétons

Petrol Gas, gasoline Essence

Postal code Zip code Code postal

Prison Jail Prison

Programma Program Programme

Public school Private school Ecole privée

purse, pocket-book Handbag Sac à main

Queue Line Queue

Rubbish Garbage, trash Ordures

Second hand Used Occasion, usagé

Single ticket One way ticket Billet aller simple

Spirits Liquor Alcool

Stand for (to) Run for (to) Être candidat à

State school Public shool Ecole publique

Student, school boy Student écolier, étudiant

1st year
Freshman Etudiant de1ère année
undergraduate




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2nd year underg Sophomore 2 è année

3rd year student Junior 3 è année

4th year student Senior 4 ème année

Surname Last name Nom de famille

Sweets Candies Bonbons

Tap Fauce Robinet

Taxi Cab Taxi

Telephone booth Payphone Cabine téléphonique

Theatre Theater Théâtre

Timetable Schedule Emploi du temps

Tin Can Boîte de conserve

Trousers Pants Pantalon

Tyre Tire Pneu




Câu h i

Kevin Khôi Trương




CÂU H I YES/NO V I Ð NG T "BE"


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BE (AM, IS, ARE, WERE, WAS) + CH Are you busy?
T + TÍNH T / DANH T Is she a scientist?




BE (AM, IS, ARE, WERE, WAS) + CH Are they doing their homework?
T + Ð NG T THÊM -ING Is she writing a letter?


CÂU H I YES/ NO V I TR Ð NG T (AUXILARY/HELPING VERB)


Do you speak Vietnamese?
TR Ð NG T (DO, DOES, DID, WILL,
Does he do exercise every day?
CAN...) + CH T + Ð NG T (th hi n
Did you go to school yesterday?
t i không có "S" hay "ES" cho dù ch t là
Will you give me the key tomorrow?
ngôi 3 s ít)
Can you help her?




Làm sao quí v bi t ñư c khi nào dùng "BE" ho c "TR Ð NG T " trong câu h i
YES/NO? Ðây là lý do t i sao.

Quí v nên nhìn câu tr l i cho s n ñ coi n u nó có ñ ng t "BE" ho c "ACTION
VERB" (ñ ng t ch s ho t ñ ng: eat, listen, run.....). N u câu tr l i có ñ ng t "BE",
câu h i c a quí v ph i có ñ ng t "BE."

A: ---------------------------------------?
B: Yes, ------------------ (They are in my ESL 107 class.)

Cách làm:

A: Are they in your ESL 107 class?
B: Yes, they are in my ESL 107 class.

N u câu tr l i có "ACTION VERB," câu tr l i c a quí v ph i có "TR Ð NG T "
(HELPING VERB).

A: ------------------------------------?
B: Yes, ----------------- (I go to school every day.)



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Văn ph m Anh văn


Cách làm:

A: Do you go to school every day?
B: Yes, I go to school every day.

Khi quí v có y' vi. co' "TR Ð NG T " (HELPING VERB) trong câu h i, ñ ng chia
ñ ng t chính m c dù câu h i có ch t ngôi 3 s ít (the third person singular). Ð ng t
chính không có "S", "ES" hay "Ð NG T QUÁ KH ".

Does she jog every morning? (jog không có "S" m c dù câu h i có "she").
NHƯNG : She jogs every morning. (jog có "S").

Does he watch TV every day? (watch không có "ES").
NHƯNG : He watches TV every day. (watch có "ES").

SAI: Did they went shopping this afternoon?
ÐÚNG: Did they go shopping this afternoon?


CÂU H I WH- V I Ð NG T "BE"


Who are you?
WH- WORD + BE + CH T
Where is Vy?




WH- WORD + BE + CH T + Ð NG What is Virginia doing?
T THÊM -ING Where is Thao going?


CÂU H I WH- V I "TR Ð NG T (HELPING VERB)


Why did we do that?
WH-WORD + TR Ð NG T + CH What should I wear to the prom?
T + Ð NG T (th hi n t i không có Whom did you talk to?
"S" hay "ES" măc dù ch t là ngôi 3 s ít ) How do people eat this food?
When does she go to school every day?


Khi WHO ho c WHAT là ch t c a câu h i, ñ ng dùng ñúng tr t t c a câu h i. Tình
hu ng này nên là


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Văn ph m Anh văn




WHO/WHAT + Ð NG T CHÍNH

Who called me today? (Who là ch t c a câu h i)
What happened last week? (What là ch t c a câu h i)




N i câu
Kevin Khôi Trương


PARALLEL STRUCTURE: AND, BUT, OR, NOR (coordinating conjunctions)


Quí v không nên ñ t danh t (ñ ng t , tính t , ho c tr ng t ) bên trái c a liên t
(conjunction) và ñ ng t (danh t , tr ng t , ho c tính t ) bên ph i c a liên t .


Laura has a car and bicycle.
DANH T + AND + DANH T
Truc is a beautiful and nice girl.
TÍNH T + AND + TÍNH T
Mrs. Keith speaks slowly and clearly.
TR NG T + AND + TR NG T
We visited Las Vegas and bought a lot of
souvenirs.
Ð NG T + AND + Ð NG T
Your chair is new, but uncomfortable.
TÍNH T + BUT + TÍNH T
Sang called Tuan but couldn't reach him.
Ð NG T + BUT + Ð NG T
Would you like to go shopping or (to) stay
Ð NG T + OR + Ð NG T
home?
Ð NG T + NOR + Ð NG T
I don't often drink coffee, nor do I drink
tea.*



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Văn ph m Anh văn




SAI: She is nice and has a cat.

*Khi quí v có 1 câu hoàn ch nh ñi sau "nor," quí v ph i ñ o ngư c tr t t c a câu ñó
(gi ng như tr t t c a câu h i).


C P LIÊN T : PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS


EITHER + DANH T + OR + DANH T

Khi quí v cò 2 ch t n i b i
Either Uyen or Trang is here.
EITHER...OR, ñ ng t s ít hay s nhi u
s ph thu c vào ch t k ñ ng t là s ít
Either Uyen or her friends are here.
hay s nhi u.


NOT ONLY + DANH T + BUT ALSO +
DANH T
Not only Mr. Park but also Huong was
Khi quí v có 2 ch t n i b i NOT surprised.
ONLY...BUT ALSO, ñ ng t s ít hay s
nhi u s ph thu c vào ch t k ñ ng t là Not only Mr. Park but also the students
s ít hay s nhi u. were surprised.


NEITHER + DANH T + NOR + DANH
T
Neither Jackie nor Pat is going to go to
Khi quí v có 2 ch t n i b i work tomorrow.
NEITHER...NOR, ñ ng t s ít hay s
nhi u s ph thu c vào ch t k ñ ng t là Neither Jackie nor the tutors are going to
s ít hay s nhi u. go to work tomorrow.


BOTH + DANH T + AND + DANH T

Khi quí v có 2 chy' vi. co' 2 ch t n i b i
Both my father and my mother are over 50
BOTH...AND, ñ ng t luôn luôn là s
years old.
nhi u.




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Văn ph m Anh văn


LIÊN T V I M NH Ð Ð C L P (CÂU GHÉP):

CONJUNCTIONS WITH INDEPENDENT CLAUSES (COMPOUND SENTENCES)


Coordinating conjunctions: BOYFANS sounds like BOYFRIEND huh?

B ut

Or

Y et

F or

A nd

N or

So


CH T + Ð NG T + D U PH Y + 1. Tam has a full-time job.
LIÊN T + CH T + Ð NG T
2. She goes to school part-time.
Khi quí v n i 2 m nh ñ ñ c l p b i 1 liên
t , ñ t d u ph y trư c liên t ñó. Ðôi khi
quí v có th b d u ph y khi quí v có 2 ,
Tam has a full-time job and she goes to
câu ng n. school part-time.

Quí v có th th y 1 liên t b t ñ u 1 câu She has a full-time job and she goes to
trong báo, t p chí, ho c sách. B t ñ u 1 school part-time.
câu b ng 1 liên t ñư c dùng trong l i
không tr nh tr ng. Thêm vào ñó, vài gia'o She has a full-time job. And she goes to
viên không cho phép h c sinh dùng cách school part-time. (informal and not
này. recommended)




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Văn ph m Anh văn


Nguyên nhân và k t qu
Kevin Khôi Trương




NGUYÊN NHÂN VÀ K T QU V I BECAUSE, INASMUCH AS, NOW
THAT, AS, SINCE, AS/SO LONG AS TRONG M NH Ð TR NG T
(ADVERB CLAUSES)
Khi m nh ñ tr ng t ñ ng trư c
Because Brian didn't study well,
m nh ñ ñ c l p, ph y "," sau
he failed the test.
m nh ñ tr ng t .
Brian failed the test because he
Khi m nh ñ tr ng t theo sau
didn't study well. (không có d u
m nh ñ ñ c l p, d u ph y ñư c
ph y)
b ñi.
Inasmuch as I'll stay home all
day tomorrow, you can stop by
my house any time you want.
Inasmuch as nghĩa là b i vì
inasmuch as ñư c dùng trong l i
You can stop by my house any
nói và vi t tr nh tr ng.
time you want Inasmuch as I'll
stay home all day tomorrow.
(không có d u ph y)
Now that Maria has a black eye,
she doesn't want to go anywhere.
Now that nghĩa là b i vì bây gi .
Maria doesn't want to go
anywhere now that she has a
black eye. (không có d u ph y)
As Vy got 3.5 GPA, her name was
listed on the Dean's Honor List at
Cal State Fullerton.
As nghĩa là b i vì.
Vy's name was listed on the
Dean's Honor List at Cal State
Fullerton as she got 3.5 GPA.
(không có d u ph y)




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Văn ph m Anh văn



Since Thuy doesn't have a driver
license, she cannot drive a car.
Since nghĩa là b i vì.
Thuy cannot drive a car since she
doesn't have a driver license.
(không có d u ph y)
As long as/so long as Mrs. Lauren
was late, she didn't catch the
bus.
As long as/ so long as nghĩa là
b i vì.
Mrs. Lauren didn't catch the bus
as long as/so long as Mrs. Lauren
was late. (không có d u ph y)
CAUSE AND EFFECT WITH BECAUSE OF AND DUE TO: NGUYÊN
NHÂN VÀ K T QU V I BECAUSE OF VÀ DUE TO
Because the weather was nice,
BECAUSE + CH T + Ð NG T
we went on a picnic.
BECAUSE OF/DUE TO + TÍNH
T /DANH T Because of the nice weather, we
went on a picnic.
Because of và due to là gi i t Due to the nice weather, we went
(prepositions) và ñư c theo sau on a picnic.
b i 1 tính t /danh t .
DUE TO + THE FACT THAT + CH
T + Ð NG T
Due to the fact that the weather
was nice, we went on a picnic.
Due to ñư c dùng trong l i vi t
tr nh tr ng.




Câu không ñúng ng pháp

Kevin Khôi Trương



CÂU KHÔNG NG NG: RUN-ON SENTENCES



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Văn ph m Anh văn




Câu không ng ng là 2 m nh ñ ñ c l p n i
v i nhau mà không có d u ch m gi a.
SAI:
Ð S A CÂU KHÔNG NG NG


Dùng d u ch m gi a hai câu (period: . )
Getting married is easy staying married is
difficult.

ÐÚNG:
Dùng subordinating conjunction và d u


,
ph y ( )
Getting married is easy . Staying married
is difficult.

;
Dùng d u ch m ph y ( )
Even though getting married is easy ,
staying married is difficult.
Dùng d u ph y và coordinating
conjunction (BOYFANS sounds like
BOYFRIEND huh?) Getting married is easy ; staying married
is difficult.
BUT
OR
YET
FOR
,
Getting married is easy but staying
married is difficult.
AND
NOR
SO


CH M PH Y (COMMA SPLICES)
SAI:

Eric works full time, he takes evening
classes.
A comma splice x y ra khi quí v n i 2
ÐÚNG:
m nh ñ ñ c l p v i nhau b i 1 d u ph y
mà không có coordinating conjunction.
Ð s a comma splice, quí v dùng lu t
gi ng như lu t c a run-on sentences
Eric works full time . He takes evening
classes.


,
Though Eric works full time he takes
evening classes.


Trang 84
Văn ph m Anh văn




;
Eric works full time he takes evening
classes.


,
Eric works full time and he takes
evening classes.
CÂU KHÔNG Ð Y Ð : SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
SAI:

They went to see Dr. Chen's office.
Because they had an appointment with her.

Because they had an appointment with
her là 1 m nh ñ ph , do ñó nó không th
Sentence fragments không ph i câu hoàn
ñ ng 1 mình ñư c. Nó ph i ñư c n i v i
ch nh ho c ch là 1 ph n c a câu. M t câu
1 m nh ñ ñ c l p.
hoàn ch nh ph i có t i thi u 1 m nh ñ ñ c
ÐÚNG: They went to see Dr. Chen's
l p:
office because they had an appointment
with her.
CH T + Ð NG T + TÚC T (ñôi
khi 1 túc t không c n thi t).
SAI:
Quí v nên c n th n khi b t ñ u 1 câu v i
We visited several hotels in Las Vegas.
m t trong nh ng t sau ñây (subordinating
For example, New York New York Hotel,
conjunctions).
MGM Hotel, Rio Hotel, and Luxor Hotel.
after, before, when, while, as soon
For example, New York New York Hotel,
as, although, though, as, because,
MGM Hotel, Rio Hotel, and Luxor Hotel
even though, if, even if, since,
không ph i là 1 câu hoàn ch nh. Nó không
who, which,
có ch t và ñ ng t .
M i subordinate clauses b t ñ u b ng
ÐÚNG: We visited several hotels in Las
nh ng ch trên và 1 m nh ñ ñ c l p (
Vegas. For example, we stopped by New
m nh ñ chi'nh).
York New York Hotel, MGM Hotel, Rio
Hotel, and Luxor Hotel.

SAI:

Susan was lost. Having no money and
being lonely in the big city.

Having no money and being lonely in the




Trang 85
Văn ph m Anh văn


big city

không có ch t và ñ ng t .

ÐÚNG: Susan was lost. She had no
money and was lonely in the big city. OR
Having no money and being lonely in the


,
big city Susan called a friend to entertain
her around the city.

SAI:

Many teenagers who are single mothers.

Ðây là 1 m nh ñ ph (m nh ñ tính t )
theo 1 danh t .

ÐÚNG: Many teenagers are single
mothers.




Phép ch m câu
Kevin Khôi Trương




D U PH Y: COMMAS ( , )


1.
th
Dùng d u ph y ñ tách r i 3
tr lên She has pencils , pens and
highlighters.

2. Dùng d u ph y ñ tách r i
ph n không c n thi t Ly, my new friend , is from


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Vietnam.


This is my favorite food , pho
(Vietnamese noodle soup).
3. T ng liên quan t i t mà Jose the Fat was an excellent
chúng ta b nghĩa không dùng leader.
d u ph y My friend John has two houses.
4. Dùng d u ph y v i liên t :
Coordination and subordination

Dùng d u ph y v i
coordinating conjunctions She is rich, but he is poor.
(BOYFANS sounds like
BOYFRIEND huh?)
Because it rained yesterday , I
B ut didn't go to school.
Or I didn't go to school because it
Y et rained yesterday. (không dùng
F or d u ph y b i vì m nh ñ ph
A nd because it rained yesterday theo
N or sau m nh ñ ñ c l p.)
So

Dùng d u ph y v i subordinating When she called , I was
conjunctions: ph y sau m nh ñ studying.
ph n u m nh ñ ph ñ ng trư c I was studying when she called.
m nh ñ ñ c l p. Không dùng (không dùng d u ph y)
d u ph y khi m nh ñ ph ñi sau
m nh ñ ñ c l p.


By ten in the morning , we
5. Dùng d u ph y v i c m t wanted to see a movie.
gi i thi u

After the party on Friday , they
went to the beach.

6. Dùng d u ph y v i c m t
chuy n ti p Instructors , on the other hand ,
receive a lower salary than



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assistants professors.

7. Dùng d u ph y ñ tách r i
parenthetical elements By the way , are you free
tonight?
8. Dùng d u ph y v i m nh ñ
không c n thi t: nonrestrictive
,
clauses (adjective clauses, m nh Sam who is a student likes ,
ñ tính t ) watching comedy shows.



9. Dùng d u ph y v i ñ a ch
We live at 14375 Bolsa Street ,
Westminster , California.

Ly arrived in California on


10. Dùng d u ph y v i ngày ñ y Wednesday
ñ
, March


21 , 2001.

11. Không dùng d u ph y v i 1
t ch ñ a ch (single-word
Ly arrived from Vietnam in
address) ho c ngày ñ ng trư c
March.
b i 1 gi i t (date preceded by a
preposition)

12. Ph y sau ch Yes ho c No
No , I don't like it. Yes , I like it.


13. Ph y sau tên ngư i ñư c g i
Kevin , what are you looking for?

14. Ph y sau thán t
(interjections: ah, oh, gee, well) Ah , this cake is delicious.


15. Dùng d u ph y ch s
ph n
tương
Nancy , not Mimi , is my
partner.



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D U CH M PH Y: SEMICOLONS ( ; )

D u ch m ph y gi ng như d u ch m hơn là d u ph y. D u ch m
ph y ñư c dùng trong nh ng trư ng h p sau ñây:


Jim was so tired; he went to
bed right after work. (ch h trong
he ñư c vi t thư ng.)
a. Gi a 2 ý nghĩ hoàn ch nh mà
có liên h m t thi t v i nhau
Computer use is skyrocketing ;
computer crime is, too. (ch c
trong computer ñư c vi t
thư ng.)
b. Trư c tr ng t n i và vài t
chuy n ti p
Arnold Schwarzenegger is a
Tr ng t n i:

Accordingly, Besides,
famous movie star ; moreover,
he is a muscleman. (ch m trong
Consequently, For example,
moreover ñư c vi t thư ng.)
Furthermore, Hence,
However, In addition, In
contrast, Indeed,
Moreover, Nevertheless,
Andre Agassi played well ;
nevertheless, he lost the match.
Nonetheless, On the other
(n ñư c vi t thư ng.)
hand, Otherwise, Therefore,
Thus


D U HAI CH M: COLONS ( : )

Dùng d u hai ch m trong nh ng trư ng h p sau ñây:


Li t kê 1 danh sách ch khi nào
I need the following items : a
chair, hammer, and nail. (I need
ñã có 1 câu hoàn ch nh
the following items là 1 câu hoàn
ch nh)




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Gi a s gi và phút :
Henry arrived at 3 15.


Sau l i chào trong 1 lá thư tr nh Dear Ms. Nguyen:
tr ng
To Whom It May Concern :
The scientist Stephen Jay Gould

wrote: "I am, somehow, less
interested in the weight and
Gi i thi u 1 s trích d n dài hơn
convolutions of Einstein's brain
3 hàng
than in the near certainty that
people of equal talent have lived
and died in cotton fields and
sweatshops."
There are several ways to learn


Gi i thi u 1 l i gi i thích
English better: participate in
class, always do homework, and
try to talk to your instructor as
much as you can.

D U NGO C KÉP: QUOTATION MARKS ( ... " "
) Khi dùng d u
ngo c kép, quí v nên ñ ý nh ng d u ch m câu khác. Dùng d u
ngo c kép trong nh ng trư ng h p sau:
Di n t chính xác l i c a ngư i
Mom said, "Dinner is ready."
nói (l i d n tr c ti p)
M i s trích d n b t ñ u b ng 1 The child said, "Give me the
ch vi t hoa. cake."

D u ch m than (!) và d u ch m Allen said, "Watch out "
h i (?) n m trong d u ngo c kép
!
n u chúng là 1 ph n c a s trích "Where have you been?" he
d n. N u không, chúng n m asked.
ngoài.
Did you say, "I love you"?
D u h i và d u ch m cu i s
trích d n luôn luôn n m trong
d u ngo c kép. "Go to your room ," Dad said, "




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and think about what you did . "


D u hai ch m và d u ch m ph y "Give me liberty or give death" :
n m ngoài d u ngo c kép. these are immortal (long-
remembered) words.
D u ph y ñư c dùng ñ tách r i
ph n trích d n c a 1 câu v i ph n
còn l i c a câu ñó. The father said , "Shut up!"

"My cousin," they said, "is a
trilingual." ( is a trilingual là ph n
Khi 1 câu trích d n b chia làm 2
th hai c a câu.)
ph n, ph n th 2 b t ñ u b ng 1
ch vi t thư ng n u ph n th hai
"My cousin is a trilingual," they
không ph i là 1 câu m i.
said. "He lives in Fullerton." (He
lives in Fullerton là 1 câu m i.)

The physics professor said, "Do
' '
Dùng 1 d u ngo c kép ( ... ) ñ the problems at the end of
bao quanh 1 s trích d n n m
trong 1 s trích d n khác.
Chapter Five, 'Work and
Energy, ' for class on Friday."
Some people don't know what

Dùng d u ng c kép ñ tách r i t the word " "
pho means. "Pho"
ng nư c ho c t ng ñ c bi t means Vietnamese noodle soup.
v i ph n còn l i c a câu. What's the difference between

"it's" and "its"?




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In the article "Save the
Planet," the author states
that......

In the essay "My terrible
Dùng d u ngo c kép ñ tách r i
day"......
t a ñ c a t p chí, báo, sách,
chương trong 1 quy n sách,
In the chapter"Database
truy n ng n, thơ, và bài hát. Administration"....

In the story "My Sister"....

In the poem "When I have

Fears".....

In the song "Knife".....

D U LƯ C: APOSTROPHES ( ')




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have + not = haven t '
'
I + will = I ll

I + am = I'm

I + have = I've

I + had = I'd (I had + past
participle)

'
I + would = I d (I would +
simple form of the verb)

D u lư c trong l i vi t rút g n Who + is = Who s '
(M t d u lư c ñư c dùng khi 2 t
ng ñư c n i v i nhau thành 1 do + not = Don't
t .
did + not = Didn't

It + is = It's (It is +
adjective/noun)

'
It + has = It s ( It has + past
participle)

Is + not = Isn t '
Could + not = Couldn t '
They + are = They re '
Will + not = Won t '
The car that belong to Jason =

'
Jason s car
D u lư c dùng ñ ch quy n s The house owned by Mr. Newby
h u ( belongs to, possessed by,
owned by, or of) '
= Mr. Newby s house
The generosity of my parents =

my parents ' generosity

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D U N I (quãng ng t gi a 2 âm): HYPHEN ( -)
Dùng d u n i v i 2 t ng (ho c
nhi u hơn) mà ñóng vai trò như 1
Michelle has a full time job.-
ch di n t 1 danh t . I have a fifteen year old - -


Determiners

Nam Phương

Definite articles
Danh t thư ng ñư c các ch the, a hay an ñ ng trư c. Nh ng ch này tên là
DETERMINERS (t h n ñ nh). Nó ch cho ta bi t danh t thu c lo i gì. T h n ñ nh
THE ñư c g i là DEFINITE ARTICLE (m o t xác ñ nh). Ta dùng nó cho danh t s ít và s
nhi u



Singular Plural
the taxi the taxis
the paper the papers
the apple the apples

Indefinite articles

T h n ñ nh a (hay an, khi danh t theo sau nó b t ñ u b i m t nguyên âm) là
INDEFINITE ARTICLE (m o t không xác ñ nh). Ta dùng a, an cho danh t s ít.

a taxi
a paper
an apple

M o t THE, A/AN là determiners ph thông nh t, tuy nhiên có nhi u m o t khác:

any taxi
that question
those apples
this paper


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some apple
whatever taxi
whichever taxi

Có l phương ti n thông d ng nh t ñ di n t s lư ng là dùng s . Ta s quan sát ch s
dùng làm determiner trong ph n sau ñây:



Cardinal numeral adjectives

Ch s là determiners khi chúng xu t hi n trư c m t danh t . Trong v trí này, cardinal
numeral (s nguyên th hi n s lư ng) di n t s lư ng


one book
two books
twenty books



Ordinal numeral adjectives

Cũng cùng v trí ñó, ordinal numeral (s th t ) di n t th t :


first impressions
second chance
third prize




General ordinals

L p dư i c a ordinal bao g m nh ng ch không tr c ti p liên h v i s lư ng (như
FIRST liên h v i ONE, SECOND liên h v i TWO, vân vân..). Nh ng ch này g i là
GENERAL ORDINALS, và chúng bao g m LAST, LATTER, NEXT, PREVIOUS và
SUBSEQUENT


next week
last orders



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previous engagement
subsequent developments

Khi chúng không ñ ng trư c danh t như chúng ta ñã th y, numerals là m t l p dư i c a
danh t . Cũng gi ng như danh t , nó có th dùng determiner
the two of us
the first of many

Th m chí chúng có nh ng determiner ñ ng trư c chúng:


five twos are ten

Trong ví d này, TWOS là DANH T S NHI U và determiner FIVE c a nó trư c




Pronouns and Determiners

Có s trùng nhau quan tr ng gi a DETERMINER CLASS và DETERMINER
SUBCLASS c a PRONOUN (Ð i t , là t dùng thay th cho danh d ). Nhi u ch có th
dùng cho c hai




Pronoun Determiner

This is a very boring book This book is very boring

That's an excellent film That film is excellent



Như b ng này cho ta th y, determiners thư ng ñ ng trư c danh t , nhưng pronouns ñ c
l p hơn. Nhi m v c a chúng gi ng như danh t , và có th ñư c thay th b i danh t như
nh ng câu dư i ñây:




This is a very boring book ~Ivanhoe is a very boring book
That's an excellent film ~Witness is an excellent film




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M t khác, khi nh ng ch này là determiners, chúng không ñư c thay th b i danh t

(nh ng ch có g n * là không ñúng)




This book is very boring ~*Ivanhoe book is very boring
That film is excellent ~*Witness film is excellent


PERSONAL PRONOUNS (ñ i danh t ; I, you, he, vân vân) không th là determiners.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS cũng v y (mine, yours, his/hers, ours, and theirs). Tuy
nhiên, nh ng pronouns ph i có hình dáng tương ñương v i determiners




Possessive Pronoun Determiner

The white car is mine My car is white

Yours is the blue coat Your coat is blue

The car in the garage is his/hers His/her car is in the garage

David's house is big, but ours is
Our house is bigger than David's
bigger

Theirs is the house on the left Their house is on the left



Definite articles và indefinite articles không bao gi là pronouns. Chúng luôn luôn là
determiners.


Th t c a determiners



Determiners ñư c th y trư c nouns, chúng ch cho bi t danh t là lo i gì. Tùy thu c vào
th t tương ñ i c a chúng trư c m t danh t , ta phân bi t 3 lo i determiners:




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Predeterminer Central Determiner Postdeterminer Noun

I met all my many friends



M t câu như th này thư ng ít khi dùng b i vì hi m khi c ba determiners ñư c l p vô
trong cùng m t câu. Thông thư ng, ch môt hay hai v trí ñư c l p vô.

Predeterminers (pre = trư c)

Predeterminers ñ nh rõ s lư ng cho danh t theo sau chúng và có 3 lo i quan tr ng:

1. "Multiplying" expressions, including expressions ending in times: (Nhân)


twice my salary
double my salary
ten times my salary
2. Phân s

half my salary
one-third my salary
3. The words all and both:

all my salary
both my salaries

Predeterminers thư ng không di n ñ t chung ñư c


*all half my salary

Central Determiners (central = gi a, trung tâm)



Definite article the và indefinite article a/an là nh ng central determiners thông d ng
nh t


all the book
half a chapter




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Như nhi u thí d trư c ñây c a ta ñã cho bi t, ch MY có th chi m v trí central
determiner. Possessive (s h u t ) pronouns và possessive determiners cũng v y

all your money
all his/her money
all our money
all their money

Demonstratives (ch ñ nh t ) cũng v y , là central determiners.


all these problems
twice that size
four times this amount



Postdeterminers (post = sau)

Cardinal và ordinal numerals chi m v trí postdeterminer
the two children
his fourth birthday
General ordinals cũng v y (t c là v trí cu i)
my next project
our last meeting
your previous remark
her subsequent letter

Nh ng ch ch s lư ng khác cũng là postdeterminers:


my many friends
our several achievements
the few friends that I have
Không như predeterminers, postdeterminers có th dùng chung:
my next two projects
several other people




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Nouns are often preceded by the words the, a, or an. These words are called
DETERMINERS. They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The
determiner the is known as the DEFINITE



Singular Plural
the taxi the taxis
the paper the papers
the apple the apples



ARTICLE. It is used before both singular and plural nouns:
The determiner a (or an, when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the
INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used when the noun is singular:

any taxi
that question
those apples
this paper
some apple
whatever taxi
whichever taxi

Perhaps the most common way to express quantity is to use a numeral. We look at
numerals as determiners in the next section




Numerals and Determiners

Numerals are determiners when they appear before a noun. In this position, cardinal
numerals express quantity:




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one book
two books
twenty books
In the same position, ordinal numerals express sequence:

first impressions
second chance
third prize

The subclass of ordinals includes a set of words which are not directly related to numbers
(as first is related to one, second is related to two, etc). These are called general ordinals,
and they include last, latter, next, previous, and subsequent. These words also function as
determiners:

next week
last orders
previous engagement
subsequent developments

When they do not come before a noun, as we've already seen, numerals are a subclass of
nouns. And like nouns, they can take determiners:

the two of us
the first of many
They can even have numerals as determiners before them:
five twos are ten
In this example, twos is a plural noun and it has the determiner five before it



Pronouns and Determiners
There is considerable overlap between the determiner class and the subclass of
pronouns. Many words can be both:




Pronoun Determiner

This is a very boring book This book is very boring

That's an excellent film That film is excellent




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As this table shows, determiners always come before a noun, but pronouns are more
independent than this. They function in much the same way as nouns, and they can be
replaced by nouns in the sentences above:

This is a very boring book ~Ivanhoe is a very boring book
That's an excellent film ~Witness is an excellent film


On the other hand, when these words are determiners, they cannot be replaced by nouns:



This book is very boring ~*Ivanhoe book is very boring
That film is excellent ~*Witness film is excellent


The personal pronouns (I, you, he, etc) cannot be determiners. This is also true of the
possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his/hers, ours, and theirs). However, these pronouns
do have corresponding forms which are determiners:

Possessive Pronoun Determiner

The white car is mine My car is white

Yours is the blue coat Your coat is blue

The car in the garage is his/hers His/her car is in the garage

David's house is big, but ours is
Our house is bigger than David's
bigger

Theirs is the house on the left Their house is on the left



The definite and the indefinite articles can never be pronouns. They are always
determiners

Definite articles và indefinite articles không bao gi là pronouns. Chúng luôn luôn là
determiners.


The Ordering of Determiners




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Determiners occur before nouns, and they indicate the kind of reference which the nouns
have. Depending on their relative position before a noun, we distinguish three classes of
determiners




Predeterminer Central Determiner Postdeterminer Noun

I met all my many friends



A sentence like this is somewhat unusual, because it is rare for all three determiner slots
to be filled in the same sentence. Generally, only one or two slots are filled.



Predeterminers (pre = trư c)

Predeterminers specify quantity in the noun which follows them, and they are of three
major types:

1. "Multiplying" expressions, including expressions ending in times:

twice my salary
double my salary
ten times my salary
2. Fractions

3. The words all and both:


all my salary
both my salaries
Predeterminers do not normally co-occur:
*all half my salary


Central Determiners (central = gi a, trung tâm)

The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an are the most common central
determiners:
all the book
half a chapter



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As many of our previous examples show, the word my can also occupy the central
determiner slot. This is equally true of the other possessives:
all your money
all his/her money
all our money
all their money

The demonstratives, too, are central determiners:

all these problems
twice that size
four times this amount


Postdeterminers (post = sau)

Cardinal and ordinal numerals occupy the postdeterminer slot:
the two children
his fourth birthday
This applies also to general ordinals:
my next project
our last meeting
your previous remark
her subsequent letter
Other quantifying expressions are also postdeterminers:

my many friends
our several achievements
the few friends that I have

Unlike predeterminers, postdeterminers can co-occur:

my next two projects
several other people




Vi t hoa

Kevin Khôi Trương



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Ch hoa ñư c dùng trong nh ng cách sau ñây:

1. Ch cái ñ u tiên trong câu They sold their house last week. She is a nice girl.

2. Tên riêng và tính t ñi chung Tri Le Scott Brown Joey Adams
v i tên riêng United Nations American flag

3. Ch cái ñ u tiên c a 1 l i trích Mimi said, "You are a liar."
d n tr c ti p BUT: "You are," Mimi said, "a liar."

Dr. Robert Senator Dole Professor Smith
BUT:
There are 100 senators in the U.S. Congress. My
4. Danh hi u ho c c p b c trư c 1
professors are strict.
tên riêng

NGO I L :
Donna Chung, M.D.
Ron is working on a B.A. in business. (Bachelor of
Vi t hoa ch vi t t t c a b ng c p
Arts)
BUT:
Ron is working on a bachelor's degree in business.




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We live in Santa Ana.
BUT: We live in a city.


He'll fly to Florida.
My came from Vietnam.
Thailand is in Asia.
They passed the Pacific Ocean.
BUT: They passed an ocean.

5. Tên riêng v nơi ch n và ñ a lý
I saw Lake Superior.
(thành ph , ti u bang, qu c gia, l c
BUT: I saw a lake.
ñ a, ñ i dương, h , sông, sa m c,
núi, ñư ng xá, tòa nhà, công viên,
trư ng h c, và s thú)
He crossed the Mississippi River.
BUT: He crossed a river.
Danh t chung như là ñư ng ph ,
ñ i l , công viên, h , ñ i dương,
sông, sa m c, ho c núi ñư c vi t
The Sahara Desert is in Africa.
hoa khi nào là 1 ph n c a tên
BUT: They died on a desert.
riêng.

Khi ñông, tây, nam, b c là 1 ph n
We saw the Everest Mountain.
c a v trí, chúng ñư c vi t hoa.
BUT: We saw a mountain.
Khi ñông, tây, nam, b c ñ c p ñ n
phương hư ng trên la bàn, chúng
không ñư c vi t hoa.
She lives on Brookhurst Avenue.
They'll meet in Mc. Cathy Hall.
I saw her in Mile Square Park yesterday.
BUT: Let's go to a park.


Have you ever gone to San Diego Zoo?
California is in the West.
BUT: China is north of Vietnam.
Head south for two blocks and turn east on Bolsa
Street.




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This year, her birthday falls on Tuesday.
6. Ngày trong tu n, tên c a tháng You were born in May.
trong năm và ngày l nhưng không People have parties on Christmas Day.
vi t hoa 4 mùa và khóa h c. Four seasons of the year are spring, summer,
fall/autumn, and winter.

My nephew knows all the words of Diet Pepsi's
7. Tên c a s n ph m qu ng cáo
advertisement.

We read the book Gone with the Wind.
While waiting for my friend, I watched Friends
8. T a sách, t p chí, báo, truy n,
and read an article in Reader's Digest.
thơ, phim, chương trình tivi, bài
Let's go see Rush Hour 2.
hát và bài văn c a quí v
I like listening to the song You Will See, which
was sung by Madonna.


One of the leading software companies is
9. Tên c a hãng, ñoàn th , công
Microsoft.
ñoàn, câu l c b , ñ ng chính tr , và
They have an account at OCTFCU (Orange
nh ng t ch c khác
County Teachers Federal Credit Union).

They went to Westminster High School.
BUT: They went to high school together.
I am going to California State University,
10. Tên trư ng h c và tên l p h c Fullerton.
BUT: I'm going to a university.
She is taking Economic 315 this semester.
BUT: She took an economic class last year.

I can speak Vietnamese, English, and a little
11. Tên c a ngôn ng và qu c t ch Spanish.
He is an American.

12. Ð i danh t "I" Vy and I have been friends for a number of years.

13. Quan h gia ñình ch khi nào I'll tell Dad about this. We are talking to Aunt
nó là 1 ph n c a tên riêng ho c n u Van.
nó thay th cho tên riêng BUT: I'll tell my dad. We are talking to our aunt.

14. Tôn giáo, môn ñ và th n
Muslims, Buddhism, Christianity, Jehovah, Islam
thánh



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Many people remember the Civil War.
15. S ki n l ch s , giai ño n, văn She was born in the Middle Ages.
ki n (tài li u) và ho t ñ ng Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
He told us about the Abolitionist movement.




Ngu n VietSciences




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