Vẽ kỹ thuật với Autocad 2005 P1

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Vẽ kỹ thuật với Autocad 2005 P1

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It’s amazing to think that AutoCAD came into being over two decades ago, at a time when most people thought that personal computers weren’t capable of industrial-strength tasks like CAD.

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  1. AutoCAD 2005 ® FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Mark Middlebrook
  2. AutoCAD 2005 ® FOR DUMmIES ‰
  3. AutoCAD 2005 ® FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Mark Middlebrook
  4. AutoCAD® 2005 For Dummies® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 Copyright © 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as per- mitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4447, e-mail: permcoordinator@wiley.com. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REP- RESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CRE- ATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CON- TAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FUR- THER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFOR- MATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2004102367 ISBN: 0-7645-7138-9 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1O/SY/QU/QU/IN
  5. About the Author Mark Middlebrook used to be an engineer but gave it up when he discovered that he couldn’t handle a real job. He is now principal of Daedalus Consulting, an independent CAD and computer consulting company in Oakland, California. (In case you wondered, Daedalus was the guy in ancient Greek legend who built the labyrinth on Crete. Mark named his company after Daedalus before he realized that few of his clients would be able to pronounce it and even fewer spell it.) Mark is also a contributing editor for CADALYST magazine and Webmaster of markcad.com. When he’s not busy being a cad, Mark sells and writes about wine for Paul Marcus Wines in Oakland. He also teaches literature and philosophy classes at St. Mary’s College of California — hence “Daedalus.” AutoCAD 2005 For Dummies is his sixth book on AutoCAD.
  6. Dedication To Puck and Pretzel, two absolute AutoCAD dummies who never cease to inspire and amuse. It was during walks in the woods with them that I origi- nally worked out some of the details of these chapters. I’m pretty sure that Puck could learn AutoCAD, if only he could figure out how to manipulate a mouse. Pretzel, on the other hand, is too interested in squirrels to bother with mice. Author’s Acknowledgments Thanks first of all to Bud Smith, who initiated this book five editions ago, brought me in on it along the way, and eventually handed it over to me in toto. I hope that I prove as good a steward as he was a midwife (or is the gender-neutral term “midspouse”?). Terri Varveris again shepherded the pro- ject through the development process; her enthusiasm and infectious energy have helped make each new edition more than just an obligatory update. It was a genuine pleasure to work once again with Christine Berman, whose combination of patience, persistence, and care make her a model project editor. As always, Dave Byrnes carried out his duties as tech editor with skill and verve; his diligence saved me from a few bloopers, and his thoughtful suggestions helped make the book perceptibly better,
  7. Publisher’s Acknowledgments We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our online registration form located at www.dummies.com/register/. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions, Editorial, and Production Media Development Project Coordinator: Courtney MacIntyre Project Editor: Christine Berman Layout and Graphics: Amanda Carter, Acquisitions Editor: Terri Varveris Andrea Dahl, Lauren Goddard, Copy Editor: Christine Berman Denny Hager, Michael Kruzil, Jacque Schneider, Melanee Wolven Technical Editor: David Byrnes Proofreaders: Laura Albert, Andy Hollandbeck, Editorial Manager: Carol Sheehan Carl Pierce, Brian H. Walls, Media Development Supervisor: TECHBOOKS Production Services Richard Graves Indexer: TECHBOOKS Production Services Editorial Assistant: Amanda Foxworth Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com) Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director Publishing for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher Joyce Pepple, Acquisitions Director Composition Services Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services
  8. Contents at a Glance Introduction .................................................................1 Part I: AutoCAD 101 ....................................................7 Chapter 1: Introducing AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT 2005 ...............................................9 Chapter 2: Le Tour de AutoCAD 2005 ............................................................................17 Chapter 3: Setup for Success ..........................................................................................41 Part II: Let There Be Lines...........................................71 Chapter 4: Get Ready to Draw ........................................................................................73 Chapter 5: Where to Draw the Line..............................................................................101 Chapter 6: Edit for Credit ..............................................................................................129 Chapter 7: A Zoom with a View ....................................................................................167 Chapter 8: On a 3D Spree...............................................................................................179 Part III: If Drawings Could Talk.................................203 Chapter 9: Text with Character ....................................................................................205 Chapter 10: Entering New Dimensions ........................................................................229 Chapter 11: Down the Hatch .........................................................................................255 Chapter 12: The Plot Thickens .....................................................................................267 Part IV: Share and Share Alike ..................................293 Chapter 13: Playing Blocks and Rasteroids ................................................................295 Chapter 14: Sheet Sets without Regrets ......................................................................321 Chapter 15: CAD Standards Rule ..................................................................................337 Chapter 16: Drawing on the Internet............................................................................347 Part V: The Part of Tens ............................................367 Chapter 17: Ten Ways to Do No Harm .........................................................................369 Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Swap Drawing Data with Other People and Programs .......................................................................................373 Index .......................................................................383
  9. Table of Contents Introduction..................................................................1 What’s Not in This Book ...................................................................................1 Who Are — and Aren’t — You?........................................................................2 How This Book Is Organized ............................................................................2 Part I: AutoCAD 101 .................................................................................3 Part II: Let There Be Lines ......................................................................3 Part III: If Drawings Could Talk...............................................................4 Part IV: Share and Share Alike................................................................4 Part V: The Part of Tens..........................................................................4 Icons Used in This Book ...................................................................................5 A Few Conventions — Just in Case .................................................................5 Part I: AutoCAD 101 ......................................................7 Chapter 1: Introducing AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Why AutoCAD?.................................................................................................10 The Importance of Being DWG ......................................................................11 Seeing the LT ....................................................................................................13 Staying Alive with 2005 ...................................................................................14 Chapter 2 : Le Tour de AutoCAD 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 AutoCAD Does Windows ................................................................................18 AutoCAD’s Opening Screen Cuisine ..............................................................19 Standard Windows fare .........................................................................19 Looking for Mr. Status Bar ....................................................................23 Take an order: The command line area ..............................................26 Main course: The drawing area ...........................................................30 A Palette-Cleanser ...........................................................................................33 What Really Makes AutoCAD Cook? .............................................................35 Sizzling system variables......................................................................35 Delicious dialog boxes ..........................................................................37 Fun with F1 .......................................................................................................38 Chapter 3 : Setup for Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 An Appetizing Setup Strategy ........................................................................42 Choosing your units ..............................................................................44 Weighing your scales.............................................................................45 Thinking about paper............................................................................47 Defending your border..........................................................................50 All system variables go .........................................................................50
  10. xii AutoCAD 2005 For Dummies Getting Creative with Templates ...................................................................51 The Main Course: Model Space .....................................................................54 Setting your units ..................................................................................54 Telling your drawing its limits .............................................................55 Making the drawing area snap-py (and grid-dy)................................57 Setting linetype and dimension scales................................................59 Entering drawing properties ................................................................61 Plot Layouts for Any Palate............................................................................62 Creating a layout....................................................................................63 Copying and changing layouts.............................................................66 Lost in paper space ...............................................................................67 Cooking Up Terrific Templates ......................................................................68 Part II: Let There Be Lines ............................................71 Chapter 4: Get Ready to Draw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Drawing and Editing with AutoCAD ..............................................................73 Managing Your Properties..............................................................................74 Putting it on a layer ...............................................................................75 Accumulating properties ......................................................................77 Creating new layers ...............................................................................80 Using AutoCAD DesignCenter........................................................................85 Named objects .......................................................................................85 Getting (Design) Centered ....................................................................85 Copying layers between drawings.......................................................87 Precise-liness Is Next to CAD-liness ..............................................................88 Keyboard capers: Coordinate entry....................................................90 Grab an object and make it snappy.....................................................92 Other precision practices.....................................................................97 Chapter 5: Where to Draw the Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Introducing the AutoCAD Drawing Commands .........................................102 The Straight and Narrow: Lines, Polylines, and Polygons .......................104 Toe the line ...........................................................................................104 Connect the lines with polyline .........................................................107 Square off with rectangle....................................................................112 Choose your sides with polygon .......................................................113 (Throwing) Curves ........................................................................................115 Going full circle ....................................................................................115 Arc-y-ology............................................................................................116 Ellipses (S. Grant?) ..............................................................................119 Splines: The sketchy, sinuous curves ...............................................121 Donuts: The circles with a difference ...............................................123 Revision clouds on the horizon .........................................................124 Scoring Points ................................................................................................126
  11. Table of Contents xiii Chapter 6: Edit for Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Commanding and Selecting..........................................................................129 Command-first editing ........................................................................130 Selection-first editing ..........................................................................130 Choosing an editing style ...................................................................130 Grab It .............................................................................................................131 One-by-one selection...........................................................................132 Selection boxes left and right ............................................................132 Perfecting Selecting.......................................................................................134 Ready, Get Set, Edit! ......................................................................................137 The Big Three: Move, CoPy, and Stretch ..........................................138 More manipulations ............................................................................147 Slicing and dicing.................................................................................151 Get a Grip........................................................................................................156 About grips...........................................................................................156 A gripping example..............................................................................157 Move it! .................................................................................................160 Copy, or a kinder, gentler Move .........................................................160 A warm-up Stretch...............................................................................162 Chapter 7: A Zoom with a View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Zoom and Pan with Glass and Hand ...........................................................167 Out of the frying pan . . . .....................................................................169 Time to zoom .......................................................................................170 A View by Any Other Name. . ......................................................................171 Looking Around in Layout Land ..................................................................173 Degenerating and Regenerating ..................................................................176 Chapter 8: On a 3D Spree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 Is 3D for Me?...................................................................................................180 Getting Your 3D Bearings .............................................................................184 Model space viewports left and right ...............................................184 Seeing the world from new viewpoints.............................................185 Dynamic viewpoints with 3DOrbit ....................................................187 A Cartesian Orientation................................................................................190 Coordinate systems: The WCS and UCS ...........................................190 Specifying coordinates in 3D..............................................................191 Drawing in 3D.................................................................................................193 Drawing 3D lines and polylines..........................................................193 Extruding from 2D to 3D .....................................................................194 Meshing around with surface meshes ..............................................196 A solid(s) foundation ..........................................................................197 Editing in three dimensions ...............................................................199 Ending with Rendering .................................................................................200
  12. xiv AutoCAD 2005 For Dummies Part III: If Drawings Could Talk ..................................203 Chapter 9: Text with Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 Getting Ready to Write..................................................................................206 Simply stylish text ...............................................................................206 Taking your text to new heights ........................................................209 One line or two?...................................................................................212 Your text will be justified....................................................................212 Using the Same Old Line...............................................................................213 Saying More in Multiline Text ......................................................................215 Making it with mText...........................................................................215 New mText might in AutoCAD 2005 ..................................................218 Keeping tabs (and indents) on your mText .....................................220 Modifying mText ..................................................................................222 Setting the Text Table ...................................................................................223 Tables have style, too .........................................................................223 Creating and editing tables ................................................................224 Checking Out Your Spelling..........................................................................227 Chapter 10: Entering New Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229 Discovering New Dimensions ......................................................................231 Anatomy of a dimension .....................................................................231 A field guide to dimensions................................................................232 Dimension associativity......................................................................233 Pulling out your dimension tools ......................................................234 Doing Dimensions with Style(s) ..................................................................235 Borrowing existing dimension styles ................................................235 Creating and managing dimension styles.........................................237 Adjusting style settings.......................................................................239 Drawing Dimensions .....................................................................................242 Lining up some linear dimensions.....................................................243 Drawing other kinds of dimensions ..................................................246 Trans-spatial dimensioning ................................................................246 Editing Dimensions .......................................................................................247 Editing dimension geometry ..............................................................247 Editing dimension text ........................................................................248 Controlling and editing dimension associativity.............................249 Pointy-Headed Leaders.................................................................................250 Chapter 11: Down the Hatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 Hatch . . . Hatch . . . Hatchoo........................................................................256 Pushing the Boundary (of) Hatch ...............................................................258 Hatch from scratch..............................................................................259 Getting it right: Hatch angle and scale..............................................261 Do fence me in: Defining hatch boundaries .....................................262
  13. Table of Contents xv Hatching that knows its place............................................................264 Have palette, will hatch ......................................................................264 Editing Hatch Objects ...................................................................................264 Chapter 12: The Plot Thickens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 You Say Printing, I Say Plotting....................................................................267 Get with the system.............................................................................268 Configure it out ....................................................................................269 A Simple Plot..................................................................................................270 Plotting success in 16 steps ...............................................................271 Preview one, two .................................................................................274 Instead of fit, scale it ...........................................................................275 Plotting the Layout of the Land...................................................................276 About paper space layouts and plotting ..........................................276 The path to paper space layout plotting success ...........................277 Plotting Lineweights and Colors .................................................................279 Plotting with style................................................................................279 Plotting through thick and thin .........................................................283 Plotting in color ...................................................................................285 It’s a (Page) Setup!.........................................................................................287 Continuing the Plot Dialog ...........................................................................288 Troubles with Plotting ..................................................................................291 Part IV: Share and Share Alike....................................293 Chapter 13: Playing Blocks and Rasteroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295 Rocking with Blocks......................................................................................296 Creating block definitions ..................................................................298 Inserting blocks ...................................................................................301 Attributes: Fill-in-the-blank blocks ....................................................304 Exploding blocks .................................................................................308 Going External ...............................................................................................309 Becoming attached to your xrefs ......................................................311 Layer-palooza.......................................................................................312 Creating and editing an external reference file................................313 Forging an xref path ............................................................................313 Managing xrefs .....................................................................................314 Blocks, Xrefs, and Drawing Organization ...................................................316 Mastering the Raster.....................................................................................316 Attaching an image..............................................................................318 Managing images .................................................................................319 Chapter 14: Sheet Sets without Regrets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 Taming Sheet Sets .........................................................................................322 Using an Existing Sheet Set ..........................................................................323
  14. xvi AutoCAD 2005 For Dummies The Sheet Set Setup ......................................................................................325 Getting Your Sheets Together ......................................................................326 Adding existing sheets to a set ..........................................................327 Sheet subsets .......................................................................................328 Creating new sheets for a set .............................................................329 Assembling sheet views from resource drawings ...........................330 Making an Automatic Sheet List ..................................................................333 Chapter 15: CAD Standards Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337 Why CAD Standards? ....................................................................................338 Which CAD Standards? .................................................................................339 What Needs to Be Standardized? ................................................................341 Plotting..................................................................................................341 Layers....................................................................................................342 Other stuff ............................................................................................343 Cool Standards Tools ....................................................................................344 Chapter 16: Drawing on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 The Internet and AutoCAD: An Overview ..................................................348 Sending Strategies .........................................................................................350 Send it with ETRANSMIT ....................................................................351 Rapid eTransmit ..................................................................................352 Transmitting multiple drawings ........................................................354 FTP for you and me .............................................................................355 Bad reception? .....................................................................................355 Help from the Reference Manager.....................................................356 Drawing Web Format — Not Just for the Web ...........................................358 All about DWF ......................................................................................358 ePlot, not replot ...................................................................................359 Making DWFs with ePlot .....................................................................360 Making DWFs (or Plots) with PUBLISH .............................................361 Hand-y objects .....................................................................................363 Autodesk Express Viewer ...................................................................363 The Drawing Protection Racket...................................................................364 Part V: The Part of Tens ..............................................367 Chapter 17: Ten Ways to Do No Harm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Be Precise .......................................................................................................369 Control Properties by Layer ........................................................................369 Know Your Drawing Scale Factor ................................................................370 Know Your Space...........................................................................................370 If Someone (Sheet) Set It, Don’t Forget It ...................................................370 Explode with Care .........................................................................................370
  15. Table of Contents xvii Don’t Cram Your Geometry..........................................................................371 Freeze Instead of Erase.................................................................................371 Use CAD Standards .......................................................................................371 Save and Back Up Drawings Regularly .......................................................372 Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Swap Drawing Data with Other People and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373 DWG ................................................................................................................374 DXF ..................................................................................................................376 DWF .................................................................................................................376 PDF ..................................................................................................................376 WMF ................................................................................................................377 BMP, JPEG, TIFF, and Other Raster Formats ..............................................377 Windows Clipboard.......................................................................................379 OLE ..................................................................................................................379 Screen Capture ..............................................................................................380 TXT and RTF ..................................................................................................381 Index........................................................................383
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