Vitamin and Colorant

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Vitamin and Colorant

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Natural colour isolated from the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana ). The scientific species name orellana is derived from the name of Francisco de Orellana, a Spanish explorer of the 16.th century.

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  1. Vitamin and Colorant E160b: Annatto, Bixin, Norbixin SVTH: HOAØNG VAÊN NHÒ MSSV: 46134333 LÔÙP: 46 CNSH 1
  2. I- Introduction 1. Origin Natural colour isolated from the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana ). The scientific species name orellana is derived from the name of Francisco de Orellana, a Spanish explorer of the 16.th century. This shrub is native to South America, India, East Africa, the Caribbean and Philippines . Brazil is the main exporter. Today, annatto is also grown on the Philippines (introduced by the Spanish). Analysis of annatto seeds indicates that they contain 40% to 45% cellulose, 3.5% to 5.5% sucrose, 0.3% to 0.9% essential oil, 3% fixed oil, 4.5% to 5.5% pigments, and 13% to 16% protein, as well as 2 alpha- and beta-carotenoids and other constituents.
  3. I- Introduction Brick red, triangular in shape, 3 - 5 mm 3
  4. I- Introduction Kingdom: Plantae An achiote blossom Division: Magnoliophyta Scientific classification Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Malvales Family: Bixaceae Genus: Bixa Species: B. orellana Bixa orellana L. 4
  5. 2. Chemical structure Bixin (9′Z-6,6′-diapocarotene-6,6′- dioate) C25H30O4 λ max = 509nm, 475nm, 443 nm Norbixi YAnnatto: B, C, D, E, F, n G 5
  6. 3. Properties • Annatto is a vegetable dye that is peach in colour and may be used as a substitute for tartrazine. Annatto may be water soluble or oil soluble. • Water soluble annatto contains bixin, a carotenoid and the main colourant which may be interconverted by hydrolysis to norbixin. • Water soluble annatto contains sodium or potassium salts of norbixin as the major colourant. 6
  7. 3. Properties • Oil- and Water-Soluble Annatto Extracts : - Oil-soluble Annatto Extracts diluted with acetone exhibit absorbance maxima at 439, 470, and 501 nm.  - Water-soluble Annatto Extracts diluted with water exhibit absorbance maxima at 451 to 455 nm and 480 to 484 nm 7
  8. 4. Attributed Medicinal Properties ANNATTO HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage · reduces acid · reduces inflammation Seed and Leaves · kills bacteria · stops coughing Leaf Decoction: 1/2 cup 2-3 · fights free radicals · dries secretions/oils times daily · kills parasites · cleanses blood Seed powder: 5-10 mg twice daily · kills germs · soothes membranes · increases urination · reduces phlegm · stimulates digestion · reduces fever · lowers blood pressure · raises blood sugar · mildly laxative · heals wounds 8 · protects liver
  9. 4. Attributed Medicinal Properties ANNATTO (leaves) PLANT SUMMARY Main Preparation Method: leaf infusion Main Actions (in order): antimicrobial, diuretic, digestive stimulant, hepatoprotective (liver protector), hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol) Main Uses: 1. as a topical antiseptic for ear, eye, and skin infections 2. for digestive problems (heartburn, constipation, stomachache) 3. for prostate and urinary infections 4. for hypertension 5. for high cholesterol levels Properties/Actions Documented by Research: aldose reductase inhibitor (linked to diabetic complications), antibacterial, antihemorrhagic (reduces bleeding), antivenin Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use: antacid, hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol), anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aperient (mild laxative), aphrodisiac, astringent, digestive stimulant, diuretic, febrifuge (reduces fever), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), wound healer Cautions: It may potentiate medications used to treat hypertension. 9
  10. 4. Attributed Medicinal Properties ANNATTO (seeds) PLANT SUMMARY Main Preparation Method: seed maceration or capsules Main Actions (in order): antioxidant, hepatoprotective (liver protector), insect repellant, diuretic, hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol) Main Uses: 1. to tone, balance, and strengthen liver function and for hepatitis and liver inflammation/pain 2. for high cholesterol 3. for skin care and skin anti-aging (for its antioxidant and ultraviolet ray [UV]- protective effect) 4. as a strong diuretic 5. for high blood pressure Properties/Actions Documented by Research: antioxidant, hepatoprotective (liver protector), hyperglycemic; also used as a food-coloring agent Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use: expectorant, hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), insect repellant, wound healer Cautions: It might raise blood sugar levels and may potentiate medications used to treat hypertension. 10
  11. 5. Application • Soy Drinks • Sauces/Soups • Spirits • Snack • Milk Seasoning Drinks • Batters/Breadi • Ice Cream ngs • Breakfast • Margarine Cereal • Cheese • Sausage • Yogurt Casing • Smoothies • Meat • Baking Analogues 11 • Fats/Oils
  12. Comparison between the current levels of Intake exposure to bixin and ADIs for various annatto extracts Typical average intakes of bixon/norbixin in the USA Bixin Annatto B, Annatto C, Annatto D, Annatto E, Annatto F, Annatto intake (mg/ 80% bixin 70% bixin 10% bixin 25% bixin 35% bixin G, 15% day) bixin Average 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.3 0.12 0.09 0.2 intake in European Union (mg/day) Average 0.4 0.5 0.6 4 1.6 1.2 2.6 intake in the United States (mg/day) 95th percentile 1.5 1.8 2.1 15 6 4.5 10 in the United Kingdom (mg/ day) ADI (mg/kg bw 13 0.7 — 7 0.8 — per day) Assuming 20 260 14 140 16 kg bw (mg/day) 12 Assuming 60 780 42 420 48 kg bw
  13. Intake The resulting estimate is about 0.63 mg/person per day, corresponding to 16% of the current ADI. Food category Mean Anticipated Anticipated Intake (mg/ Intake (mg/kg % of consumption usual use maximum use person per bw per day) ADI (g/day) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) day) Baked goods 137.2 1 10 0.14 0.0023 4 Beverages type I, nonalcoholic 104.0 1 10 0.10 0.0017 3 Breakfast cereals 20.0 5 30 0.10 0.0017 3 Cheese 9.4 9 15 0.08 0.0014 2 Confectionery and frostings 0.3 2 4 0.00 0.0000 0 Egg products 1.9 5 7 0.01 0.0002 0 Fats and oils 17.5 2 4 0.04 0.0006 1 Frozen dairy 25.6 2 10 0.05 0.0009 1 Fruit ices 0.7 5 10 0.00 0.0001 0 Gelatines and puddings 20.4 1 7 0.02 0.0003 1 Imitation dairy products 0.9 2 4 0.00 0.0000 0 Milk products 39.5 0 10 0.00 0.0000 0 Snack foods 1.3 10 50 0.01 0.0002 0 Soups 31.7 1 10 0.03 0.0005 1 Sweet sauce 6.8 5 7 0.03 0.0006 1 13 Total 0.63 0.0104 16
  14. II- Production process • Source: Seeds of life Biezen, R.W. van de Doren, J.van Ferguson, B. Teeuw, J. ‘t Atrium Woerd, Y.vander Amersfoort The Netherlands 14
  15. Extration of annatto using Ethanol •Obtian pure clorant from seeds. There seeds were therefore dried. The amount of clorant may thus not be as high as it would be in fresh seeds. 15
  16. • Method: Soxhlet The extraction solvent used ethanol or alcohol, this would extract the non- polar version of the annatto colouring, bixin, from the seeds. - Used: A filter size 603; 12.5 grams of Annatto seeds; 250 grams of Ethanol. - Times: 14 hours  After the process was completed the cycle was stopped and the Ethanol 16 was collected.
  17. Extration of annatto using Ethanol • Result: 2.3 grams of pure annatto could be obtained from 12.5 grams of annatto seeds. This is staggering 18.4% from the 17 mass of the
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