Webmaster P1

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Webmaster P1

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Over the past several decades, advances in computing technology have created widespread changes in the way that the world operates and the means by which we deal with information. Computing has revolutionized the way that business is done, bills are accounted for, and how records are stored.

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  1. 1 YEAR UPGRADE BUYER PROTECTION PLAN Webmaster’s G u i d e t o t h e Wireless Internet Everything You Need to Develop E-Commerce Enabled Wireless Web Sites • Step-by-Step Instructions for Authoring a Web Clipping Application • Complete Coverage of ASP.NET’s Microsoft Mobile Internet Toolkit Extensions • Master Wireless Security, Including Embedded Security Technology, Secure Air-Connect Technologies, Mobile Operator Network Security, and Authentication Ryan Fife Wei Meng Lee Dan A. Olsen Technical Editor
  2. solutions@syngress.com With more than 1,500,000 copies of our MCSE, MCSD, CompTIA, and Cisco study guides in print, we continue to look for ways we can better serve the information needs of our readers. One way we do that is by listening. Readers like yourself have been telling us they want an Internet-based ser- vice that would extend and enhance the value of our books. Based on reader feedback and our own strategic plan, we have created a Web site that we hope will exceed your expectations. Solutions@syngress.com is an interactive treasure trove of useful infor- mation focusing on our book topics and related technologies. The site offers the following features: s One-year warranty against content obsolescence due to vendor product upgrades. You can access online updates for any affected chapters. s “Ask the Author”™ customer query forms that enable you to post questions to our authors and editors. s Exclusive monthly mailings in which our experts provide answers to reader queries and clear explanations of complex material. s Regularly updated links to sites specially selected by our editors for readers desiring additional reliable information on key topics. Best of all, the book you’re now holding is your key to this amazing site. Just go to www.syngress.com/solutions, and keep this book handy when you register to verify your purchase. Thank you for giving us the opportunity to serve your needs. And be sure to let us know if there’s anything else we can do to help you get the maximum value from your investment. We’re listening. www.syngress.com/solutions
  3. 1 YEAR UPGRADE BUYER PROTECTION PLAN Webmaster’s Guide Wireless to the Internet Ryan Fife Wei Meng Lee Dan A. Olsen Technical Editor
  4. Syngress Publishing, Inc., the author(s), and any person or firm involved in the writing, editing, or production (collectively “Makers”) of this book (“the Work”) do not guarantee or warrant the results to be obtained from the Work. There is no guarantee of any kind, expressed or implied, regarding the Work or its contents.The Work is sold AS IS and WITHOUT WARRANTY. You may have other legal rights, which vary from state to state. In no event will Makers be liable to you for damages, including any loss of profits, lost savings, or other incidental or consequential damages arising out from the Work or its contents. Because some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages, the above limitation may not apply to you. You should always use reasonable care, including backup and other appropriate precautions, when working with computers, networks, data, and files. Syngress Media®, Syngress®, and “Career Advancement Through Skill Enhancement®,” are registered trademarks of Syngress Media, Inc. “Ask the Author UPDATE™,” “Mission Critical™,”“Hack Proofing™,” and “The Only Way to Stop a Hacker is to Think Like One™” are trademarks of Syngress Publishing, Inc. Brands and product names mentioned in this book are trademarks or service marks of their respective companies. KEY SERIAL NUMBER 001 NJ48USDNFV 002 MBLAU4TPTR 003 WDP9FUV3GB 004 56LNSXDKMF 005 2SNF438BMF 006 KGF8E45SJF 007 KXMPER9T3E 008 AMGPE94FGY 009 LE49ETVD9R 010 CERUT3HNTR PUBLISHED BY Syngress Publishing, Inc. 800 Hingham Street Rockland, MA 02370 Webmaster’s Guide to the Wireless Internet Copyright © 2001 by Syngress Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ISBN: 1-928994-46-6 Technical Editor: Dan A. Olsen Freelance Editorial Manager: Maribeth Corona-Evans Technical Reviewer: Richard Weeks Cover Designer: Michael Kavish Co-Publisher: Richard Kristof Page Layout and Art by: Shannon Tozier Acquisitions Editor: Catherine B. Nolan Copy Editors: Darren Meiss, Jesse Corbeil, and Adrienne Rebello Developmental Editor: Kate Glennon Indexer: Robert Saigh Distributed by Publishers Group West in the United States and Jaguar Book Group in Canada.
  5. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the following people for their kindness and support in making this book possible. Richard Kristof and Duncan Anderson of Global Knowledge, for their generous access to the IT industry’s best courses, instructors, and training facilities. Ralph Troupe, Rhonda St. John, and the team at Callisma for their invaluable insight into the challenges of designing, deploying, and supporting world-class enterprise networks. Karen Cross, Lance Tilford, Meaghan Cunningham, Kim Wylie, Harry Kirchner, Kevin Votel, Kent Anderson, and Frida Yara of Publishers Group West for sharing their incredible marketing experience and expertise. Mary Ging, Caroline Hird, Simon Beale, Caroline Wheeler,Victoria Fuller, Jonathan Bunkell, and Klaus Beran of Harcourt International for making certain that our vision remains worldwide in scope. Anneke Baeten and Annabel Dent of Harcourt Australia for all their help. David Buckland,Wendi Wong, Daniel Loh, Marie Chieng, Lucy Chong, Leslie Lim, Audrey Gan, and Joseph Chan of Transquest Publishers for the enthusiasm with which they receive our books. Kwon Sung June at Acorn Publishing for his support. Ethan Atkin at Cranbury International for his help in expanding the Syngress program. Gene Landy at Ruberto, Israel, & Weiner for his support and his honesty—and for occasionally picking up the tab.Thank you for your friendship Gene. v
  6. Contributors Ryan Fife is a Technical Architect for Yospace where he is building their developer outreach program.Yospace has a strong market reputation for the development and deployment of high quality, working wireless data solutions that add value even at the earliest stages of this market. Ryan is working to maintain this prestigious reputation and expand the number of developers who use Yospace products to build quality applications. He has been building wireless solutions for more than two years for clients that include large wireless companies such as Nokia and Ericsson. Prior to joining Yospace, Ryan co-founded AnywhereYouGo.com, a wire- less portal for developers that covered WAP, J2ME, SMS, i-Mode, and PDA technologies. Ryan also has architected and built large e-commerce systems in Java as a consultant for Electronic Data Systems (EDS). Ron Herardian is a leading expert in wireless software technology and messaging presently serving as Director of Product Strategy for ClickServices, Inc., a venture-backed Silicon Valley startup funded by Cisco Systems. Ron previously founded a wireless software startup, 3minder, Inc., that developed an integrated wireless and Internet mes- saging technology and which merged with ClickServices, Inc., in May of 2000. Before entering the wireless field, he served for five years as CEO and Chief Systems Architect for Global System Services Corporation (GSS), an infrastructure systems consulting firm providing a range of ser- vices in the areas of electronic messaging, directory services, and group- ware. At GSS, Ron provided technology strategies for Fortune 500 clients, as well as software and solution architectures for ISPs and infrastructure software vendors such as Netscape Communications. A California native, Ron holds various technical certifications and is the author of numerous technical papers and articles on wireless technology and electronic mes- saging, as well as a book on LAN-based e-mail. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Santa Clara University and a master’s degree from Stanford University. vii
  7. Rory Lysaght is a Mobile Device Specialist at Ripcord Systems, a wire- less startup based in Seattle and London. At Ripcord, Rory put together one of the first wireless GSM iPAQs in Europe. He has worked in Web and wireless development in the United States, Europe, and Japan. He has contributed articles to several online and paper publications, including Web Review and the EE Times. Prior to this, Rory worked as a photo- journalist, publishing numerous documentary stories in magazines in the same three continents. He is a member of the WAP forum and the Palm developer network. Rory is also a contributor to Syngress Publishing’s Palm OS Web Application Developer’s Guide (ISBN: 1-928994-32-6). He lives in Seattle,WA. Wei Meng Lee is Series Editor for Syngress Publishing’s .NET Developer Series. He is currently lecturing at The Center for Computer Studies, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore.Wei Meng is actively involved in Web development work and conducts training for Web developers and Visual Basic programmers. He has co-authored two books on WAP and holds a bachelor’s degree in Information Systems and Computer Science from the National University of Singapore.The first book in the .NET series, VB.NET Developer’s Guide (ISBN: 1-928994-48-2), is currently available from Syngress Publishing. viii
  8. Technical Editor and Contributor Dan A. Olsen is an independent Web technology consultant based in San Francisco, CA. He specializes in helping nonprofit organizations and small business people utilize Internet technology to make their internal processes more efficient and to communicate with their clients more easily. Dan formerly worked as an application developer and usability engineer for Informano Networks, a wireless Managed Services Provider located in Emeryville, CA. In this capacity, he handled all aspects of client-side development for a wide variety of devices including WAP and wireless mobile phones, PDAs, and desktop Web browsers. Prior to his venture into the world of wireless technology, Dan spent two years with Cox Interactive Media (CIM) as a Multimedia Developer and Web Technical Lead. During his tenure with CIM, he was the in- house technical resource for BayInsider.com, a San Francisco Bay Area portal. Under the umbrella of CIM, he developed, built, and maintained several Web sites for various local media partners and local events. Dan studied anthropology and new media communications at the University of Washington in Seattle. ix
  9. Technical Reviewer and Contributor Richard Weeks (B.Sc.) is Managing Director of brightfluid (www.brightfluid.com), a research consultancy that is studying the behavioral patterns of the users of mobile communications—the social and psychological triggers that accompany mobile phone usage. Richard’s background includes key positions at Grey Interactive Services Ltd. (UK) where he helped launch the Cartoon Network’s WAP site and AnywhereYouGo.com in the UK where he was Business Development Manager. Richard is a frequent contributor to various consumer and pro- fessional mobile publications and has appeared on CNN Financial as an expert in the field. His expertise extends from mobile phone technologies such as SMS and WAP through to wireless LAN, satellite communica- tions, and in-flight information delivery resulting in an all-round appreci- ation for all aspects of the wireless Internet phenomenon. x
  10. Contents Foreword xxv Answers to Your Chapter 1 Moving from the Web to Wireless 1 Wireless Questions Introduction 2 Explaining Wireless 2 Q: Will I have to learn Types of Wireless Connectivity 4 different programming if i-Mode comes to the Mobile Phones as Wireless Modems 8 United States? Packet Switched Networks 9 A: i-Mode uses a subset Future Networks 10 of HTML called Local and Personal Networks 11 Compact HTML Fixed Wireless Connectivity 13 (cHTML). Anyone familiar with HTML Evolving Mobile Devices 14 should have no Wireless Phones 15 problem learning this. Basic Mobile Phone Properties 15 However, there are signs that the industry PDAs 19 may move towards Palm OS Devices 21 XHTML as the Pocket PC Devices 23 preferred markup language for these Basic PDA Properties 24 devices. Laptop Computers 28 Basic Laptop Properties 29 Convergent and Future Mobile Wireless Devices 31 Something Old, Something New 33 Old Stuff:The Existing Internet 34 New Stuff: Mobile Connectivity 35 Moving from a Wired to a Wireless Internet 38 Rethinking User Interface and Interaction 39 xi
  11. xii Contents Recognizing Device Limitations 40 Adding Personalization 41 Summary 43 Solutions Fast Track 45 Frequently Asked Questions 48 Chapter 2 Wireless Architecture 51 Introduction 52 Components of a Wireless Network 52 The WAP Browser 53 The WAP Gateway 54 Corresponding WAP Protocols 54 Understanding Information Flow Using the Short through the Gateway 54 Message Service The Web Server 55 Adjusting the Metaphor for the Wireless Internet 56 The Short Message Service Considering the Mobile User 57 (SMS) allows you to send and receive messages of Complementing Your Web Offering 57 about 160 characters via Accepting the Challenge of WAP-Enabled your mobile phone using a Devices 57 GSM network. This is a relatively old technology Determining Device Capabilities 58 but is still quite popular. Testing Your Application on Various Devices 59 Adopting Wireless Standards 60 Options in Markup Languages 61 Wireless Markup Language 62 Compact HTML 62 Web Clipping 62 Handheld Device Markup Language 62 Using Wireless Networks and Their Evolving Generations 62 Noting the Market for Wireless Browsers and Other Applications 64 WAP Browsers 64 Java2 Micro Edition 65 i-Mode and cHTML 66 Palm Query Application 66 Web Browser 66
  12. Contents xiii Short Message Service 67 Summary 68 Solutions Fast Track 68 Frequently Asked Questions 70 Chapter 3 A New Markup: WML 73 Introduction 74 A Brief History of Wireless Content 74 Developing the Intelligent Terminal Transfer Protocol 74 Developing the Handheld Device Markup Language 75 Exploring the Developing the Tagged Text Markup Language 75 Element Forming the WAP Forum 75 The element Combining Languages into the specifies a name and value Wireless Markup Language 76 pair that will be sent to Projecting Future Growth 77 the server as part of a URL request. The following are WML Overview 77 attributes for the Creating Well-Formed Documents 78 element: Nesting 78 s name The name of the Creating Valid Documents 79 field. Using WML Syntax 83 s value The value of the Following Syntax Rules 84 field. Replacing Entities 84 Closing Elements 85 Characterizing the Element with Attributes 86 Case Sensitivity 86 Handling White Space 86 Commenting 87 Using Variables 87 Formatting Text 87 Displaying Fonts 88 Reserved Characters 89 Displaying Tables 90 Meta Information 91 Controlling Caching 91
  13. xiv Contents Bookmarking 92 Understanding the Deck of Cards Paradigm 92 WML Elements 93 Adding Attributes 93 The id and class Attributes 94 The Element 94 The Element 95 The Element 95 The Element 96 The Element 97 The Element 97 The Element 97 The Element 98 The Element 100 The Element 100 The Element 101 The Element 101 The Element 102 The Element 102 The Element 103 The Element 104 The Element 105 The Element 105 The Element 106 The Element 106 The Element 107 The Element 108 The Element 108 The Element 108 The Element 108 The Element 109 The Element 110 The Element 110 The Element 110 The Element 111 The Element 111
  14. Contents xv The Element 112 The Element 112 The Element 113 The Element 113 Creating WML Content 114 Navigating within the Deck 114 Getting Information from the User 115 Using Server-Side Programs to Create Dynamic WML 117 Using Openwave Extensions Introduce Context 120 Navigating Parent/Child Relationships Using Extensions 121 Using the and Extensions 123 Using the and Extensions 124 Using the Extension 124 Using the and Extensions 124 WML Editors,WAP SDKs, and Emulators 126 WML Editors 126 Other Editors 129 WAP SDKs 130 Ericsson WapIDE SDK 130 Motorola Mobile ADK 130 Nokia WAP Toolkit 130 Openwave UP.SDK 130 WAPObjects 131 WML Emulators 131 Summary 132 Solutions Fast Track 132 Frequently Asked Questions 135
  15. xvi Contents Chapter 4 Enhancing Client-Side Functionality with WMLScript 137 Introduction 138 What Is WMLScript? 138 Not All Phones Support WMLScript 138 WMLScript Compilation 140 How WMLScript Interacts with WML 140 Understanding the Basic Elements of WMLScript 141 Examining WMLScript Syntax 141 Examining WMLScript Data Types 142 Examining WMLScript Operators 143 Examining WMLScript Control Examining WMLScript Data Types Structures 146 Using WMLScript Libraries 147 WMLScript supports five Functions in the Class Libraries 148 built-in data types: Learning to Interpret WMLScript 148 s Integer Dissecting the Code 150 s Performing Mathematical Operations Using Floating Point WMLScript 151 s String Dissecting the Code 152 s Boolean Using WMLScript for Input Validation 153 s Invalid Dissecting the Code 155 Credit Card Validation 157 The Credit Card Validating Algorithm 157 Dissecting the Code 160 Using WMLScript and Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP): Case Study 162 Designing the Application 162 Creating the Database 163 The WML Deck 163 Generating the WMLScript Program from ASP 165 Debugging the WMLScript 170 Lessons Learned 173 Caching Problems 174
  16. Contents xvii Debugging the Emulators 174 Emulators Are Relatively Unstable! 174 Summary 175 Solutions Fast Track 175 Frequently Asked Questions 177 Chapter 5 Wireless Development Kits 179 Introduction 180 The Openwave UP.SDK 4.1 180 Installing Openwave UP.SDK 181 System Requirements for the Openwave UP.SDK 181 Using the Nokia WAP Obtaining the Openwave UP.SDK 182 Toolkit 2.1 Installing the Openwave UP.SDK 182 The Nokia WAP Toolkit is Working with the Openwave UP.SDK 183 an environment for Accessing and Editing Local Files 184 developing, viewing, and Accessing Files through a Gateway 186 testing WAP applications. It includes: Debugging Techniques 187 The Nokia WAP Toolkit 2.1 188 s Editing, validating, and viewing WML decks Installing Nokia’s WAP Toolkit 189 System Requirements for the Nokia s Editing and debugging WMLScript files WAP Toolkit 189 s Obtaining the Nokia WAP Toolkit 190 Viewing and changing WML variables inside Installing the Nokia WAP Toolkit 190 the WAP browser Working with the Nokia WAP Toolkit 191 s Examining debug Accessing and Editing Local Files 192 messages from the Accessing Files through a Gateway 195 WAP browser Debugging Techniques 196 s Creating and editing The Motorola Mobile Application WBMP images Development Kit 2.0 199 Installing the Motorola Mobile ADK 199 System Requirements for the Motorola Mobile ADK 199 Obtaining the Motorola Mobile ADK 201 Installing the Motorola Mobile ADK 201 Using the Mobile ADK 204 Accessing and Editing Local Files 206
  17. xviii Contents Accessing Files through a Gateway 207 Debugging Techniques 208 The Ericsson Mobile Internet WAP-IDE 3.1 209 Installing the Ericsson Mobile WAP-IDE 209 System Requirements for the Ericsson Mobile WAP-IDE 209 Obtaining the Ericsson Mobile WAP-IDE 210 Installing the Ericsson Mobile WAP-IDE 210 Working with the Ericsson Mobile WAP-IDE 211 Accessing and Editing Local Files 212 Accessing Files through a Gateway 214 Debugging Techniques 215 The Yospace SmartPhone Emulator 2.0 216 Installing the Yospace SmartPhone Emulator 216 System Requirements for the Yospace SmartPhone Emulator 217 Obtaining the Yospace SmartPhone Emulator 217 Installing the Yospace SmartPhone Emulator 217 Developing with the Yospace SmartPhone Emulator 218 Accessing and Editing Local Files 220 Accessing Files through a Gateway 220 Debugging Techniques 221 Summary 222 Solutions Fast Track 224 Frequently Asked Questions 227 Chapter 6 Web Clipping 229 Introduction 230 What Is Web Clipping? 231 The Components of Web Clipping 233 Client-Side Components 233
  18. Contents xix Server-Side Components 234 A Typical Web Clipping Transaction 235 What Types of Hardware Support Web Clipping 236 Palm VII/VIIx Connected via Mobitex 237 Other Handheld Devices Connected via CDPD 237 Palm-Compatible Handhelds Connected via the Mobile Internet Kit 238 Working with the Palm OS Emulator 239 Downloading and Installing the Emulator 239 Transferring a ROM Image 240 Creating a Web Obtaining ROM Images from Palm 242 Clipping Project with Starting the Emulator 242 the WCA Builder Connecting the POSE to the Internet 242 Creating a Web Clipping Project with the The WCA Builder has three WCA Builder 243 main options from the File menu: Open Index, Rescan Hello,World! 246 HTML, and Build PQA. Scanning the HTML 247 Creating the .pqa File 247 Installing and Uninstalling the Web Clipping Application on the POSE 248 Viewing the Web Clipping Application 249 Adding Images and Additional Pages to Your WCA 250 Web Clipping Basics 252 Unsupported Tags and Elements 252 Supported Tags and Elements 254 Using the Tag 255 Using the Tag 256 Using the Tag 257 Using the , , and Tags 257 Using the Tag 259 Using the , , and Tags 260 Using the and Tags 260 Using the , , and Tags 260 Using the – Tags 261
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