Wiley - Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies (2008)01

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Wiley - Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies (2008)01

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Wiley - Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies (2008)01

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  1. Microsoft SQL ® Server 2008 ® FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Mike Chapple
  2. Microsoft SQL ® Server 2008 ® FOR DUMmIES ‰
  3. Microsoft SQL ® Server 2008 ® FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Mike Chapple
  4. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 For Dummies® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2008 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permit- ted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, Making Everything Easier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and/ or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. SQL Server is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITH- OUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZA- TION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. For general information on our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002. For technical support, please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008933745 ISBN: 978-0-470-22465-6 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  5. About the Author Mike Chapple, MCDBA, CISA, CISSP is an IT professional with over ten years’ experience with SQL Server. He currently serves as an IT profes- sional with the University of Notre Dame, where he also teaches an undergraduate computer applications course. Mike actively participates as a subject matter expert in the SQL Server community and writes extensively on SQL Server at the About.com Guide to Databases. He also serves on the Center for Internet Security SQL Server security standard development team. Mike is a technical editor for Information Security Magazine and is author of several books, including Information Security Illuminated and the CISSP Prep Guide. Mike holds a BS in computer science from the University of Notre Dame, an MS in computer science from the University of Idaho, and an MBA from Auburn University.
  6. Dedication To my family: Renee, Richard, Matthew, and Christopher who lovingly put up with me during the hours I spent buried in my laptop writing this book. Author’s Acknowledgments I would like to thank Kyle Looper and Susan Christophersen, my editors at Wiley, who provided me with invaluable assis- tance throughout the book development process. I also owe a debt of gratitude to my literary agent, Carole Jelen of Waterside Productions. Doug Couch served as technical editor for this title and was a great source of advice as we worked through some of the more difficult portions of the book. I’d also like to thank the many people who participated in the production of this book but I never had the chance to meet: the graphics team, production staff, and all those involved in bringing this book to press.
  7. Publisher’s Acknowledgments We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our online registration form located at www.dummies.com/register/. Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following: Acquisitions, Editorial, and Composition Services Media Development Project Coordinator: Katherine Key Project Editor: Susan Christophersen Layout and Graphics: Carl Byers, Acquisitions Editor: Kyle Looper Reuben W. Davis Copy Editor: Susan Christophersen Proofreader: Toni Settle Technical Editor: Doug Couch Indexer: Broccoli Information Management Editorial Manager: Jodi Jensen Editorial Assistant: Amanda Foxworth Sr. Editorial Assistant: Cherie Case Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com) Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher Mary Bednarek, Executive Acquisitions Director Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director Publishing for Consumer Dummies Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher Joyce Pepple, Acquisitions Director Composition Services Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services
  8. Contents at a Glance Introduction ................................................................ 1 Part I: Welcome to SQL Server 2008 ............................. 7 Chapter 1: Introducing SQL Server 2008 ......................................................................... 9 Chapter 2: Building Your SQL Server ............................................................................ 19 Chapter 3: Working with SQL Server Tools .................................................................. 35 Part II: Building SQL Server 2008 Databases .............. 49 Chapter 4: Planning Your Database............................................................................... 51 Chapter 5: Creating Databases and Tables................................................................... 73 Chapter 6: Imposing Constraints and Relationships ................................................... 91 Part III: Retrieving Data from Databases................... 107 Chapter 7: Constructing Simple Database Queries ................................................... 109 Chapter 8: Joins and Other Advanced Queries .......................................................... 127 Chapter 9: Turning Data into Information with SQL Server Reporting Services ...................................................................................................... 143 Part IV: Inserting and Manipulating Your Data .......... 159 Chapter 10: Inserting, Updating, and Deleting Data .................................................. 161 Chapter 11: Saving Time with Functions, Stored Procedures, and Triggers.......... 175 Part V: SQL Server Administration ............................ 191 Chapter 12: Keeping Your SQL Server Running Smoothly ....................................... 193 Chapter 13: Automating SQL Server 2008 Administration........................................ 213 Chapter 14: Troubleshooting SQL Server 2008 Problems ........................................ 233 Chapter 15: Replicating Data across Multiple Servers .............................................. 249 Part VI: Protecting Your Data ................................... 269 Chapter 16: Protecting Your Data from Prying Eyes ................................................. 271 Chapter 17: Preserving the Integrity of Your Transactions ..................................... 293 Chapter 18: Preparing for Disaster .............................................................................. 305 Chapter 19: Staying Alive: High Availability in SQL Server 2008 ............................. 323 Chapter 20: Implementing Policy-Based Management with the Declarative Management Framework ............................................................................................ 339
  9. Part VII: The Part of Tens ......................................... 351 Chapter 21: Ten Ways to Keep Your SQL Server 2008 Databases Humming ......... 353 Chapter 22: Ten Database Design Tips ....................................................................... 359 Index ...................................................................... 363
  10. Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................. 1 About This Book .............................................................................................. 1 Conventions Used in This Book ..................................................................... 2 What You Are Not to Read ............................................................................. 2 Foolish Assumptions ....................................................................................... 3 How This Book Is Organized .......................................................................... 3 Icons Used in This Book ................................................................................. 5 Where to Go from Here ................................................................................... 5 Part I: Welcome to SQL Server 2008 ............................. 7 Chapter 1: Introducing SQL Server 2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Starting Off on the Right Foot ...................................................................... 10 Examining SQL Server editions .......................................................... 10 Checking system requirements.......................................................... 11 Understanding the Basic Components of SQL Server............................... 13 SQL and Transact-SQL......................................................................... 13 SQL Server components...................................................................... 13 Implementing Databases with SQL Server 2008 ........................................ 16 Setting up your server ......................................................................... 16 Stocking it with databases .................................................................. 16 Accessing and updating your data .................................................... 16 Managing and protecting what you’ve built ..................................... 17 What’s New in SQL Server 2008 ................................................................... 17 Declarative Management Framework ................................................ 17 Encryption and Auditing ..................................................................... 18 Resource conservation ....................................................................... 18 Date/Time Data Types ......................................................................... 18 Chapter 2: Building Your SQL Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Installing SQL Server 2008 ............................................................................ 19 Choosing between default and named instances ............................ 19 Selecting an authentication mode ..................................................... 20 Choosing service accounts ................................................................. 21 Selecting the collation ......................................................................... 21 Performing the installation ................................................................. 22
  11. xii Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies Upgrading an Existing SQL Server Installation .......................................... 25 Preparing for an upgrade with Upgrade Advisor............................. 26 Upgrading Your Installation ............................................................... 27 Configuring Database Mail ........................................................................... 28 Using SQL Server’s Built-In Databases ........................................................ 33 Master database ................................................................................... 33 The msdb database ............................................................................. 33 The model database ............................................................................ 34 The tempdb database ......................................................................... 34 Chapter 3: Working with SQL Server Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Using SQL Server Configuration Manager .................................................. 35 Launching SQL Server Configuration Manager ................................ 36 Starting and stopping services........................................................... 36 Changing service accounts ................................................................. 38 Changing service start modes ............................................................ 39 Modifying networking settings ........................................................... 40 Managing Your Server with SQL Server Management Studio .................. 43 Starting SSMS and connecting to an instance .................................. 43 Exploring the SSMS Interface ............................................................. 44 Issuing Transact-SQL queries ............................................................. 45 Working from the Command Line ............................................................... 46 Part II: Building SQL Server 2008 Databases ............... 49 Chapter 4: Planning Your Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Introducing Database Design Concepts...................................................... 51 Understanding the Elementsof a Database ................................................ 52 Database servers.................................................................................. 52 Organizing a Database .................................................................................. 55 Defining your database objectives .................................................... 55 Grouping data into tables ................................................................... 56 Selecting primary keys ........................................................................ 59 Linking related tables .......................................................................... 60 Diagramming Your Database ....................................................................... 61 Staying Fit and Trim with Normalization .................................................... 62 First normal form ................................................................................. 62 Second and third normal forms ......................................................... 63 Choosing Data Types for Your Tables ........................................................ 64 Numeric data types ............................................................................. 65 Date and time data types .................................................................... 66 Character string data types ................................................................ 68 Binary data types ................................................................................. 69 Other data types .................................................................................. 69 Working with NULL Values ........................................................................... 70
  12. Table of Contents xiii Chapter 5: Creating Databases and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Creating a Database ...................................................................................... 73 Altering database properties.............................................................. 77 Deleting or renaming a database ....................................................... 78 Specifying Files and Filegroups.................................................................... 80 SQL Server files .................................................................................... 80 Using filegroups ................................................................................... 83 Creating a Table ............................................................................................. 85 Getting started ..................................................................................... 85 Adding columns ................................................................................... 87 Selecting a primary key ....................................................................... 87 Modifying tables................................................................................... 89 Deleting tables ...................................................................................... 90 Chapter 6: Imposing Constraints and Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Introducing Constraints ................................................................................ 91 Controlling Database Contents Using Constraints .................................... 92 Filling in empty values with DEFAULT constraints ......................... 92 Enforcing Database Integrity...................................................................... 102 Enforcing uniqueness ........................................................................ 102 Enforcing referential integrity with FOREIGN KEY constraints ... 103 Part III: Retrieving Data from Databases ................... 107 Chapter 7: Constructing Simple Database Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Retrieving Data with SELECT Statements ................................................. 109 The SELECT. . .FROM clause............................................................. 110 The WHERE clause............................................................................. 112 Organizing Query Results ........................................................................... 118 Sorting output .................................................................................... 118 Summarizing data with aggregate functions .................................. 120 Grouping results ................................................................................ 123 Renaming columns in your output .................................................. 124 Chapter 8: Joins and Other Advanced Queries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Joining Data from Multiple Tables ............................................................ 127 Matching records with INNER JOINs ............................................... 128 Including nonmatching records with OUTER JOINs ..................... 131 Joining a table with itself .................................................................. 133 Taking SELECT to the Next Level .............................................................. 135 Computing values .............................................................................. 135 Managing complexity with subqueries ........................................... 137 Dealing with different cases ............................................................. 138
  13. xiv Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies Using Database Views ................................................................................. 139 Creating a view ................................................................................... 139 Modifying a view ................................................................................ 140 Deleting a view ................................................................................... 141 Chapter 9: Turning Data into Information with SQL Server Reporting Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Setting up SQL Server Reporting Services................................................ 143 Creating an SSRS Report with Report Builder ......................................... 146 Installing and starting Report Builder 2.0 ....................................... 147 Choosing a data source and data set .............................................. 147 Laying out the report ........................................................................ 150 Publishing the report ........................................................................ 154 Working with Deployed (Published) Reports .......................................... 154 Viewing reports .................................................................................. 155 Configuring report security .............................................................. 156 Part IV: Inserting and Manipulating Your Data .......... 159 Chapter 10: Inserting, Updating, and Deleting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Inserting Small Quantities of Data ............................................................. 161 Understanding simple data entry .................................................... 162 Writing INSERT statements .............................................................. 163 Modifying and Deleting Data ...................................................................... 164 Modifying data with UPDATE ........................................................... 164 Removing data from a database ...................................................... 165 Importing Large Quantities of Data ........................................................... 166 Inserting query results ...................................................................... 166 Copying bulk data with BULK INSERT............................................. 167 Performing blk operations from the command line with bcp ...... 168 Working with SQL Server Integration Services ........................................ 169 Chapter 11: Saving Time with Functions, Stored Procedures, and Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Reusing Logic with Functions .................................................................... 175 Understanding types of functions ................................................... 176 Leveraging SQL Server’s built-in functions .............................................. 177 Calling built-in functions ................................................................... 178 Obtaining a list of built-in functions ................................................ 179 Creating Your Own Functions .................................................................... 181 Reusing SQL Code with Stored Procedures ............................................. 183 Saving time with system stored procedures .................................. 184 Writing your own stored procedures .............................................. 185
  14. Table of Contents xv Updating Data Automatically with Triggers ............................................. 187 Creating a trigger ............................................................................... 188 Disabling a trigger .............................................................................. 189 Modifying and Deleting Functions, Stored Procedures, and Triggers.............................................................................................. 189 Modifying objects .............................................................................. 189 Deleting objects ................................................................................. 190 Part V: SQL Server Administration ............................. 191 Chapter 12: Keeping Your SQL Server Running Smoothly . . . . . . . . .193 Indexing Data to Improve Query Performance ........................................ 193 Using clustered indexes .................................................................... 194 Creating nonclustered indexes ........................................................ 194 Optimizing index performance ........................................................ 197 Improving Performance with Partitions ................................................... 198 Creating a partition function ............................................................ 199 Creating a partition scheme ............................................................. 200 Creating a partitioned table.............................................................. 201 Updating Database Statistics ..................................................................... 202 Automatically updating statistics .................................................... 202 Manually updating statistics ............................................................ 202 Managing File Sizes...................................................................................... 203 Automatically shrinking database files ........................................... 203 Manually shrinking a single database file ....................................... 204 Manually shrinking all files associated with a database ............... 204 Checking Database Integrity ...................................................................... 205 Running DBCC CHECKDB .................................................................. 205 Correcting integrity errors ............................................................... 206 Governing Resource Consumption ........................................................... 207 Creating resource pools .................................................................... 208 Creating workload groups ................................................................ 210 Creating classifier functions ............................................................. 211 Activating and deactivating Resource Governor ........................... 212 Chapter 13: Automating SQL Server 2008 Administration. . . . . . . . . .213 Scheduling Tasks with SQL Server Agent ................................................. 213 Starting SQL Server Agent................................................................. 214 Creating a SQL Server Agent job ...................................................... 215 Adding job steps to a SQL Server Agent job................................... 217 Scheduling a SQL Server Agent job ................................................. 220 Notifying someone when the job completes .................................. 222 Implementing Database Maintenance Plans ............................................ 222 Identifying the tasks to include in a maintenance plan ................ 223 Creating a maintenance plan ............................................................ 223
  15. xvi Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies Alerting Administrators about Database Events ..................................... 228 Configuring database operators ...................................................... 228 Creating SQL Server alerts ................................................................ 229 Chapter 14: Troubleshooting SQL Server 2008 Problems . . . . . . . . . .233 Understanding the Inner Workings of SQL Server Queries .................... 233 Creating a trace with SQL Server Profiler ....................................... 234 Reviewing trace results ..................................................................... 237 Reviewing Log Records ............................................................................... 238 SQL Server error log .......................................................................... 239 Windows Application Log ................................................................. 239 SQL Server Management Studio Log File Viewer ........................... 240 Monitoring Your Server with Performance Studio .................................. 241 Configuring Performance Studio ...................................................... 242 Reviewing performance data ............................................................ 244 Tuning Your Database with Database Engine Tuning Advisor .............. 246 Chapter 15: Replicating Data across Multiple Servers. . . . . . . . . . . .249 Understanding Replication ......................................................................... 250 Server roles......................................................................................... 250 Articles and publications .................................................................. 252 Replication types ............................................................................... 254 Publishing Data with Snapshot Replication ............................................. 258 Creating a distributor ........................................................................ 258 Creating a publication ....................................................................... 261 Subscribing to a Publication ...................................................................... 265 Monitoring Replication ............................................................................... 267 Part VI: Protecting Your Data.................................... 269 Chapter 16: Protecting Your Data from Prying Eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271 Creating and Managing Logins ................................................................... 271 Creating server logins ....................................................................... 272 Removing database logins ................................................................ 273 Adding Database Users ............................................................................... 273 Managing Rights with Roles ....................................................................... 275 Understanding fixed server roles .................................................... 275 Understanding fixed database roles ................................................ 277 Creating database roles .................................................................... 279 Assigning users to database roles ................................................... 282 Preserving Confidentiality with Encryption ............................................. 282 Encrypting database connections ................................................... 283 Encrypting stored data ..................................................................... 284
  16. Table of Contents xvii Auditing SQL Server Activity...................................................................... 287 Enabling and configuring auditing ................................................... 287 Reviewing audit records ................................................................... 291 Chapter 17: Preserving the Integrity of Your Transactions . . . . . . . .293 Preserving Transaction Integrity with the ACID Model .......................... 294 Atomicity............................................................................................. 294 Consistency ........................................................................................ 295 Isolation............................................................................................... 295 Durability ............................................................................................ 296 Creating SQL Server Transactions ............................................................ 296 COMMIT or ROLLBACK? ................................................................... 297 Testing Transact-SQL statements with transactions .................... 298 Changing the Transaction Isolation Level ................................................ 300 READ UNCOMMITTED ....................................................................... 300 READ COMMITTED ............................................................................ 301 REPEATABLE READ ........................................................................... 301 SERIALIZABLE..................................................................................... 302 SNAPSHOT .......................................................................................... 302 Handling Errors............................................................................................ 303 Chapter 18: Preparing for Disaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305 Backing Up Your Data ................................................................................. 305 Backing up databases ........................................................................ 306 Saving time with differential backups ............................................. 309 Saving space with backup compression ......................................... 310 Backing up the transaction log ........................................................ 312 Specifying Disaster Recovery Requirements with Recovery Models ......... 315 Choosing a recovery model .............................................................. 315 Changing recovery models ............................................................... 316 Restoring Your Data after a Disaster ........................................................ 317 Using Database Snapshots ......................................................................... 320 Creating a database snapshot .......................................................... 320 Accessing a database snapshot ....................................................... 321 Reverting to a database snapshot ................................................... 321 Chapter 19: Staying Alive: High Availability in SQL Server 2008 . . .323 Creating Redundancy with Database Mirroring ...................................... 324 Choosing an operating mode ........................................................... 325 Configuring mirroring........................................................................ 325 Monitoring Database Mirroring ....................................................... 330 Failing over a mirrored database ..................................................... 331 Synchronizing Databases with Log Shipping ........................................... 333 Configuring log shipping ................................................................... 333 Failing over to a log shipping secondary instance ........................ 337
  17. xviii Microsoft SQL Server 2008 For Dummies Chapter 20: Implementing Policy-Based Management with the Declarative Management Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339 Coming to Terms with DMF........................................................................ 340 Creating DMF Policies ................................................................................. 340 Creating a condition .......................................................................... 341 Creating a policy ................................................................................ 344 Using On Demand Execution Mode ........................................................... 346 Verifying policy compliance ............................................................. 347 Enforcing a policy manually ............................................................. 348 Automated Policy Enforcement ................................................................. 349 Viewing Policies Affecting a Target ........................................................... 350 Part VII: The Part of Tens ......................................... 351 Chapter 21: Ten Ways to Keep Your SQL Server 2008 Databases Humming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353 Monitor Query Performance ...................................................................... 353 Back Up Your Data Routinely..................................................................... 354 Verify Database Integrity Often ................................................................. 354 Tune the Physical Structure of Your Databases...................................... 354 Conserve Transaction Log Disk Space...................................................... 355 Monitor Database Logs ............................................................................... 355 Automate Administrative Alerts ................................................................ 356 Manage Multiple Servers ............................................................................ 356 Simplify User Rights Administration with Roles...................................... 356 Perform Security Reviews .......................................................................... 357 Chapter 22: Ten Database Design Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 Plan Ahead.................................................................................................... 359 Draw Before You Click ................................................................................ 360 Choose Primary Keys Carefully ................................................................. 360 Select Data Types with Space Efficiency in Mind .................................... 360 Make Sure Your Fields Are Single Purpose .............................................. 361 Remember the Meaning of NULL ............................................................... 361 Normalize when Possible ........................................................................... 361 Manage Your Relationships ....................................................................... 362 Use Descriptive Names ............................................................................... 362 Document Your Design ............................................................................... 362 Index ....................................................................... 363
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