Windows 7 Resource Kit- P17

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Windows 7 Resource Kit- P17

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  1. Managing Services Windows provides four main tools for managing services: n The Services snap-in (Services .msc) n Task Manager n Group Policy n The Sc .exe command Managing Services Using the Services Snap-in The Services snap-in in Windows 7 is the same as in Windows Vista . Compared to this snap-in in Windows XP, the main difference is that the Startup value for a service can be configured as Automatic (Delayed Start) on the General tab of the properties sheet for the service (see Figure 17-11) . FIgURE 17-11 Configuring a service for Delayed Start iMpoRtAnt Before configuring a service for Delayed Start, be sure that you understand the possible ramifications. Delayed Start does not provide any time guarantee for when a delayed service will start after the boot process finishes, and if a client application attempts to use the service before it starts, the client application may fail. This means that client applications should be designed to start up the service on demand if they need the service before the Delayed Start sequence starts it. In addition, if a particular service is configured for Delayed Start and SCM detects other services that depend on this service, SCM will ignore the Delayed Start setting on the service and will start it during the boot process. Understanding Services CHapTER 17 753 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  2. The only other change from Windows XP is the option of enabling actions for stops with errors . This option can be configured on the Recovery tab, and configuring it enables detec- tion of and recovery from nonfatal errors . Managing Services Using Task Manager A Services tab was added to Task Manager in Windows Vista and is still available in Windows 7 (see Figure 17-12) . This tab allows you to: n View the name, Process Identifier (PID), description (which is actually the service’s friendly name), status (running or stopped), and service group for all services running on the system . n Stop or start a service by right-clicking it and then selecting the appropriate option . n View the process within which a service is running by right-clicking the service and then selecting Go To Process . FIgURE 17-12 The Services tab in Task Manager note To view the process associated with a service, you should first click the Show processes From all Users button on the processes tab. This is a necessary step because many services run within an SvcHost.exe process to reduce the memory footprint that would result if each service ran separately. after processes for all users are displayed on the processes tab, right-click a service that has a pID number on the Services tab and then select Go To process. The focus will switch to the processes tab and highlight the SvcHost.exe process used to host that particular service. 754 CHapTER 17 Managing Devices and Services Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  3. Managing Services Using Group policy You can use Group Policy to configure the startup state (Automatic, Manual, or Disabled) and ACLs for services in the same way that you do this on previous versions of Windows . A policy setting for each system service on a computer can be found under the following node: Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\System Services Managing Services Using the Sc.exe Command You can use the Sc .exe command to start, stop, configure, and manage various aspects of services in the same way that you can on earlier versions of Windows . The Sc .exe command provides administrators with far more flexibility in configuring services than the Services snap-in or Group Policy . The Sc .exe command was previously enhanced in Windows Vista with additional command-line switches, including the following: n New switches for specifying required privileges for a service, including: • privs Sets the required privileges for a service • qprivs Queries for the required privileges of a service n New switches that support per-service SIDs, including: • sidtype Changes a service’s SID • qsidtype Retrieves the setting for a service’s SID n New switches to enable configuration of the FailureActionsOnNonCrashFailures setting, including: • failureflag Changes the setting of the FailureActionsOnNonCrashFailures flag • qfailureflag Retrieves the setting for the FailureActionsOnNonCrashFailures flag • showsid Displays the service SID string corresponding to an arbitrary name • stop This is an old setting that was enhanced in Windows Vista to specify the stop reason . This setting enables postmortem reliability analysis to find an administra- tor’s reasons (by examining the event logged by SCM with the stop reason) for stopping a service . New in Windows 7 are command options for Sc .exe that allow configuring and querying a service for supported triggers . For information about how to use these new command options, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Sc .exe Command Support for Service Triggers” later in this chapter . For more information about the command-line switches for Sc .exe, type sc /? at a command prompt . Understanding Services CHapTER 17 755 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  4. diReCt FRoM tHe SoURCe Sc.exe Command Support for Service Triggers CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team T he Sc.exe command-line tool has been updated for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 to include the triggerinfo command option for configuring a service for supported triggers and the qtriggerinfo command option for querying the trigger information for a service. The syntax for the triggerinfo option is as follows. sc triggerinfo [service name] ... possible parameters for the -triggerinfo command option are as follows: n start/device/UUID/HwId1/… Starts the service on arrival of the specified device interface class UUID string with one or more hardware ID strings and/or compatible ID strings. n start/custom/UUID/data0/… Starts the service on arrival of an event from the specified custom ETW provider UUID string with one or more binary data items in hexadecimal string format, such as aBCDaBCD to set 4-byte data. n stop/custom/UUID/data0/… Stops the service on arrival of an event from the specified custom ETW provider UUID string with one or more binary data items in hexadecimal string format, such as aBCDaBCD to set 4-byte data. n start/strcustom/UUID/data0/… Starts the service on arrival of an event from the specified custom ETW provider UUID string with one or more optional string data items. n stop/strcustom/UUID/data0/… Stops the service on arrival of an event from the specified custom ETW provider UUID string with one or more optional string data items. n start/networkon Starts the service on first Ip address. n stop/networkoff Stops the service on zero Ip addresses. n start/domainjoin Starts the service if a domain member. n stop/domainleave Stops the service if not a domain member. n start/portopen/parameter Starts the service on the opening of a network port. The parameter is of the semicolon-delimited form portnumber;protocol name;imagepath;servicename. n stop/portclose/parameter Stops the service on the closing of a network port. The parameter is of the semicolon-delimited form portnumber;protocol name;imagepath;servicename. 756 CHapTER 17 Managing Devices and Services Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  5. n start/machinepolicy Starts the service when machine group policy changes or is present at boot. n start/userpolicy Starts the service when user group policy changes or is present at boot. n delete Deletes the existing trigger parameters. Using the sc -qtriggerinfo command and the Windows Time (W32Time) service as an example, you can see that this service is configured to start when the system is joined to a domain and stop when the system is not joined to a domain. C:\Windows\system32>sc qtriggerinfo w32time [SC] QueryServiceConfig2 SUCCESS SERVICE_NAME: w32time START SERVICE DOMAIN JOINED STATUS: 1ce20aba-9851-4421-9430-1ddeb766e809 [DOMAIN JOINED] STOP SERVICE DOMAIN JOINED STATUS: ddaf516e-58c2-4866-9574-c3b615d42ea1 [NOT DOMAIN JOINED] For all services that specify trigger actions, a TriggerInfo subkey is created in the registry in the service configuration key, which is located at: HKEY_LOCaL_MaCHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\ The TriggerInfo registry key for the Windows Time service is shown here. The first trigger is assigned a subkey of 0, selected in the image above. The 0 subkey for the Windows Time service indicates the Start trigger action. The second trigger action is assigned a subkey of 1. For the Windows Time service, the second trigger is used for the Stop trigger action. Understanding Services CHapTER 17 757 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  6. The following values are contained within the TriggerInfo subkey(s): n Value Name: action Value Type: REG_DWORD Description: Specifies the action to take when triggered: • 0x00000001 = Service Start • 0x00000002 = Service Stop n Value Name: GUID Value Type: REG_BINaRY! Description: a GUID may be specified if it applies to the trigger type. For a device arrival trigger, the interface class GUID would be specified. For an ETW event trigger, the ETW provider GUID would be specified. n Value Name: Type Value Type: REG_DWORD Description: Specifies the type of trigger: • 0x00000001 = Device arrival trigger • 0x00000002 = Ip address trigger • 0x00000003 = Domain join trigger • 0x00000020 = Custom trigger Note that for Trigger Start services, the Start value should be 0x00000003 to specify the Demand-Start Startup Type. also, the Startup Type for Demand-Start services is listed as Manual in the Services MMC console. Summary Windows 7 provides an improved device installation experience for users that always searches Windows Update for the latest compatible drivers when a device is connected to the computer . The new Devices And Printers folder and Device Stage make it easier than ever for users to install, configure, and use both wired and wireless devices . Windows 7 also includes significant improvements in energy efficiency that increase battery life for mobile computers and can help businesses reduce their electric bills . Finally, Windows 7 includes support for Trigger Start of services to reduce the memory footprint, reduce the attack surface, and increase the boot- and run-time performance of Windows computers . 758 CHapTER 17 Managing Devices and Services Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  7. Additional Resources These resources contain additional information and tools related to this chapter . Related Information n “Device Management and Installation” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us /library/cc766437.aspx . n “Power Management in Windows 7 Overview” found at http://technet.microsoft.com /en-us/library/dd744300.aspx . n “What's New in Service Accounts” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library /dd367859.aspx . n “What's New in Services” found at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library /dd405528.aspx . n “Service Accounts Step-by-Step Guide” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us /library/dd548356.aspx . n “Windows Logo'd Products List updated for Windows 7” found at http://winqual.microsoft.com/HCL/Default.aspx . n “Windows Logo Program” found at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/winlogo /default.mspx. n “Microsoft Hardware Support for Windows 7” found at http://www.microsoft.com /hardware/windows7/support.mspx. n Device Management and Installation Step-by-Step Guide: “Controlling Device Driver Installation and Usage with Group Policy” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us /library/cc731387.aspx. n Device Management and Installation Step-by-Step Guide: “Signing and Staging Device Drivers in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008” found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc754052.aspx. n Device Management and Installation Operations Guide found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc753759.aspx. n “Overview of Device and Driver Installation” (from the Windows Driver Kit) found at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms791091.aspx . n “Device and Driver Technologies” (from the Windows Driver Kit) found at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa972913.aspx . n “Device Identification Strings” (from the Windows Driver Kit) found at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms791083.aspx . n “How Setup Ranks Drivers (Windows Vista and Later)” found at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa477022.aspx. Additional Resources CHapTER 17 759 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  8. On the Companion Media n AcceptPause .ps1 n AutoServicesNotRunning .ps1 n ChangMmodeThenStart .ps1 n ChangeServiceAccountLogon .ps1 n CheckServiceThenStart .ps1 n CheckServiceAThenStop .ps1 n CountRunningServices .ps1 n EvaluateServices .ps1 n FindPortableDeviceEvents .ps1 n GetMultipleServices .ps1 n GetServiceStatus .ps1 n MonitorService .ps1 n ServiceDependencies .ps1 n StartMultipleServices .ps1 n StopMultipleServices .ps1 760 CHapTER 17 Managing Devices and Services Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  9. CHAPTER 18 Managing printing n Enhancements to Printing in Windows 7 761 n How Printing Works in Windows 7 765 n Understanding the Print Management Console 772 n Managing Printers Using Print Management 782 n Client-Side Management of Printers 792 n Managing Client-Side Printer Experience Using Group Policy 800 n Deploying Printers Using Group Policy 806 n Migrating Print Servers 812 n Monitoring and Troubleshooting Printers 816 n Summary 818 n Additional Resources 818 P revious to the introduction of the Windows 7 operating system, the Windows Vista operating system included enhanced capabilities for printing to provide high-fidelity print output, better print performance, improved manageability of printers and print servers, integrated support for XML Paper Specification (XPS), and the Windows Color System (WCS), which provides a richer color-printing experience . The Windows 7 operating system builds on these earlier printing improvements by adding Location-Aware Printing, printer driver isolation, configurable default spooler security settings, and an improved Point and Print experience for users . This chapter describes the printing capabilities of Windows 7 and how to manage printers in enterprise environments . Enhancements to Printing in Windows 7 The printing subsystem in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 builds on the print- ing improvements made previously in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, so we will discuss the improvements that were introduced in the earlier versions of the operat- ing systems in the next section, followed by a section that describes the new printing features that have now been added in Windows 7 . 761 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  10. printing Enhancements previously Introduced in Windows Vista A number of print subsystem, print management, and printing experience improvements were first introduced in Windows Vista, and these continue to be included in Windows 7 . The new features and enhancements to printing in Windows Vista were as follows: n Integrated support for XPS Windows Vista includes support for XPS, which is a set of conventions for using Extensible Markup Language (XML) to describe the content and appearance of paginated documents . n XPS print path In addition to supporting the Graphics Device Interface (GDI) print path used by earlier versions of Windows, the printing architecture of Windows Vista includes a print path that uses XPS as a document format, a Windows spool file format, and a page description language (PDL) for printers . n XPS document graphics fidelity and performance The XPS document printing capability in Windows Vista supports vector-based graphics that can be scaled to a high degree without creating jagged or pixilated text, producing high-fidelity print output for graphics-rich documents . An XPS document is created by default when you print from any application running on Windows Vista, and you can print this document without rendering it again to an XPS-capable printer . Therefore, you can reduce print processing time by as much as 90 percent compared with printing in previous versions of Windows, depending on the richness of the content being printed and the capabili- ties of the printer . n Microsoft XPS Document Writer Windows Vista includes the Microsoft XPS Docu- ment Writer, which you can use through any Windows application to print graphics- rich application output as XPS documents . You can then view these documents in Windows Internet Explorer by using the Microsoft XPS Viewer or by printing them directly to an XPS-capable printer without rendering them again . n Client-Side Rendering (CSR) By default, Windows Vista renders print jobs on the client instead of the print server . This can significantly reduce print processing times when printing to XPS-capable printers . CSR works on non-XPS printers as well and is useful for reducing CPU and memory load on the server (servers can host more queues); it also reduces network traffic for some drivers . n Resource Reuse XPS documents include the capability of rendering an image once and reusing the rendered image when it appears on multiple pages of a print job . This can reduce the print processing time for documents that have graphics-rich corporate logos and reduces the amount of data sent over the network to remote printers . n Windows Color System Windows Color System (WCS) works with the Windows Vista print subsystem to provide a richer color-printing experience that supports wide- gamut printers (inkjet printers that use more than four ink colors) for lifelike printing of color photos and graphics-rich documents . 762 CHapTER 18 Managing Printing Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  11. n Print Management Print Management, a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that was first included in Windows Server 2003 R2, is installed by default on Windows Vista, allowing administrators to manage printers, print servers, and print jobs easily across an enterprise . Print Management in Windows Vista has also been enhanced with new capabilities . n Network Printer Installation Wizard Windows Vista replaces the Add Printer Wizard, which was used in previous versions of Windows, with the Network Printer Installation Wizard, which is easier to use and has new capabilities . This new wizard makes it easier for users to connect to remote printers and to local printers that are not Plug and Play . n Non-admin printer installation Standard users (that is, users who are not local administrators on their computers) can install printers without requiring administrative privileges or elevation at a User Account Control (UAC) prompt . n Deploying and managing printers using group Policy Using Group Policy to de- ploy printer connections—first introduced in Windows Server 2003 R2—was enhanced in Windows Vista by eliminating the requirement to prepare client computers first using a startup script that installs PushPrinterConnections .exe client software on them . New policy settings have also been added in Windows Vista to enhance the capability of managing printers and printing using Group Policy . You can also use the Group Policy Results Wizard in the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) to display Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) for deployed printers . n Assigning printers based on location In Windows Vista, you can assign printers based on location by deploying printers using Group Policy and linking Group Policy objects (GPOs) to sites in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) . When mobile users move to a different site, Group Policy updates their printer connections for the new location; when the users return to their primary site, their original default printers are restored . n Easier printer migration You can use a new Printer Migration Wizard (including a command-line version called PrintBRM) to back up printer configurations on print servers, move printers between print servers, and consolidate multiple print servers onto a single server . additional printing Enhancements in Windows 7 In addition to the previously listed printing improvements first introduced in Windows Vista, printing in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 has now been enhanced in the following ways: n XPS printing system The XPS printing system has been enhanced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 by the inclusion of a new rendering service for XPS printer drivers, new application programming interfaces (APIs), XPS Viewer enhancements, and miscellaneous performance enhancements . For information concerning one of these enhancements, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: New Rasterization Service for Print Drivers” later in this chapter . Enhancements to Printing in Windows 7 CHapTER 18 763 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  12. n Devices And Printers Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 include a new item on the Start menu and Control Panel called Devices And Printers, which provides a single, central location where users can interact with all of the devices connected to their computer . Devices And Printers can display different types of devices, includ- ing universal serial bus (USB), WiFi, and Bluetooth devices . Devices And Printers also integrates with Device Stage, a new feature of Windows 7 that makes it easier for users to connect, recognize, and use their devices . For more information about Devices And Printers, see the section titled “Using Devices and Printers” later in this chapter . For more information about Device Stage, see Chapter 17, “Managing Devices and Services .” n Installing printer drivers using Windows Update The Add Printer Driver Wizard has been enhanced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 to enable download- ing of additional printer drivers directly from the Windows Update Web site . This change also means that fewer in-box printer drivers need to be included in Windows . It also makes the Point and Print experience for users easier because if a compatible in-box driver is not found when installing a printer, Windows Update is silently queried for a compatible driver to complete the installation . For more information about this feature, see the sections titled “Managing Printer Drivers” and “Extending Point and Print Using Windows Update” later in this chapter . n Cross-platform Point and Print Improvements to the Point and Print experience now make it easy for users having Windows 7 computers running different proces- sor architectures (x86 or x64) to share their printers . For more information about this feature, see the section titled “Extending Point and Print Using Windows Update” later in this chapter . n location-Aware Printing This feature allows mobile users running Windows 7 on their laptop computers to set a different default printer for each configured net- work location . For more information about this feature, see the section titled “Using Location-Aware Printing” later in this chapter . n Printer driver isolation This enhancement to the printing subsystem in Windows Server 2008 R2 can increase the stability of print servers by allowing administrators to isolate unstable printer drivers in a separate process instead of within the spooler pro- cess . When this is done and an unstable printer driver crashes, the crash doesn’t halt the spooler, which will stop all other printers from functioning on the server . For more information about this feature, see the sections titled “Understanding Printer Driver Isolation” and “Configuring Printer Driver Isolation Mode” later in this chapter . n Custom default security settings for print servers Administrators can now define custom default security settings on Windows Server 2008 R2 print servers that apply to all printers installed on the print server . For more information about this feature, see the section titled “Configuring Default Security for Print Servers” later in this chapter . n Print Management enhancements The Print Management MMC snap-in has been enhanced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 with new functionality that allows administrators to configure default security settings for print servers and printer driver 764 CHapTER 18 Managing Printing Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  13. isolation settings . The filtering capabilities of custom filters have also been enhanced with additional filter criteria to make filtering more powerful . For more information concerning these enhancements, see the section titled “Enhancements to the Print Management Console in Windows 7” later in this chapter . n PrintBRM The PrintBRM command-line tool has been enhanced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 to provide more flexibility and improved instrumentation for the administrator . For more information concerning these improvements, see the sidebar titled “Direct from the Source: Enhancements to PrintBRM in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2” later in this chapter . How Printing Works in Windows 7 Understanding how printing works in Windows 7 is important for administrators who need to know how to configure, manage, and troubleshoot printers and printing on this platform . The key topics to understand are: n XPS n The Windows printing subsystem Understanding XpS XPS is a platform-independent, royalty-free, open-standard document format developed by Microsoft that uses XML, Open Packaging Conventions (OPC), and other industry standards to create cross-platform documents . XPS was designed to simplify the process for creating, sharing, viewing, printing, and archiving digital documents that are accurate representations of application output . Using APIs provided by the Windows SDK and the Microsoft .NET Framework 3 .0, developers can create Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) applications that take advantage of XPS technologies . XPS support, which is native to Windows Vista and later versions, allows users to open XPS documents in Internet Explorer 7 .0 or higher and to generate XPS documents from any Windows application using the Microsoft XPS Document Writer . When you install additional features, some earlier versions of Windows can also use some of the capabilities of XPS: n By installing the .NET Framework 3 .0 redistributable on Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) or Windows Server 2003, users of these platforms can open XPS documents using Internet Explorer 6 .0 or later versions . n By installing Microsoft Core XML Services 6 .0 on Windows XP SP2 or later versions, users can generate XPS documents from any Windows application using the Microsoft XPS Document Writer . n By installing the Microsoft XPS Essentials Pack and Microsoft Core XML Services 6 .0 on Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, users can open XPS documents in a stand-alone XPS Viewer application . How Printing Works in Windows 7 CHapTER 18 765 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  14. note You can download these additional features from the Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads. You can find detailed information on XPS in the version 1 .0 document for this specification at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/xps/downloads.mspx on Microsoft Windows Hardware Developer Central (WHDC) . You can find additional news concerning this specification on the XPS Team Blog at http://blogs.msdn.com/xps/ . Understanding the Windows printing Subsystem The print subsystem on versions of Windows earlier than Windows Vista used the GDI print path . The GDI print path processes print jobs as follows: n Client processes When a user on a client computer sends a print job from an ap- plication, the application calls the GDI, which then calls the printer driver for informa- tion about how to render the print job in a format that the printer can understand . The printer driver resides on the user’s computer and is specific to the type of printer being used . After the GDI renders the print job, it sends the job to the spooler . By default on Windows 2000 and later versions, the GDI renders print jobs using the Enhanced Metafile (EMF) format, a standard print job format that is highly portable but needs to be further rendered by the spooler before being sent to the printer . When an EMF print job is sent to the spooler, control returns to the user and the spooler then com- pletes rendering the job for printing . (Because the EMF job is quickly handed off to the spooler, the time during which the user’s computer is busy is minimized .) n Spooler processes The print spooler is a collection of features that resides on both the client computer that sends the print job and a network print server that receives the job for printing . The spooler takes the job as rendered by the GDI and, if necessary, renders it further to ensure that it prints correctly . The spooler then hands the job off to the printer . n Printer processes The printer receives the print job from the spooler, translates it into a bitmap, and prints the document . Beginning with Windows Vista, the printing subsystem still includes a GDI print path (for Type 3 – User Mode) to support printing to existing printers . Kernel-mode GDI (Type 2 – Kernel Mode) drivers, however, are no longer supported . note Type 3 (User Mode) means that the driver is compatible with Windows 2000, Windows Xp, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008 R2. 766 CHapTER 18 Managing Printing Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  15. Beginning with Windows Vista, the printing subsystem also includes a second print path that is based on XPS . This additional print path, called the XPS print path, is built on the XPS printer driver model (XPSDrv) and provides the following benefits over the GDI model: n Maintains the XPS document format from the point when an application sends a print job to the final processing by the print driver or device . By comparison, the GDI print path first renders the job into EMF, and then the print driver or device renders the job a second time into the language the printer can understand . n The XPS print path can be more efficient and can provide support for advanced color profiles, which include 32 bits per channel (bpc), CMYK, named colors, n-inks, and na- tive support of transparency and gradients when XPS-capable printers are being used . n Provides “what you see is what you get” (WYSIWYG) printing . Applications can print documents in Windows Vista and later versions by using either the GDI or XPS print path . For example, if a Win32 application sends the print job to a print queue that uses a GDI-based print driver, the print job is processed using the same GDI print path used in previous versions of Windows . However, if a WPF application sends the job to a print queue that uses a new XPSDrv print driver, the job is spooled using the XPS Spool File format and is processed using the XPS print path . The print path taken by the print job is therefore determined by the type of printer driver (GDI-based or XPSDrv) installed on the target print queue . Figure 18-1 illustrates the two print paths (GDI and XPS) available in Windows Vista and later versions . Although not shown in the diagram, both of these paths use the same Print Spooler service (%SystemRoot%\System32\spoolsv .exe) . Depending on the presentation system of the application from which the document is being printed, the print job might need to be converted before being spooled in the target print path . For example, when you print from a Win32 application to an XPS-capable printer, GDI spooling functions must perform GDI-to-XPS conversion, which simulates a WPF applica- tion and spools the job in XPS Spool File format . Similarly, when you print from a WPF appli- cation to a legacy GDI-based printer, the WPF Print Support functions must perform XPS-to- GDI conversion, which simulates GDI calls by a Win32 application and spools the job in EMF format . These two conversion technologies are built into Windows Vista and later versions for maximum application compatibility when printing from different kinds of applications to either legacy or XPS-capable printers . How Printing Works in Windows 7 CHapTER 18 767 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  16. Win32 Application Windows Presentation using GDI graphics Foundation Application Windows Presentation Spooling Functions WinFX Foundation Print Support Runtime EMF XPS Print Print Spool Spool Spooler Spooler File File EMF Print Filter 1 Processor Version 3 Filter Print Driver Configuration File Filter 2 Printer GDI Graphics Rendering Engine DLL Filter n PDL to printer Filter Pipeline Manager Print Filter Print Subsystem Pipeline Service GDI Print Path XPS Print Path FIgURE 18-1 GDI and XPS print paths in Windows Vista and later versions For more information on the XPS print path and XPSDrv print drivers, see the white paper titled “The XPSDrv Filter Pipeline” on WHDC at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/print /XPSDrv_FilterPipe.mspx . diReCt FRoM tHe SoURCe New Rasterization Service for Print Drivers CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team T he XpS print path, introduced in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, did not provide any rendering services and therefore placed a higher burden on vendors developing drivers with support for the XpS print path. Rendering services provide the ability within the printing subsystem to convert a print job into a format that can be sent to the printer. In the GDI print path, the operating system provides 768 CHapTER 18 Managing Printing Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  17. rendering services that support conversion to raster, printer control language (pCL), postScript, and Hp-GL for output. a rasterization service enables printer drivers to render a print job and send it to the printer in pDL format. In Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the XpS Rasterization service (XpSRas) provides print driver developers with the capability to rasterize XpS content in the Windows print path. This service enables printer driver developers to provide better support for printers and other document peripherals on the Windows platform and provides an XpS service that is better than the raster- ization capability provided in previous versions of Windows. Understanding printer Driver Isolation Printer driver isolation is a new feature of the printing subsystem in both Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that can increase the stability of print servers by allowing admin- istrators to isolate unstable printer drivers within a separate PrintIsolationHost .exe process instead of within the spooler process . The advantage of doing this is that when an unstable printer driver crashes, the crash doesn’t halt the spooler, which would stop all other printers from functioning on the print server . When the Print Server role service of the Print and Document Services server role is in- stalled on Windows Server 2008 R2, each printer driver on the print server can run in one of three possible driver Isolation modes: n None In this mode, the printer driver will run in the spooler process and not in a separate process . If a driver crashes, the spooler will crash, and administrators must restart the Print Spooler service . All print queues on the server will be offline while the spooler is offline . This mode is the only option on Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows 2008 print servers . n Shared The printer driver will run in a separate process with all of the other drivers that are also configured in Shared mode . If the driver crashes, the spooler will not crash, but all print queues with drivers in the shared process will be offline (print queues with drivers in isolated processes or within the spooler process will remain online) . The shared process will be recycled, the drivers in it will be restarted, and the queues associated with these drivers will return to the online state . n Isolated In this mode, the printer driver will run by itself in a separate process iso- lated from all other drivers . If the driver crashes, only the print queue associated with this driver will be offline . The isolated process will be recycled, the print queue will be restarted, and the queue associated with the driver will return to the online state . No other print queues or drivers on the server will be affected by this crash/restart . How Printing Works in Windows 7 CHapTER 18 769 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  18. Therefore, a Windows Server 2008 R2 print server can have the following: n Legacy mode (always present) n Shared process (always present) n One or more isolated processes (optional) note The default driver Isolation mode for in-box printer drivers in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 is Shared, whereas the default driver Isolation mode for virtual printer drivers (such as the Microsoft XpS Document Writer), fax, and print-to-file drivers (such as print To OneNote) is None. Group policy and .inf settings can override these System Default driver isolation settings. For more information, see the section titled “Configuring printer Driver Isolation Mode” later in this chapter. Printer vendors can indicate whether a particular printer driver that they provide has been tested and verified to support running in a shared or isolated process . They can do this by adding a DriverIsolation entry in the Version section of the .inf file for the driver . For example, the following .inf file entry indicates that the driver does not support running in a separate (shared or isolated) process . [Version] … DriverIsolation=0 The following .inf entry indicates that the driver can be run in a separate process . [Version] … DriverIsolation=2 note The values 1 and 3 for DriverIsolation are reserved for future use. any value other than DriverIsolation=2 assumes DriverIsolation=0. Regardless of whether this .inf file entry is present or what its value is, administrators can override this setting and configure driver Isolation mode for any print driver by using the Print Management console . Administrators can also configure global driver isolation settings by using Group Policy . For information on how to configure driver isolation using Print Man- agement and Group Policy, see the section titled “Configuring Printer Driver Isolation Mode” later in this chapter . 770 CHapTER 18 Managing Printing Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  19. note print servers might experience a small degradation of performance when driver isolation is implemented due to the increased number of processes running on the system and the additional interprocess communication overhead incurred when the driver calls spooler functions, and vice versa. additional temporary performance degradation might also be incurred when a new process is created or needs to be recycled. This performance degradation is much more evident when there are many drivers running in Isolated mode than when using Shared mode. diReCt FRoM tHe SoURCe Printer Driver Isolation CSS Global Technical Readiness (GTR) Team T he printer Driver isolation feature of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 allows some print driver functionality to be executed in a process, or processes, separate from the print spooler. By invoking print drivers in a separate process, problems associated with faulty print drivers are isolated from the print Spooler ser- vice and will not cause it to fail. In addition, the ability to isolate print drivers from each other further increases the reliability of the printing system. prior to Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the failure of third-party drivers was a leading print server support issue at Microsoft. The crash of a driver loaded into the print spooler process would crash the process, leading to an outage of the entire printing system. The impact of a spooler crash on a print server is particularly significant because of the number of users and printers that are typically affected. In addition to the benefit of improving overall printing system stability, this new feature provides a means to: n Isolate new drivers for testing and debugging without affecting the spooler. n Identify which drivers have been causing spooler crashes. The printer Driver isolation feature is not intended to isolate print driver function- ality from applications other than the print spooler. If an application loads a print driver into its own process space and the driver crashes, then the application might crash as well. For example, if an application directly calls into a printer’s configura- tion module to set or get print capabilities, a failure in the configuration module will crash the application itself. In this scenario, the application is directly loading the printer driver into its process space. If the print driver’s rendering module is loaded in the process space of the application, a failure in the driver will again cause a crash of the application itself. How Printing Works in Windows 7 CHapTER 18 771 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
  20. Understanding the Print Management Console Print Management is a snap-in for the MMC that administrators can use to manage multiple printers and print servers on a network . Using the Print Management console, an administrator can manage hundreds of print servers and thousands of print queues on Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008 . note The print Management console is designed as a general systems-management tool for administering print servers and print queues. For Help desk scenarios or printer-specific troubleshooting, however, enterprises might need to use vendor-supplied tools from printer manufacturers. Enhancements to the print Management Console in Windows 7 The Print Management console was introduced in Windows Server 2003 R2 and was en- hanced in a number of ways in Windows Vista: n Network Printer Installation Wizard The Add Printer Wizard used in earlier versions of Windows has been replaced by the Network Printer Installation Wizard, which can automatically search the network for TCP/IP printers and Web Services for Devices (WSD) printers and add them to the print server . You can also use the wizard to manually add TCP/IP and WSD printers, add printers to an existing port, or add a new port and a new printer . n All Drivers filter The new All Drivers filter displays details concerning all installed printer drivers for all print servers managed by Print Management . The All Drivers filter shows the version of printer drivers on multiple servers, which allows administrators to quickly and easily see which print servers must receive updated drivers (when they are updating printer drivers in their organization) . The All Drivers filter also allows adminis- trators to easily remove printer driver packages from the driver store when they are no longer needed . n Export/import print queues and printer drivers You can now use Print Manage- ment to export the configuration of all print queues and printer drivers on a print server to a Printer Migration (* .printerExport) file, which you can then import on either the same print server or a different one . This is useful for administrators who want to back up printer configurations or migrate printers to a different print server . n Comma-separated list in Add/Remove Servers Administrators can now quickly add multiple print servers to Print Management by specifying a comma-separated list of print servers in the Add/Remove Servers dialog box . Administrators can also copy and paste a list of servers (one per line) to the text box in the dialog box . In addition, the print servers being specified in this dialog box no longer need to be online when added to Print Management . 772 CHapTER 18 Managing Printing Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
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