Windows Server 2008 Inside Out- P9

Chia sẻ: Thanh Cong | Ngày: | Loại File: PDF | Số trang:50

0
55
lượt xem
13
download

Windows Server 2008 Inside Out- P9

Mô tả tài liệu
  Download Vui lòng tải xuống để xem tài liệu đầy đủ

Tham khảo tài liệu 'windows server 2008 inside out- p9', công nghệ thông tin, quản trị mạng phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

Chủ đề:
Lưu

Nội dung Text: Windows Server 2008 Inside Out- P9

  1. Performance Logging 367 10. By default, logging stops only if you set an expiration date as part of the logging schedule. Using the options on the Stop Condition tab, you can configure the log file to stop manually after a specified period of time, such as seven days, or when the log file is full (if you’ve set a maximum size limit). 11. Click OK when you’ve finished setting the logging schedule and stop conditions. You can manage the data collector as explained in “Creating and Managing Data Collector Sets” on page 364. If you want Windows to run a scheduled task when data collection stops, configure the task on the Task tab in the Properties dialog box. Collecting Performance Trace Data You can use data collectors to record performance trace data whenever events related to their source providers occur. A source provider is an application or operating system service that has traceable events. To collect performance trace data, follow these steps: 1. In Reliability And Performance Monitor, under the Data Collector Sets node, right-click the User Defined node in the left pane, point to New, and then choose Data Collector Set. 2. In the Create New Data Collector Set wizard, type a name for the data collector, such as Disk IO Trace or Logon Trace. Afterward, select the Create Manually (Advanced) option and then click Next. 3. On the What Type Of Data Do You Want To Include page, the Create Data Logs option is selected by default. Select the Event Trace Data check box and then click Next. 4. On the Which Event Trace Providers Would You Like To Enable page, click Add. 5. In the Event Trace Providers dialog box, shown in Figure 12-9, select an event trace provider to track, such as Active Directory Domain Services: Core, and then click OK. 6. On the Which Event Trace Providers Would You Like To Enable page, you can configure property values to track. By selecting individual properties in the Properties list and clicking Edit, you can track particular property values rather than all values for the provider. Repeat this process to select other event trace providers to track. Click Next when you are ready to continue. 7. Complete steps 6–11 from the previous procedure, “Collecting Performance Counter Data,” on page 365. Chapter 12
  2. 368 Chapter 12 Comprehensive Performance Analysis and Logging Figure 12-9 Select a provider to trace. Collecting Configuration Data You can use data collectors to record changes in Registry configuration. To collect con- figuration data, follow these steps: 1. In Reliability And Performance Monitor, under the Data Collector Sets node, right-click the User Defined node in the left pane, point to New, and then choose Data Collector Set. 2. In the Create New Data Collector Set wizard, type a name for the data collector, such as System Registry Info or Current User Registry Info. Afterward, select the Create Manually (Advanced) option and then click Next. 3. On the What Type Of Data Do You Want To Include page, the Create Data Logs option is selected by default. Select the System Configuration Information check box and then click Next. 4. On the Which Registry Keys Would You Like To Record page, click Add. Type the Registry path to track. Repeat this process to add other Registry paths to track. Click Next when you are ready to continue. 5. Complete steps 6–11 from the earlier procedure, “Collecting Performance Counter Data,” on page 365. Viewing Data Collector Reports Chapter 12 When you’re troubleshooting problems, you’ll often want to log performance data over an extended period of time and then review the data to analyze the results. For each data collector that has been or is currently active, you’ll find related data collector reports. As with data collector sets themselves, data collector reports are usually orga- nized into two general categories: user-defined and system.
  3. Performance Logging 369 To view data collector reports in Reliability And Performance Monitor, expand the Reports node and then expand the individual report node for the data collector you want to analyze. Under the data collector’s report node, you’ll find individual reports for each logging session. A logging session begins when logging starts and ends when logging is stopped. The most recent log is the one with the highest log number. To view a log and analyze its related data graphically, double-click it. Keep in mind that if a data collector is actively logging, you won’t be able to view the most recent log. You can stop collecting data by right-clicking a data collector set and selecting Stop. Collected data is shown by default in a graph view from the start of data collection to the end of data collection. Only counters that you selected for logging will be available. If a report doesn’t have a counter that you want to work with, you’ll need to modify the data collector properties, restart the logging process, and then check the logs again. You can modify the report details using the following techniques: 1. In Reliability And Performance Monitor, right-click the Performance Monitor node and then select Properties. In the Performance Monitor Properties dialog box, click the Source tab. 2. Specify data sources to analyze. Under Data Source, select Log Files and then click Add to open the Select Log File dialog box. You can now select an additional log file to analyze. 3. Specify the time window that you want to analyze. Click Time Range, and then drag the Total Range bar to specify the appropriate starting and ending times. Drag the left edge to the right to move up the start time. Drag the right edge to the left to move down the end time. 4. Click the Data tab. You can now select counters to view. Select a counter and then click Remove to remove it from the graph view. Click Add to display the Add Counters dialog box, which you can use to select the counters that you want to analyze. 5. Click OK. In the monitor pane, click the Change Graph Type button to select the type of graphing. Configuring Performance Counter Alerts You can configure alerts to notify you when certain events occur or when certain per- formance thresholds are reached. You can send these alerts as network messages and as events that are logged in the application event log. You can also configure alerts to start applications and performance logs. Chapter 12 To configure an alert, follow these steps: 1. In Reliability And Performance Monitor, under the Data Collector Sets node, right-click the User Defined node in the left pane, point to New, and then choose Data Collector Set.
  4. 370 Chapter 12 Comprehensive Performance Analysis and Logging 2. In the Create New Data Collector Set wizard, type a name for the data collector, such as Memory Alert or Full Disk Alert. Afterward, select the Create Manually (Advanced) option and then click Next. 3. On the What Type Of Data Do You Want To Include page, select the Performance Counter Alert option and then click Next. 4. On the Which Performance Counters Would You Like To Monitor page, click Add to display the Add Counters dialog box. This dialog box is identical to the Add Counters dialog box discussed previously. Use the Add Counters dialog box to add counters that trigger the alert. Click OK when you’re fi nished. 5. In the Performance Counters panel, select the first counter and then use the Alert When text box to set the occasion when an alert for this counter is triggered. Alerts can be triggered when the counter is above or below a specific value. Select Above or Below, and then set the trigger value. The unit of measurement is whatever makes sense for the currently selected counter(s). For example, to alert if processor time is over 95 percent, you would select Over and then type 95. Repeat this process to configure other counters you’ve selected. 6. Complete steps 7–11 from the earlier procedure, “Collecting Performance Counter Data,” on page 365. Monitoring Performance from the Command Line Windows Server 2008 includes a command-line utility called Typeperf for writing per- formance data to the command line. You can use it to monitor the performance of both local and remote computers. The available parameters for Typeperf are summarized in Table 12-2. Table 12-2 Parameters for Typeperf Parameter Description -cf Specifies a file containing a list of performance counters to monitor. -config Specifies the settings file containing command options. -f Sets the output file format. The default is .csv for comma- separated values. -o Sets the path of an output file or SQL database. -q [object] Lists installed counters for the specified object. -qx [object] Lists installed counters with instances. -s Sets the server to monitor if no server is specified in the counter path. Chapter 12 -sc Sets the number of samples to collect. -si Sets the time between samples. The default is 1 second. -y Answers Yes to all questions without prompting.
  5. Performance Logging 371 Looks complicated, I know, but Typeperf is fairly easy to use after you get started. In fact, all you really need to provide to get basic monitoring information is the path to the performance counter you want to track. The performance counter path has the follow- ing syntax: \\ComputerName\ObjectName\ObjectCounter Here, the path starts with the UNC computer name or IP address of the local or remote computer you are working with and includes the object name and the object counter to use. If you wanted to track System\Processor Queue Length on CORPSVR02, you’d type: typeperf "\\corpsvr02\System\Processor Queue Length" Note You might have noticed that I enclosed the counter path in double quotation marks. Although this is good form for all counter paths, it is required in this example because the counter path includes spaces. You can also easily track all counters for an object by using an asterisk (*) as the coun- ter name, such as in the following: typeperf "\\corpsvr02\Memory\*" Here, you track all counters for the Memory object. A slight problem is introduced for objects that have multiple instances. For these objects, such as the Processor object, you must specify the object instance you want to work with. The syntax for this is as follows: \\ComputerName\ObjectName(ObjectInstance)\ObjectCounter Here, you follow the object name with the object instance in parentheses. To work with all instances of an object that has multiple instances, you use _Total as the instance name. To work with a specific instance of an object, use its instance identifier. For example, if you want to examine the Processor\% Processor Time counter, you must use either this to work with all processor instances: typeperf "\\corpsvr02\Processor(_Total)\% Processor Time" or this to work with a specific processor instance: Chapter 12 typeperf "\\corpsvr02\Processor(0)\% Processor Time" In this case, that is the fi rst processor on the system. By default, Typeperf writes its output to the command line in a comma-delimited list. You can redirect the output to a file using the -o parameter and set the output format
  6. 372 Chapter 12 Comprehensive Performance Analysis and Logging using the -f parameter. The output format indicators are CSV for a comma-delimited text file, TSV for a tab-delimited text file, BIN for a binary file, and SQL for a SQL binary file. Consider the following example: typeperf "\\corpsvr02\Memory\*" -o perf.bin -f bin Here, you track all counters for the Memory object and write the output to a binary file called Perf.bin in the current directory. If you need help determining the available counters, type typeperf -q followed by the object name for which you want to view counters, such as in the following: typeperf -q Memory If an object has multiple instances, you can list the installed counters with instances by using the -qx parameter, such as in the following: typeperf -qx PhysicalDisk You can use this counter information as input to Typeperf as well. Add the -o parameter and write the output to a text file, such as in the following: typeperf -qx PhysicalDisk -o perf.txt Then edit the text fi le so that only the counters you want to track are included. You can then use the file to determine which performance counters are tracked by specifying the -cf parameter followed by the fi le path to this counter file. Consider the following example: typeperf -cf perf.txt -o c:\perflogs\perf.bin -f bin Here, Typeperf reads the list of counters to track from Perf.txt and then writes the per- formance data in binary format to a fi le in the C:\PerfLogs directory. The one problem with Typeperf is that it will sample data once every second until you tell it to stop by pressing Ctrl+C. This is fi ne when you are working at the command line and monitoring the output. It doesn’t work so well, however, if you have other things to do—and most administrators do. To control the sampling interval and set how long to sample, you can use the -si and -sc parameters, respectively. For example, if you wanted Typeperf to sample every 60 seconds and stop logging after 120 samples, you could type this: typeperf -cf perf.txt -o C:\perf\logs\perf.bin -f bin -si 60 -sc 120 Analyzing Trace Logs at the Command Line You can examine trace log data by using the Tracerpt command-line utility. Tracerpt Chapter 12 processes trace logs and allows you to generate trace analysis reports and dump fi les for the events generated. The parameters for Tracerpt are summarized in Table 12-3.
  7. Performance Logging 373 Table 12-3 Parameters for Tracerpt Parameter Description -o [filename] Sets the text output file to which the parsed data should be written. The default is Dumpfile.xml. -summary [filename] Sets the name of the text file to which a summary report of the data should be written. The default is Summary.txt. -report [filename] Sets the name of the text file to which a detailed report of the data should be written. The default is Workload.xml. -rt of a converted log file. -config Specifies a settings file containing command options. -y Answers Yes to all questions without prompting. -of Sets the dump file format. -f Sets the report file format. -export Sets the name of the event schema export file. The default is schema.man. The most basic way to use Tracerpt is to specify the name of the trace log to use. By default trace logs are written to C:\PerfLogs, so if a log in this directory was named SysP_000002.etl, you could analyze it by typing the following: tracerpt C:\Perflogs\SysP_000002.etl Here, four files are created in the current directory: The parsed output is written to Dumpfile.xml, a summary report is written to Summary.txt, a detailed report is written to Workload.xml, and a event schema report file is written to schema.man. You could also specify the exact files to use for output as shown in the following example: tracerpt C:\Perflogs\ SysP_000002.etl -o c:\sysp.csv -summary c:\sysp-summary.txt -report sysp-report-.txt Chapter 12
  8. PART 3 Managing Windows Server 2008 Storage and File Systems CHAPTER 13 Boot Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 CHAPTER 14 Storage Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 CHAPTER 15 TPM and BitLocker Drive Encryption . . . . . . 467 CHAPTER 16 Managing Windows Server 2008 File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 CHAPTER 17 File Sharing and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 CHAPTER 18 Using Volume Shadow Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 CHAPTER 19 Using Remote Desktop for Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 375
  9. CHAPTER 13 Boot Configuration Boot from Hardware and Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Managing Startup and Boot Configuration . . . . . . . . . 383 Boot Environment Essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Managing the Boot Configuration Data Store and Its Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 U nlike earlier releases of server operating systems for Windows, Windows Server 2008 doesn’t boot from an initialization file. Instead, the operating system uses the Windows Boot Manager to initialize and start the operating system. The boot envi- ronment dramatically changes the way the operating system starts and is designed to resolve issues related to boot integrity, operating system integrity, and firmware abstraction. The boot environment is loaded prior to the operating system, making it a pre–operating system environment. This ensures that the boot environment can be used to validate the integrity of the startup process and the operating system itself before actually starting the operating system. Boot from Hardware and Firmware At first glance, startup and shutdown seem to be the most basic features of an operating system, but as you get a better understanding of how computers work, you quickly see that there’s nothing simple or basic about startup, shutdown, or related processes and procedures. In fact, anyone who’s worked with computers probably has had a problem with startup or shutdown at one time or another. Problems with startup and shut- down are compounded in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 because of their extended frameworks for advanced configuration and power management in firmware and hardware. Note Many administrators install Windows Server 2008 on desktop class systems without giv- ing careful consideration to how this could affect the operation of the computer. When you install Windows Server 2008 on a desktop class system, it is critically important for you to understand how computers designed for Windows Vista handle advanced con- figuration and power management in hardware and firmware. This will enable you to modify the hardware and firmware settings so that they work with Windows Server 2008. Never install Windows Server 2008 on a desktop class system without first checking its hardware and firmware configuration settings for boot and power. 377
  10. 378 Chapter 13 Boot Configuration Hardware and Firmware Power States Before the boot environment is loaded, computers start up from hardware and firm- Chapter 13 ware. Windows Vista does things a bit differently from Windows Server 2008 when it comes to power state management features. In Windows Vista, turning off a computer and shutting down a computer are separate tasks. By default, when you turn off a computer running Windows Vista, the computer enters standby mode. When entering standby mode, the operating system automatically saves all work, turns off the display, and enters a low power consumption mode with the computer’s fans and hard disks stopped. The state of the computer is maintained in the computer’s memory. When the computer wakes from standby mode, its state is exactly as it was when you turned off your computer. You can turn off a computer running Windows Vista and enter standby mode by click- ing the Start button and then clicking the power button. To wake the computer from the standby state you can press the power button on the computer’s case or a key on the computer’s keyboard. Moving the mouse also wakes the computer. Mobile computers running Windows Vista can be turned off and turned on by closing or opening the lid. When you close the lid, the laptop enters the standby state. When you open the lid, the laptop wakes up from the standby state. There are, however, a few gotchas with the power button and the standby state in Windows Vista. The way the power button works depends on the following: System hardware For the power button to work, the computer hardware must support the standby state. If the computer hardware doesn’t support the standby state, the computer can’t use the standby state and turning off the computer pow- ers it down completely. System state For the power button to work, the system must be in a valid state. If the computer has installed updates that require a reboot or you’ve installed pro- grams that require a reboot, the computer can’t enter the standby state and turn- ing off the computer powers it down completely. System configuration For the power button to work, sleep mode must be enabled. If you’ve reconfigured the power options on the computer and set the power but- ton to the Shut Down action, the computer can’t use the standby state and turn- ing off the computer powers it down completely. You can determine exactly how Windows Vista is configured by clicking Start and looking at the power button icon. An amber power button, depicting a shield with a line through the top of it, indicates that the computer will turn off and enter low-power sleep state. A red power button, depicting a shield with a line in the middle of it, indi- cates that the computer will shut down and completely power off.
  11. Boot from Hardware and Firmware 379 Diagnosing Hardware and Firmware Startup Problems When you are working with Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and trying to Chapter 13 diagnose and resolve startup problems, it is important to remember that power state management capabilities are provided by the hardware but are enabled by the operat- ing system. Because of this, to fully diagnose and resolve problem boot issues, you must look at the computer’s hardware and software, including: Motherboard/chipset Firmware Operating system To better understand the hardware aspects related to boot issues, let’s dig in and take a look at Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI). A computer’s mother- board/chipset, firmware, and operating system must support ACPI for the advanced power state features to work. There are many different types of motherboards/chipsets. Although older motherboards/chipsets might not be updatable, most of the newer ones have updatable firmware. Chipset firmware is separate from and different from the computer’s underlying firmware interface. Currently, the two prevalent fi rmware interfaces are: Basic input/output system (BIOS) Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) A computer’s BIOS or EFI programming provides the hardware-level interface between hardware components and software. Like chipsets themselves, BIOS and EFI can be updated. ACPI-aware components track the power state of the computer. An ACPI- aware operating system can generate a request that the system be switched into a differ- ent ACPI mode. BIOS or EFI responds to enable the requested ACPI mode. As shown in Table 13-1, there are a total of six different power states ranging from S0 (the system is completely powered ON and fully operational) to S5 (the system is com- pletely powered OFF) and the states (S1, S2, S3, and S4) are referred to as sleep states, in which the system appears OFF because of low power consumption and retains enough of the hardware context to return to the working state without a system reboot. Motherboards/chipsets support specific power states. For example, the Intel Server Board SE7505VB2 supports S0, S1, S4, and S5 states, but does not support the S2 and S3 states. In Windows operating systems, the sleep power transition refers to switch- ing off the system to a sleep or a hibernate mode, and the wake power transition refers to switching on the system from a sleep or a hibernate mode. The sleep and hibernate modes allow users to switch off and switch on systems much faster than the regular shutdown and startup processes. Thus, a computer is waking up when the computer is transitioning from the OFF state (S5) or any sleep state (S1–S4) to the ON state (S0) and the computer is going to sleep when the computer is transitioning from the ON state (S0) to the OFF state (S5) or sleep state (S1–S4). A computer cannot enter one sleep state directly from another, as it must enter the ON state before entering any other sleep state.
  12. 380 Chapter 13 Boot Configuration Table 13-1 Power States for ACPI in Firmware and Hardware State Type Description Chapter 13 S0 ON state The system is completely operational, fully powered, and completely retains the context (such as the volatile registers, memory caches, and RAM). S1 Sleep state The system consumes less power than the S0 state. All hardware and processor contexts are maintained. S2 Sleep state The system consumes less power than the S1 state. The processor loses power and processor context and contents of the cache are lost. S3 Sleep state The system consumes less power than the S2 state. Processor and hardware contexts, cache contents, and chipset context are lost. The system memory is retained. S4 Hibernate The system consumes the least power compared to all other sleep state states. The system is almost at an OFF state. The context data is written to the hard disk and there is no context retained. The system can restart from the context data stored on the disk. S5 OFF state The system is in a shutdown state and the system retains no context. The system requires a full reboot to start. Resolving Hardware and Firmware Startup Problems On most computers, you can enter the BIOS or EFI during boot by pressing F2 or another function key. When you are in firmware, you can go to the Power screen or a similar screen to manage ACPI and related settings. Power settings you might see include: After Power Failure or AC Recovery Determines the mode of operation if a power loss occurs and for which you’ll see settings like Stay off/Off, Last state/Last, Power on/On. Stay Off means the system will remain off after power is restored. Last state restores the system to the state it was in before power failed. Power On means the system will turn on after power is restored. Wake On LAN From S5 or Auto Power On Determines the action taken when the system power is off and a PCI Power Management wake event occurs. You’ll see settings like Stay off or Power on. ACPI Suspend State or Suspend Mode Sets the suspend mode. Typically, you’ll be able to set S1 State or S3 State as the suspend mode. Note I provide two standard labels for each setting because your computer hardware may not have these exact labels. The firmware variant you are working with determines the actual labels that are associated with boot, power, and other settings.
  13. Boot from Hardware and Firmware 381 Because Intel and AMD also have other technologies to help reduce startup and resume times, you might also see power settings for: Chapter 13 Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST), which can be either Disabled or Enabled Intel Quick Resume Technology Driver (QRTD), which can be either Disabled or Enabled Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST or SpeedStep) allows the system to dynamically adjust processor voltage and core frequency, which can result in decreased average power consumption and decreased average heat production. When EIST or a similar technology is enabled and in use, you’ll see two different processor speeds on the System page in Control Panel. The fi rst speed listed is the specified speed of the processor. The second speed is the current operating speed, which should be less than the first speed. If Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology is off, then both proces- sor speeds will be equal. Advanced Settings for Power Options under Processor Power Management can also affect how this technology works. Generally speaking, although you might want to use this technology with Windows Vista, you won’t want to use this technology with Windows Server 2008. Intel Quick Resume Technology Driver (QRTD) allows an Intel Viiv technology-based computer to behave like a consumer electronic device with instant on/off after an initial boot. Intel QRTD manages this behavior through the Quick Resume mode function of the Intel Viiv chipset. Pressing the power button on the computer or a remote control puts the computer in the Quick Sleep state, and you can switch the computer to the Quick Resume state by moving the mouse, pressing an on/off key on the keyboard (if available), or pressing the sleep button on the remote control. Quick Sleep mode is different from standard sleep mode. In Quick Sleep mode, the computer’s video card stops sending data to the display, the sound is muted, and the monitor LED indicates a lowered power state on the monitor but the power continues to be supplied to vital components on the system, such as the processor, fans, and so on. As this technology was originally designed for Windows XP Media Center Edition, in many cases it does not work with Windows Vista and generally should not be used with Windows Server 2008. You might need to disable this feature in firmware to allow Windows Vista to properly sleep and resume. After you look at the computer’s power settings in fi rmware, you should also review the computer’s boot settings in firmware. Typically, you’ll be able to configure the following boot settings: Boot Drive Order Determines the boot order for fi xed disks Boot To Hard Disk Drive Determines whether the computer can boot to fi xed disks and can be set to Disabled or Enabled Boot To Removable Devices Determines whether the computer can boot to removable media and can be set to Disabled or Enabled Boot To Network Determines whether the computer can perform a network boot and can be set to Disabled or Enabled
  14. 382 Chapter 13 Boot Configuration USB Boot Determines whether the computer can boot to USB flash devices and can be set to Disabled or Enabled Chapter 13 As with power settings, your computer might not have these exact labels, but the labels should be similar. You’ll need to optimize these settings for the way you plan to use the computer. In most cases, with server hardware, you’ll only want to enable Boot To Hard Disk Drive. The exception is for when you use BitLocker Drive Encryption. With Bit- Locker, you’ll want to enable Boot To Removable Devices, USB Boot, or both to ensure that the computer can detect the USB flash drive with the encryption key during the boot process. Boot Environment Essentials Windows Server 2008 supports several different processor architectures and several different disk partitioning styles. Generally, computers with x86-based and x64-based processors use the master boot record (MBR) disk partitioning style and BIOS. Comput- ers with x64-based processors use the GUID partition table (GPT) disk partitioning style and Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI). BIOS and EFI currently are the two most prevalent fi rmware interfaces. With earlier releases of the server operating system for Windows, BIOS-based computers use Ntldr and Boot.ini to boot into the operating system. Ntldr handles the task of loading the operating system while Boot.ini contains the parameters that enable startup, including identity of the boot partitions. Through Boot.ini parameters, you can add options that control the way the operating system starts, the way computer components are used, and the way operating system features are used. On the other hand, with earlier releases of the server operating system for Windows, EFI-based computers use Ia64ldr.efi, Diskpart.efi, and Nvrboot.efi to boot into the oper- ating system. Ia64ldr.efi handles the task of loading the operating system while Disk- part.efi identifies the boot partitions. Through Nvrboot.efi, you set the parameters that enable startup. Windows Server 2008 doesn’t use these boot facilities. Instead, it uses a pre–operating system boot environment. Figure 13-1 provides a conceptual overview of how the boot environment fits into the overall computer architecture. The boot environment is an extensible abstraction layer that allows the operating sys- tem to work with multiple types of firmware interfaces without requiring the operating system to be specifically written to work with these fi rmware interfaces. Within the boot environment, startup is controlled using the parameters in the Boot Configuration Data (BCD) store. The BCD store is contained in a fi le called the BCD registry. The location of this registry depends on the computer’s firmware: On BIOS-based operating systems, the BCD registry fi le is stored in the \Boot\Bcd directory of the active partition. On EFI-based operating systems, the BCD registry fi le is stored on the EFI system partition.
  15. Managing Startup and Boot Configuration 383 Chapter 13 Operating System Boot Application Boot Manager Boot Environment Device Drivers Microkernel HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) Hardware Figure 13-1 A conceptual view of how the boot environment works. Entries in the BCD store identify the boot manager to use during startup and the spe- cific boot applications available. The default boot manager is the Windows Boot Man- ager. Windows Boot Manager controls the boot experience and enables you to choose which boot application is run. Boot applications load a specific operating system or operating system version. For example, a Windows Boot Loader application loads Win- dows Server 2008. This allows you to boot BIOS-based and EFI-based computers in much the same way. Managing Startup and Boot Configuration As discussed in “Troubleshooting Startup and Shutdown” on page 1416, you can press F8 during startup of the operating system to access the Advanced Boot Options menu and then use this menu to select one of several advanced startup modes, including Safe Mode, Enable Boot Logging, and Disable Driver Signature Enforcement. Although these advanced modes temporarily modify the way the operating system starts to help you diagnose and resolve problems, they don’t make permanent changes to the boot con- figuration or to the BCD store. Other tools you can use to modify the boot configuration and manage the BCD store include the Startup And Recovery dialog box, the System Configuration utility, and the BCD Editor. The sections that follow discuss how these tools are used.
  16. 384 Chapter 13 Boot Configuration Managing Startup and Recovery Options The Startup And Recovery dialog box controls the basic options for the operating sys- Chapter 13 tem during startup. You can use these options to set the default operating system, the time to display the list of available operating systems, and the time to display recovery options when needed. Whether you boot a computer to different operating systems or not, you’ll want to optimize these settings to reduce the wait time during startup and in this way speed up the startup process. You can access the Startup And Recovery dialog box by completing the following steps: 1. In Control Panel\System And Maintenance, click System to access the System window. 2. In the System window, click Advanced System Settings under Tasks in the left pane. This displays the System Properties dialog box. 3. On the Advanced tab of the System Properties dialog box, click Settings under Startup And Recovery. This displays the Startup And Recovery dialog box, as shown in Figure 13-2. Figure 13-2 Configure system startup options. 4. On a computer with multiple operating systems, use the Default Operating System list to specify the operating system that you want to start by default. 5. Set the timeout interval for the operating system list by selecting the Time To Display List Of Operating Systems check box and specifying a timeout in seconds
  17. Managing Startup and Boot Configuration 385 in the field provided. To speed up the startup process, you might want to use a value of 5 seconds. Chapter 13 6. Set the timeout interval for the recovery options list by selecting the Time To Display Recovery Options When Needed check box and specifying a timeout in seconds in the field provided. Again, to speed up the start up process, you might want to use a value of 5 seconds. 7. Click OK to save your settings. Managing System Boot Configuration The System Configuration utility (Msconfig.exe) allows you to fine-tune the way a com- puter starts. Typically, you’ll use this utility during troubleshooting and diagnostics. For example, as part of troubleshooting, you can configure the computer to use a diag- nostic startup where only basic devices and services are loaded. The System Configuration utility is available on the Administrative Tools menu. You can also start the System Configuration utility by clicking Start, typing msconfig.exe in the Search box, and pressing Enter. As shown in Figure 13-3, this utility has a series of tabs with options. The General tab options allow you to configure the way startup works and are where you should start your troubleshooting and diagnostics. Using these options, you can choose to perform a normal startup, diagnostic startup, or selective startup. After you restart the computer and resolve any problems, access the System Configuration utility again, select Normal Startup on the General tab, and then click OK. Figure 13-3 Perform a diagnostic or selective startup as part of troubleshooting.
  18. 386 Chapter 13 Boot Configuration The Boot tab options, shown in Figure 13-4, allow you to control the way the individual startup-related processes work. You can configure the computer to start in one of vari- Chapter 13 ous Safe Boot modes and set additional options, such as No GUI Boot. If after trouble- shooting you find that you want to keep these settings, you can select the Make All Boot Settings Permanent check box to save the settings to the boot configuration startup entry. Figure 13-4 Fine-tune the boot options. Clicking the Advanced Options button on the Boot tab displays the BOOT Advanced Options dialog box shown in Figure 13-5. In addition to being able to lock PCI, detect the correct HAL, and enable debugging, you can use the advanced options to: Specify the number of processors the operating system should use. You should use this option when you suspect there is a problem with additional processors you’ve installed in a server and you want to pinpoint which processors are pos- sibly causing startup problems. Consider the following scenario: A server shipped with two processors and you installed two additional processors. Later, you find that you cannot start the server. You could eliminate the new processors as the potential cause by limiting the computer to two processors. Specify the maximum amount of memory the operating system should use. You should use this option when you suspect there is a problem with additional mem- ory you’ve installed in a server. Consider the following scenario: A server shipped with 2 GB of RAM and you installed 2 additional GB of RAM. Later, you find that you cannot start the server. You could eliminate the new RAM as the potential cause by limiting the computer to 2048 MB of memory.
Đồng bộ tài khoản