Wireless Technology P1

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First-generation (1G) wireless networks were established in the late 1970s with the primary aim of providing voice telephony services to mobile subscribers. 1G systems are basically characterized by the use of analog frequency modulation (FM) for voice transmission and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) as its multiple access architecture.

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  1. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Protocols, Standards, and Techniques © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  2. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Protocols, Standards, and Techniques Michel Daoud Yacoub CRC PR E S S Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  3. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2002 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-0969-7 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  4. Dedication Technology has its time; knowledge is timeless. Technowledge boosts Technowledge. To those who idealize, conceive, standardize, implement, test, operate, main- tain, upgrade; to those professionals, for whose knowledge and work we owe the technology and all it conveys—to those technowledgers—I pay my most sincere tribute. I dedicate this book to my beloved family. Thank you, Maria N´dia, my pre- ı cious wife, and thank you, Alexandre, Helena, Carolina, Ricardo, Vin´cius, ı and Elisa, my wonderful children, for your love, patience, and unconditional support. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  5. Preface We can always wait a bit longer to write a better book on technology. We can always wait . . . In this ever-changing technological scenario, keeping pace with the rapid evolution of wireless technology is a formidable, exciting, and indispensable task more than a challenge. The work is indeed herculean and often dis- couraging, for technology is vast, the number of topics to be approached is immense, the documentation on standards and recommendations comprises piles of uncountable pages, and we often find we are leaving something im- portant behind when selecting the appropriate subject matter to explore. The consolation, if any, is that as we explore the technologies, we find that much commonality exists among them, although particular features are rather dif- ferent in each. The challenge of writing a book in such a “hot” and vivacious field is to provide a clear and concise resource to accommodate the learning process of the basic functions of the main technologies. I did try to keep this in mind throughout the course of selection and description of the topics included in this book. I hope I have succeeded, at least to a certain extent. The book, divided into five parts, describes protocols, standards, and tech- niques for 2G and 3G technologies, including those specific to wireless mul- timedia. The first part—Introduction—contains three chapters and covers the basic principles of wireless communications. The second part—2G Systems— consists of two chapters and describes two leading technologies of the second generation. The third part—Wireless Data—comprises one chapter and intro- duces three main wireless data technologies. The fourth part—3G Systems— encompasses three chapters and details the general concepts of third- generation systems as well as two chief third-generation technologies. The fifth part—Appendices—provides a glimpse at some telecommunication is- sues that are relevant to the understanding of the main text and that are not covered in the introductory part of the book. A more detailed description of the book structure follows. Part I: Introduction Chapter 1—Wireless Network —develops the wireless network concepts within the Intelligent Network framework and describes the basic functions a tele- communication system must provide so that wireless and mobile capabili- ties can be implemented. General network and protocol architectures and channel structures are described that are common to the main systems. These © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  6. descriptions are based on ITU Recommendations, which generalize those con- cepts that have been used for the various cellular networks. Specific solutions are then detailed in the other chapters. Chapter 2—Cellular Principles—introduces the cellular technology funda- mentals, providing a unified approach of these concepts for narrowband and wideband solutions. Topics explored in this chapter include universal frequency reuse, sectorization, power control, handoff, voice activity, inter- ference, and others. Besides the traditional hexagonal tessellation for macro- cellular networks, the chapter examines the subject of reuse pattern for micro- cellular systems. In addition, hierarchical cell structure, overall mean capacity for multirate systems, and the main features of narrowband and wideband networks are also addressed. Chapter 3—Multiple Access—analyzes a considerable number of multiple access control techniques. Several conventional and more advanced duplex- ing and multiple access protocols are detailed that comply with the various classes of traffic and multirate transmission utilized in broadband services. The access and duplexing methods are explored in the frequency domain, time domain, code domain, and space domain. The performance of the tech- niques is investigated in terms of channel capacity, throughput, and delay. Part II: 2G Systems Chapter 4—GSM—describes the Global System for Mobile Communication cellular network in terms of its features and services, architecture, phy- sical channels, logical channels, signaling messages, call management, and particular features. Chapter 5—cdmaOne—details the features and services, architecture, phys- ical channels, logical channels, signaling messages, call management, and particular features for TIA/EIA/IS-95-A as well as for its evolved version TIA/EIA/IS-95-B. Part III: Wireless Data Chapter 6—Wireless Data Technology—depicts three data technologies ap- plied to wireless networks, namely, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), TIA/EIA/IS-95B, and High Data Rate (HDR). These technologies are de- scribed in terms of their basic architectures and achievable data transmission rates. Part IV: 3G Systems Chapter 7—IMT-2000—introduces the topic on third-generation wireless net- works based on the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT- 2000) concept. It describes the functional subsystems, the IMT-2000 family concept, and the capability set concept. It also develops the network func- tional model for IMT-2000. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  7. Chapter 8—UTRA—details the IMT-2000 radio interface for direct sequence code division multiple access, the so-called Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) or Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) 3G radio transmis- sion technology. Descriptions include its FDD as well as its TDD options. Chapter 9—cdma2000—details the IMT-2000 CDMA multicarrier radio interface, the so-called cdma2000 3G radio transmission technology. Des- criptions include its various radio configurations, the 1xEV-DO radio con- figuration option being one of them. Part V: Appendices These Appendices provide tutorial information on topics such as OSI Refer- ence Model, Signaling System Number 7, Spread Spectrum, and Positioning of Interferers in a Microcellular Grid. The book is suitable as text as well as a reference. As a textbook, it fits into a semester course for both undergraduate and graduate levels in electrical engineering, wireless communications, and more generally in information technology. As a reference, it serves systems engineers and analysts, hard- ware and software developers, researchers, and engineers responsible for the operation, maintenance, and management of wireless communication systems. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  8. Acknowledgments I am grateful to a number of people who have generously helped with the completion of this book. Some provided me with updated material and origi- nal results, others revised parts of the manuscript, and still others stimulated discussions and lent me their ideas, suggestions, incentive, encouragement, motivation, and so many distinct forms of assistance. In the endeavor to cite their names, I may inadvertently leave some out, for they are many and my memory will certainly deceive me. To these who are not quoted here, my forgiveness. I thank Professor Kenneth W. Cattermole, Professor Att´lio J. Giarola, Pro- ı fessor Helio Waldman, Professor Dalton S. Arantes, Professor Rui F. de Souza, Professor Ivan L. M. Ricarte, Dr. Antonio F. de Toledo, Dr. Ailton A. Shinoda, ˆ ´ Dr. Omar C. Branquinho, Dr. C´ sar K. d’Avila, Dr. Ernesto L. A. Neto, Dr. Paula e R. C. Gomez, Alexandre R. Esper, Alexandre R. Romero, Antonio V. Rodrigues, ˆ Cl´ udio R. C. M. da Silva, Edigar Alves, Fabbryccio A. C. M. Cardoso, and a Gustavo Fraidenraich. I am also indebted to my colleagues of the Department of Communications (DECOM), School of Electrical Engineering (FEEC), at The State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). I would like to express my gratitude to FEEC, CPqD, CelTec/CelPlan, Eric- sson, IBM, Telesp Celular, Motorola, Instituto Eldorado, Lucent Technologies, CNPq, CAPES, and FAPESP for supporting my research efforts in wireless communications over the years. Finally, I am very thankful to the CRC Press staff for their support and incentive and for the opportunity to publish this book. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  9. Contents Part I Introduction 1 Wireless Network 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Intelligent Network 1.2.1 IN Protocol Architecture 1.2.2 IN Elements 1.2.3 Wireless Service Requirements 1.2.4 Wireless IN Services 1.2.5 IN Standards 1.3 Network Architecture 1.4 Protocol Architecture 1.5 Channel Structure 1.5.1 RF Channel 1.5.2 Physical Channel 1.5.3 Logical Channel 1.6 Narrowband and Wideband Systems 1.7 Multiple Access 1.7.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access 1.7.2 Time Division Multiple Access 1.7.3 Code Division Multiple Access 1.7.4 Space Division Multiple Access 1.8 Summary 2 Cellular Principles 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cellular Hierarchy 2.3 System Management 2.3.1 Link Quality Measurement 2.3.2 Cell Selection 2.3.3 Channel Selection/Assignment 2.3.4 Handover 2.3.5 Mobility Support 2.4 System Performance 2.4.1 Interference Control 2.4.2 Diversity Strategies © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  10. 2.4.3 Variable Data Rate Control 2.4.4 Capacity Improvement Techniques 2.4.5 Battery-Saving Techniques 2.5 Cellular Reuse Pattern 2.6 Macrocellular Reuse Pattern 2.6.1 Reuse Factor (Number of Cells per Cluster) 2.6.2 Reuse Ratio 2.6.3 Positioning of the Co-Cells 2.7 Microcellular Reuse Pattern 2.7.1 Reuse Factor (Number of Cells per Cluster) 2.7.2 Reuse Ratio 2.7.3 Positioning of the Co-Cells 2.8 Interference in Narrowband and Wideband Systems 2.9 Interference in Narrowband Macrocellular Systems 2.9.1 Downlink Interference—Omnidirectional Antenna 2.9.2 Uplink Interference—Omnidirectional Antenna 2.9.3 Downlink Interference—Directional Antenna 2.9.4 Uplink Interference—Directional Antenna 2.9.5 Examples 2.10 Interference in Narrowband Microcellular Systems 2.10.1 Propagation 2.10.2 Uplink Interference 2.10.3 Downlink Interference 2.10.4 Examples 2.11 Interference in Wideband Systems 2.11.1 Uplink Interference 2.11.2 Downlink Interference 2.12 Network Capacity 2.12.1 Narrowband Systems 2.12.2 Wideband Systems 2.12.3 Uplink Load Factor 2.12.4 Downlink Load Factor 2.13 Summary 3 Multiple Access 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Signal Domains 3.2.1 Frequency Domain 3.2.2 Time Domain 3.2.3 Code Domain 3.2.4 Space Domain 3.2.5 Brief Remarks on Signal Domains © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  11. 3.3 Duplexing 3.3.1 Frequency Division Duplexing 3.3.2 Time Division Duplexing 3.3.3 Code Division Duplexing 3.3.4 Space Division Duplexing 3.3.5 Brief Remarks on Duplexing Techniques 3.4 Multiple-Access Categories 3.5 Scheduled Multiple Access 3.5.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access 3.5.2 Time Division Multiple Access 3.5.3 Code Division Multiple Access 3.5.4 Space Division Multiple Access 3.5.5 Brief Remarks on Scheduled Multiple-Access Techniques 3.6 Random Multiple Access 3.6.1 ALOHA 3.6.2 Splitting Algorithms 3.6.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access 3.6.4 Brief Remarks on Random Multiple-Access Techniques 3.7 Controlled Multiple Access 3.7.1 Polling Controlled 3.7.2 Token Controlled 3.7.3 Brief Remarks on Controlled Multiple-Access Techniques 3.8 Hybrid Multiple Access 3.8.1 Reservation-ALOHA (R-ALOHA) 3.8.2 Packet Reservation Multiple Access (PRMA) 3.8.3 Distributed Queuing Request Update Multiple Access (DQRUMA) 3.8.4 Dynamic Slot Assignment (DSA++ ) 3.8.5 Dynamic TDMA with Piggyback Reservation (DTDMA/PR) 3.8.6 Mobile Access Scheme Based on Contention and Reservation for ATM (MASCARA) 3.8.7 Dynamic TDMA with Time Division Duplex (DTDMA/TDD) 3.8.8 Resource Auction Multiple Access (RAMA) 3.8.9 Brief Remarks on Hybrid Multiple-Access Techniques 3.9 Summary © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  12. Part II 2G Systems 4 GSM 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Features and Services 4.2.1 Teleservices 4.2.2 Bearer Services 4.2.3 Supplementary Services 4.3 Architecture 4.3.1 Mobile Station Subsystem 4.3.2 Base Station Subsystem 4.3.3 Network and Switching Subsystem 4.3.4 Operation and Support Subsystem 4.3.5 Open Interfaces 4.4 Multiple Access 4.4.1 Signal Processing 4.4.2 Multiple Access 4.4.3 Physical Channels 4.4.4 Burst Formats 4.4.5 Logical Channels 4.4.6 Multiframes 4.5 The Logical Channels 4.5.1 Traffic Channels 4.5.2 Frequency Correction Channel 4.5.3 Synchronization Channel 4.5.4 Broadcast Control Channel 4.5.5 Paging Channel 4.5.6 Access Grant Channel 4.5.7 Random Access Channel 4.5.8 Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel 4.5.9 Slow Associated Control Channel 4.5.10 Fast Associated Control Channel 4.6 Messages 4.6.1 DLC Messages 4.6.2 RRM Messages 4.6.3 CM Messages 4.6.4 MM Messages 4.7 Call Management 4.7.1 Mobile Initialization 4.7.2 Location Update 4.7.3 Authentication 4.7.4 Ciphering 4.7.5 Mobile Station Termination © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  13. 4.7.6 Mobile Station Origination 4.7.7 Handover 4.7.8 Call Clearing 4.8 Frequency Hopping 4.9 Discontinuous Transmission 4.10 Power Control 4.11 Spectral Efficiency 4.12 Summary 5 cdmaOne 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Features and Services 5.2.1 Voice Features 5.2.2 Short Message Service Features 5.3 Architecture 5.3.1 Mobile Station 5.3.2 Base Station 5.3.3 Mobile Switching Center 5.3.4 Home Location Register 5.3.5 Visitor Location Register 5.3.6 Authentication Center 5.3.7 Equipment Identity Register 5.3.8 Message Center 5.3.9 Short Message Entity 5.3.10 Data Message Handler 5.3.11 Operations System 5.3.12 Interworking Function 5.3.13 External Networks 5.3.14 Interface Reference Points 5.4 Multiple-Access Structure 5.4.1 Forward Link 5.4.2 Reverse Link 5.4.3 Physical Channels 5.4.4 Logical Channels 5.5 The Logical Channels 5.5.1 Pilot Channel 5.5.2 Sync Channel 5.5.3 Paging Channel 5.5.4 Access Channel 5.5.5 Traffic Channel—Forward and Reverse Links 5.6 Signaling Format 5.7 Messages, Orders, and Parameters © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  14. 5.8 Messages and Orders and Logical Channels 5.8.1 Pilot Channel 5.8.2 Sync Channel 5.8.3 Paging Channel 5.8.4 Access Channel 5.8.5 Traffic Channel: Forward and Reverse Links 5.8.6 Forward Traffic Channel 5.8.7 Reverse Traffic Channel 5.9 Mobile Station Call Processing 5.9.1 Mobile Station Initialization State 5.9.2 Mobile Station Idle State 5.9.3 System Access State 5.9.4 Mobile Station Control on the Traffic Channel State 5.10 Base Station Call Processing 5.10.1 Pilot and Sync Channel Processing 5.10.2 Paging Channel Processing 5.10.3 Access Channel Processing 5.10.4 Traffic Channel Processing 5.11 Authentication, Message Encryption, and Voice Privacy 5.12 Authentication 5.12.1 Updating the Shared Secret Data 5.12.2 Mobile Station Registrations 5.12.3 Mobile Station Originations 5.12.4 Mobile Station Terminations 5.12.5 Mobile Station Data Burst 5.12.6 Unique Challenge-Response Procedure 5.13 Message Encryption 5.14 Voice Privacy 5.15 Roaming 5.16 Handoff 5.16.1 Types of Handoff 5.16.2 Handoff and Pilot Sets 5.16.3 Handoff Parameters 5.16.4 Handoff Messages 5.16.5 Pilot Sets Updating 5.17 Power Control 5.17.1 Reverse-Link Power Control 5.17.2 Forward-Link Power Control 5.18 Call Procedures 5.18.1 Mobile Station Origination 5.18.2 Mobile Station Termination 5.18.3 Call Disconnect 5.19 EIA/TIA/IS-95B © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  15. 5.19.1 Increase in the Transmission Rate 5.19.2 Power Control 5.19.3 Soft Handoff Criteria 5.19.4 Hard Handoff 5.19.5 Idle Handoff 5.19.6 Conclusions 5.20 Summary Part III Wireless Data 6 Wireless Data Technology 6.1 Introduction 6.2 General Packet Radio Service 6.2.1 Network Architecture 6.2.2 Protocol Architecture 6.2.3 Data Flow and Data Structure 6.2.4 Physical Channels and Logical Channels 6.2.5 Medium Access 6.2.6 Data Transfer Procedure 6.2.7 Mobile-Originated Data Transfer 6.2.8 Mobile-Terminated Data Transfer 6.2.9 Throughput Performance 6.2.10 GPRS—Summary 6.3 EIA/TIA/IS-95B 6.4 High Data Rate 6.4.1 HDR Solution 6.4.2 Network Architecture 6.4.3 Protocol Architecture 6.4.4 Channels and Channel Structure 6.4.5 Medium Access 6.4.6 Throughput Performance 6.4.7 Handoff Features 6.4.8 HDR Summary 6.5 Summary Part IV 3G Systems 7 IMT-2000 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Some Definitions © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  16. 7.3 Frequency Allocation 7.4 Features and Services 7.5 Traffic Classes 7.6 IMT-2000 System and IMT-2000 Family 7.6.1 Interfaces 7.6.2 Global Roaming 7.7 Specific Functions 7.7.1 Overall System Access Control Functions 7.7.2 Radio Resource Management and Control Functions 7.7.3 Random-Access Functions 7.7.4 Radio Resource Request Acceptability Functions 7.7.5 Channel Coding Function 7.7.6 Handover Function 7.7.7 Location Management and Geographic Position–Finding Functions 7.7.8 Mobile Call Handling Functions 7.7.9 Data Coding and Compression Functions 7.7.10 Network Intelligence and Service Control Functions 7.7.11 User Privacy and Network Security Functions 7.7.12 Emergency Services Functions 7.7.13 Charging Functions 7.7.14 Support of Users Function 7.7.15 Subscriber Data Management Functions 7.7.16 Messaging Service Management Functions 7.7.17 Software-Configurable Terminals Functions 7.8 Network Architecture 7.8.1 Physical Entities—Reference Model 7.8.2 Interface—Reference Points 7.9 Physical Entities and Functional Entities 7.9.1 User Identity Module 7.9.2 Mobile Terminal 7.9.3 Base Station 7.9.4 Radio Network Controller 7.9.5 Authentication Center 7.9.6 Drift MSC 7.9.7 Gateway Location Register 7.9.8 Gateway MSC 7.9.9 Home Location Register 7.9.10 Intelligent Peripheral 7.9.11 Mobile Switching Center 7.9.12 Packet Data Gateway Node 7.9.13 Packet Data Serving Node 7.9.14 Service Control Point © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  17. 7.9.15 Service Data Point 7.9.16 Visitor Location Register 7.10 Functional Entities and Their Interrelations 7.11 Application of the IMT-2000 Family Member Concept 7.11.1 Radio Transmission Technology 7.11.2 Core Network 7.11.3 Radio Transmission Technologies and Core Networks 7.12 Toward 3G 7.12.1 An Overview 7.12.2 Network Architecture 7.13 Summary 8 UTRA 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Network Architecture 8.3 Protocol Architecture 8.3.1 Radio Network Layer 8.3.2 Transport Network Layer 8.4 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture 8.4.1 Layer 3 8.4.2 Layer 2 8.4.3 Layer 1 8.5 Logical Channels 8.6 Transport Channels and Indicators 8.7 Physical Channels and Physical Signals 8.7.1 UTRA FDD Physical Channels 8.7.2 UTRA TDD Physical Channels 8.8 Mapping of Channels 8.9 Physical Layer Transmission Chain 8.10 Channel and Frame Structures 8.10.1 UTRA FDD Uplink Physical Channels 8.10.2 UTRA FDD Downlink Physical Channels 8.10.3 UTRA TDD-3.84 8.10.4 UTRA TDD-1.28 8.11 Spreading and Modulation 8.11.1 Uplink Spreading 8.11.2 Downlink Spreading 8.12 Spreading Codes 8.12.1 Channelization Codes 8.12.2 Uplink Scrambling Codes 8.12.3 Downlink Scrambling Codes 8.13 UTRA Procedures © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  18. 8.13.1 Cell Search 8.13.2 Common Physical Channel Synchronization 8.13.3 Radio Link Establishment and Monitoring 8.13.4 Uplink DPCCH and DPDCH Reception 8.13.5 Uplink Power Control 8.13.6 Downlink Power Control 8.13.7 Paging Procedure 8.13.8 Random-Access Procedure 8.13.9 CPCH Access Procedure 8.13.10 Transmit Diversity 8.13.11 Handover Procedure 8.13.12 Timing Advance 8.13.13 Dynamic Channel Allocation 8.14 Interference Issues 8.15 Summary 9 cdma2000 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Network Architecture 9.2.1 Network Entities 9.2.2 Reference Points 9.3 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture 9.3.1 Upper Layers 9.3.2 Layer 2 9.3.3 Layer 1 9.4 Logical Channels 9.5 Physical Channels 9.6 Mapping of Channels 9.7 Achievable Rates 9.8 Forward Link 9.8.1 General 9.8.2 Spreading Rate 9.8.3 Physical Channels 9.8.4 Radio Configuration 9.8.5 Power Control 9.8.6 Transmit Diversity 9.8.7 Transmission Block 9.9 Reverse Link 9.9.1 General 9.9.2 Spreading Rate 9.9.3 Physical Channels 9.9.4 Radio Configuration 9.9.5 Transmission Block © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
  19. 9.10 Forward Physical Channels 9.10.1 Forward Pilot Channel 9.10.2 Forward Transmit Diversity Pilot Channel 9.10.3 Forward Auxiliary Pilot Channel 9.10.4 Forward Auxiliary Transmit Diversity Pilot Channel 9.10.5 Forward Dedicated Auxiliary Pilot Channel 9.10.6 Forward Synchronization Channel 9.10.7 Forward Paging Channel 9.10.8 Forward Broadcast Control Channel 9.10.9 Forward Quick Paging Channel 9.10.10 Forward Common Control Channel 9.10.11 Forward Common Assignment Channel 9.10.12 Forward Common Power Control Channel 9.10.13 Forward Fundamental Channel and Forward Supplemental Code Channel 9.10.14 Forward Fundamental Channel and Forward Supplemental Channel 9.10.15 Forward Dedicated Control Channel 9.11 Reverse Physical Channels 9.11.1 Reverse Access Channel 9.11.2 Reverse Enhanced Access Channel 9.11.3 Reverse Common Control Channel 9.11.4 Reverse Pilot Channel and Reverse Power Control Subchannel 9.11.5 Reverse Fundamental Channel and Reverse Supplemental Code Channel 9.11.6 Reverse Fundamental Channel and Reverse Supplemental Channel 9.11.7 Reverse Dedicated Control Channel 9.12 High-Rate Packet Data Access 9.12.1 Forward Link—General 9.12.2 Forward-Link Channels 9.12.3 Forward-Link Quadrature Spreading 9.12.4 Forward-Link Data Rates and Modulation Parameters 9.12.5 Forward-Link Transmission 9.12.6 Reverse Link—General 9.12.7 Reverse-Link Channels 9.12.8 Reverse-Link Quadrature Spreading 9.12.9 Reverse-Link Data Rates and Modulation Parameters 9.12.10 Reverse-Link Transmission © 2002 by CRC Press LLC
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