A discourse approach

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  • Transnational flows of people, financial resources, goods, information and culture have recently been increasing in a drastic way and have profoundly transformed the world (Ritzer and Malone, 2001). This phenomenon has been labeled globalization. As a result, a great deal of debate and discussion, even controversy (Bird and Stevens, 2003) has taken place about globalization in various disciplines from different angles. In fact, there seems to be a controversy in regards to globalization and the contradictory meanings associated with it.

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  • We propose a unified framework in which to treat semantic underspecification and parallelism phenomena in discourse. The framework employs a constraint language that can express equality and subtree relations between finite trees. In addition, our constraint language can express the equality up-to relation over trees which captures parallelism between them. The constraints are solved by context unification. We demonstrate the use of our framework at the examples of quantifier scope, ellipsis, and their interaction. ...

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  • One way of characterising texts is in terms of the discourse structures on which they appear to be built. Each type of text, or genre, e.g. the sports report, the recipe, the sermon, the proverb, will have associated with it a characteristic organisation of units. In this paper, a general model of the structure of one text type, the story, is described. This model forms the basis of a program which combines the general story structure principles with rules goveming a particular sub-genre, the Old French epic, in order to generate story summaries. INTRODUCTION Over the last twelve years,...

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  • We give an analysis of ellipsis resolution in terms of a straightforward discourse copying algorithm that correctly predicts a wide range of phenomena. The treatment does not suffer from problems inherent in identity-of-relations analyses. Furthermore, in contrast to the approach of Dalrymple et al. [1991], the treatment directly encodes the intuitive distinction between full NPs and the referential elements that corefer with them through what we term role linking.

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  • Previous research on ellipsis has neglected to address t h e speaker's discourse Eoals in employing the frasment but reel understanding requires that these be identified (Mann, Moore, and Levin, 1977) (Webber, PoZlack, and Hirschberg, 1982). In this paper, we investlgate a framework for interpreting Intersententlal ellipsis that occurs in task-orlented dialogues. This framework includes:

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  • In this paper we present a formalization of the centering approach to modeling attentional structure in discourse and use it as the basis for an algorithm to track discourse context and bind pronouns. As described in [GJW86], the process of centering attention on entities in the discourse gives rise to the intersentential transitional states of continuing, re~aining and shifting. We propose an extension to these states which handles some additional cases of multiple ambiguous pronouns.

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  • complexity, also in the field of theories concerning social and economic sciences (The orgins of Order: Self-Organizations and Selection in Evolution, Oxford univ. Press, 1993). Efforts will be made to attempt to “crystallize” complex systems, that is to transform them into structures characterized by a high degree of order. This book The Systemic Dimension of Globalization that consists of a variety of approaches and topics was connected throughout the main message - the system conception.

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  • Globalization is such a contested term. Not only it has been considered a cliché of our times, but at the same time it has been criticized for its lack of a precise definition. Still it holds such an appealing and powerful voice. By the sole mention of the concept it was able to attract the research efforts of leading specialists throughout the world, each one of them making a contribution to the academic debate.

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  • This paper describes a novel approach towards the empirical approximation of discourse relations between different utterances in texts. Following the idea that every pair of events comes with preferences regarding the range and frequency of discourse relations connecting both parts, the paper investigates whether these preferences are manifested in the distribution of relation words (that serve to signal these relations).

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  • Computational approaches to discourse understanding have a two-part goal: (1) to identify those aspects of terms referm here, meaning "refer in a model", and referentm, for the entity in the model picked out by the linguistic expression. The basic features of a discourse entity are that (a) it is a constant within the current discourse model and that Co) one can attribute to it, inter alia, properties and relationships with other entities. (It is for this reason that Bill Woods once called them "conceptual coat hooks".

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  • While information status (IS) plays a crucial role in discourse processing, there have only been a handful of attempts to automatically determine the IS of discourse entities. We examine a related but more challenging task, fine-grained IS determination, which involves classifying a discourse entity as one of 16 IS subtypes. We investigate the use of rich knowledge sources for this task in combination with a rule-based approach and a learning-based approach.

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  • We describe a discourse annotation scheme for Chinese and report on the preliminary results. Our scheme, inspired by the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), adopts the lexically grounded approach; at the same time, it makes adaptations based on the linguistic and statistical characteristics of Chinese text.

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  • The identification of different nominal phrases in a discourse as used to refer to the same (discourse) entity is essential for achieving robust natural language understanding (NLU). The importance of this task is directly amplified by the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) currently moving towards high-level linguistic tasks requiring NLU capabilities such as e.g. recognizing textual entailment. This tutorial aims at providing the NLP community with a gentle introduction to the task of coreference resolution from both a theoretical and an application-oriented perspective. ...

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  • We present a syntactic and lexically based discourse segmenter (SLSeg) that is designed to avoid the common problem of over-segmenting text. Segmentation is the first step in a discourse parser, a system that constructs discourse trees from elementary discourse units. We compare SLSeg to a probabilistic segmenter, showing that a conservative approach increases precision at the expense of recall, while retaining a high F-score across both formal and informal texts.

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  • This investigation proposes an approach to modeling the discourse of spoken dialogue using semantic dependency graphs. By characterizing the discourse as a sequence of speech acts, discourse modeling becomes the identification of the speech act sequence. A statistical approach is adopted to model the relations between words in the user’s utterance using the semantic dependency graphs.

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  • Pipelined Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems have grown increasingly complex as architectural modules were added to support language functionalities such as referring expressions, lexical choice, and revision. This has given rise to discussions about the relative placement of these new modules in the overall architecture. Recent work on another aspect of multi-paragraph text, discourse markers, indicates it is time to consider where a discourse marker insertion algorithm fits in.

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  • This paper presents our implemented computational model for interpreting and generating indirect answers to Yes-No questions. Its main features are 1) a discourse-plan-based approach to implicature, 2) a reversible architecture for generation and interpretation, 3) a hybrid reasoning model that employs both plan inference and logical inference, and 4) use of stimulus conditions to model a speaker's motivation for providing appropriate, unrequested information.

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  • A correct structural analysis of a discourse is a prerequisite for understanding it. This paper sketches the outline of a discourse grammar which acknowledges several different levels of structure. This gram~nar, the "Dynamic Discourse Model", uses an Augmented Transition Network parsing mechanism to build a representation of the semantics of a discourse in a stepwise fashion, from left to right, on the basis of the semantic representations of the individual clauses which constitute the discourse. ...

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  • Discourse analysis considers how language, both spoken and written, enacts social and cultural perspectives and identities. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, An Introduction to Discourse Analysis examines the field and presents James Paul Gee’s unique integrated approach, which incorporates both a theory of language-in-use and a method of research.

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  • A-priori market segmentation designates groups of customers who are similar in terms of segmentation variable(s) that are known or believed in advance to be related to con- sumption of a company’s product, for example, demographics, purchase volume or geographic area. Segmentation variables are selected before analysis begins.

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