Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!
Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:" Control of allergic rhinitis and asthma test – a formal approach to the development of a measuring tool...
In this paper we present a formalization of the centering approach to modeling attentional structure in discourse and use it as the basis for an algorithm to track discourse context and bind pronouns. As described in [GJW86], the process of centering attention on entities in the discourse gives rise to the intersentential transitional states of continuing, re~aining and shifting. We propose an extension to these states which handles some additional cases of multiple ambiguous pronouns.
In BBN's natural language understanding and generation system (Janus), we have used a hybrid approach to representation, employing an intensional logic for the representation of the semantics of utterances and a taxonomic language with formal semantics for specification of descriptive constants and axioms relating them. Remarkably, 99.9% of 7,000 vocabulary items in our natural language applications could be adequately axiomatlzed in the taxonomic language.
Formal specification of agent behaviour through environment scenarios introduces a formal notation for the specification of scenario s in agent based systems. The autonomous and collaborative behavior of an agent can be formally specified by a set of rules describing its activity in various scenarios. The power of the approach is illustrated by the formal specification of maes.
We deﬁne a new formalism, based on Sikkel’s parsing schemata for constituency parsers, that can be used to describe, analyze and compare dependency parsing algorithms. This abstraction allows us to establish clear relations between several existing projective dependency parsers and prove their correctness.
This double definition of c a s e s l o t s enables the parsing formalism to make a minimal interpretation of parts of the utterance in the c a s e of a m i s s i n g verb and thus gives suggestions for filling this gap. The QUESTION-ANSWER-INTERACTION~compo~ nent is an ATN. It has to c a t e g o r i z e an utterance as a question, a part of an answer or as communication maintaining categories s u c h as a s s u r a n c e...
The ﬁrst of these stages is perceptual analysis, which is con-
cerned with organization, grouping, symmetry analysis, complex-
ity and other perceptual features that are known to inﬂuence
aesthetic appreciation. In the second stage, the analysis of familiar-
ity, prototypicality and meaning is performed, together with the
implicit and automatic integration of information with pre-exist-
ing memory structures. Processes involved in explicit classiﬁcation
are performed in the third phase, including those related with the
style and the content of the stimulus.
The paper investigates the problem of providing a formal device for the dependency approach to syntax, and to link it with a parsing model. After reviewing the basic tenets of the paradigm and the few existing mathematical results, we describe a dependency formalism which is able to deal with long-distance dependencies. Finally, we present an Earley-style parser for the formalism and discuss the (polynomial) complexity results.
This paper argues that developmental patterns in child language be taken seriously in computational models of language acquisition, and proposes a formal theory that meets this criterion. We first present developmental facts that are problematic for statistical learning approaches which assume no prior knowledge of grammar, and for traditional learnability models which assume the learner moves from one UG-defined grammar to another. In contrast, we view language acquisition as a population of grammars associated with "weights", that compete in a Darwinian selectionist process. ...
A new approach to bottom-up parsing that extends Augmented Context-Free Grammar to a Process Grammar is formally presented. A Process Grammar (PG) defines a set of rules suitedfor bottom-up parsing and conceived as processes that are applied by a P G Processor. The matching phase is a crucial step for process application, and a parsing structure for efficient matching is also presented. The PG Processor is composed of a process scheduler that allows immediate constituent analysis of structures, and behaves in a non-deterministic fashion. ...
A morphologic and morphosyntactic analyzer for the Italian language has been implemented in VM/Prolog 131 at the IBM Romc Scientific Center as part of a project on text understanding. Aim of this project is the development of a prototype which analyzes short narrative texts (press agency news) and gives a formal representation of their "meaning" as a set of first order logic expressions. Question answering features are also provided. The morphologic analyzer processes every word by means of a context free grammar, in order to obtain its morphologic and syntactic characteristics. ...
Unification is often the appropriate method for expressing relations between representations in the form of feature structures; however, there are circumstances in which a different approach is desirable. A declarative formalism is presented which permits direct mappings of one feature structure into another, and illustrative examples are given of its application to areas of current interest.
We present a syntactic and lexically based discourse segmenter (SLSeg) that is designed to avoid the common problem of over-segmenting text. Segmentation is the ﬁrst step in a discourse parser, a system that constructs discourse trees from elementary discourse units. We compare SLSeg to a probabilistic segmenter, showing that a conservative approach increases precision at the expense of recall, while retaining a high F-score across both formal and informal texts.
This paper addresses the issue of text normalization, an important yet often overlooked problem in natural language processing. By text normalization, we mean converting ‘informally inputted’ text into the canonical form, by eliminating ‘noises’ in the text and detecting paragraph and sentence boundaries in the text. Previously, text normalization issues were often undertaken in an ad-hoc fashion or studied separately. This paper first gives a formalization of the entire problem.
intermediate depencies between morphology, syntax and semantics. A strong, multidimensional formalism that can cope with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of language seems necessary. In t h i s chapter a graph grammar formalism based on the notions of r e l a t i o n a l graph grammars ( R a j l i c h 1975) and a t t r i b u t e d programmed graph grammars (Bunke 1982) is developed f o r parsing languages with configurational structure .
We offer a semantics and pragmatics of the pluperfect in narrative discourse. We rexamine in a formal model of implicature, how the reader's knowledge about the discourse, Gricean-maxims and causation contribute to the meaning of the pluperfect. By placing the analysis in a theory where the interactions among these knowledge resources can be precisely computed, we overcome some problems with previous Reichenbachian approaches.
Auditing is a formal process for examining key issues with a view to establishing
accountabilities and securing an improved position. The pressures on all types of organizations mean that there has never been a greater need for effective
auditing. The requirement to perform, behave well and account properly for
corporate resources has meant that things cannot simply be left to chance.
The evolution of trauma care in developed countries around the world has created new and exciting roles
for all the personnel involved in the resuscitation and recovery of critically injured patients. The stress on
strict roles for the nurse, doctor, paramedic and ancillary staff is now being replaced by a greater emphasis
on the ‘team approach’. This acknowledges the interactive nature of the procedures undertaken by the trauma
team and the need for close cooperation at all stages of the resuscitation.