This is simply a restatement of the notion of clause union or scrambling familiar from transformational analyses. Our proposal is to provide a feature-value logic with a rigorous semantics with sufficient e x p r e s s i v e power to allow the encoding of even syntactic structure within the single formalism. This means that the work of encoding syntactic structure is carried by the feature-value logic and not by formal language theoretic devices (i.e., phrase structure rules).
We provide a logical deﬁnition of Minimalist grammars, that are Stabler’s formalization of Chomsky’s minimalist program. Our logical deﬁnition leads to a neat relation to categorial grammar, (yielding a treatment of Montague semantics), a parsing-asdeduction in a resource sensitive logic, and a learning algorithm from structured data (based on a typing-algorithm and type-uniﬁcation). Here we emphasize the connection to Montague semantics which can be viewed as a formal computation of the logical form. ...
Drawing appropriate defeasible inferences has been proven to be one of the most pervasive puzzles of natural language processing and a recurrent problem in pragmatics. This paper provides a theoretical framework, called stratified logic, that can accommodate defeasible pragmatic inferences. The framework yields an algorithm that computes the conversational, conventional, scalar, clausal, and normal state implicatures; and the presuppositions that are associated with utterances. The algorithm applies equally to simple and complex utterances and sequences of utterances. ...
Abstract. The work reported in this article continues investigations
in a theoretical framework for Concept Theories based on mathematical
logic. The general idea is that the intension of a concept is defined
by some equivalence class of theories, whereas the extension is given
by the models of the theory. The fact that extensions depend on structures
that are necessary to interpret the formulae of the logic, already
provides an argument to put more emphasis on the intension.
In the first workshop, the experts pointed out thematic clusters for future
research according to their opinion and experience. These clusters were
defined in a guided brainstorming process. References to existing and past
research programmes and initiatives were minimised to ensure a creative
approach to the topic.
The resulting thematic landscape of research issues, which included a broad
range of topics from e.g. functional food over the generation of new raw
material to traceability and labelling systems, was subsequently checked for
comprehensiveness and put into a logical order.
Therefore Italianicity requires a stereotyped image of Italian culture as con-
structed by foreigners and their tourist experience, be it personal or mediated
through magazines, films or advertisements. The more this quality is estab-
lished, the more it becomes transparent and thus ideologically charged on a
very subliminal level, or, as Barthes put it, ‘Bourgeois ideology … turns culture
into nature’ (1973: 206). It requires a hegemonial reading to uncover its ideo-
In most democratic countries most politicians can fool most of the people on almost every issue most of the time. In the currently standard ways of representing quantification in logical form, this sentence has 120 different readings, or quantifier scopings. Moreover, they are truly distinct, in the sense that for any two readings, there is a model that satisfies one and not the other.
In this document, we present a language which associates type construction principles to constraint logic programming. We show that it is very appropriate for language processing, providing more uniform, expressive and efficient tools and treatments. We introduce three kinds of constraints, that we exemplify by motivational examples. Finally, we give the procedural semantics of our language, combining type construction with SLDresolution.
Unification of disjunctive feature descriptions is important for efficient unification-based parsing. This paper presents constraint projection, a new method for unification of disjunctive feature structures represented by logical constraints. Constraint projection is a generalization of constraint unification, and is more efficient because constraint projection has a mechanism for abandoning information irrelevant to a goal specified by a list of variables. These works are based on graph unification rather than on term unification.
transformational gr, m m a r on the S-structure level. (See appendix for some examplesD Structures of that type seem to us very suited for further semantic interpretation, since they offer a level of syntactic structure which both expresses ~'~mmatical functions (which are defined ~onfigurationally) and constituent structure features which axe important for certain aspects of logical form as e.g.quantifier scoping.
This paper investigates the complexity of the satisfiability problem for feature logics strong enough to code entire grammars unaided. We show that feature logics capable of both enforcing re-entrancy and stating linguistic generalisations will have undecidable satisfiability problems even when most Boolean expressivity has been discarded. We exhibit a decidable fragment, but the restrictions imposed to ensure decidability render it unfit for stand-alone use.
The strategy for natural language interpretation presented in this paper implements the dynamics of context change by translating natural language texts into a meaning representation language consisting of (descriptions of) programs, in the spirit of dynamic predicate logic (DPL) . The difference with DPL is that the usual DPL semantics is replaced by an error state semantics . This allows for the treatment of unbound anaphors, as in DPL, but also of presuppositions and presupposition projection. ...
The textbook of Open Channel Hydraulics for Engineers, also called Applied Hydraulics, emphasizes the dynamics of the open-channel flow, by attempting to provide a complete framework of the basic equations of motion of the fluid, which are used as building blocks for the treatment of many practical problems. The structure of the document, with seven chapters totally, follows a logical sequence from a description and classification of Fluid Mechanics and Open Channel Flows, as reviewed in Chapter 1. A development of the basic equation of motion for uniform flow is encountered in Chapter 2.
A design pattern describes a common programming problem and a "template solution". In this book we give a practical approach to using design patterns in the C# language, developed for use with the .NET platform.
This book is not a treatment of the theory of design patterns. We show design patterns applied in real world architectural scenarios so that you can see them in action and see the benefits that they bring. We explain why it's worth spending time building design patterns into your applications....
Praise for Fundamentals of WiMAX
This book is one of the most comprehensive books I have reviewed … it is a must read for engineers and students planning to remain current or who plan to pursue a career in telecommunications. I have reviewed other publications on WiMAX and have been disappointed. This book is refreshing in that it is clear that the authors have the in-depth technical knowledge and communications skills to deliver a logically laid out publication that has substance to it.
Smart antennas are an important application of SDR technology . An in-depth treatment is beyond the scope of this chapter. The objective is to introduce the topic to identify the implications of smart antennas for softwareradio architecture. The smart antenna is a logical extension of antenna diversity described above .
The M-F model is scanty in that it only describes a single country and contains no representation
of how the rest of the world responds to, and interacts with, what it does. And the logical
framework of M-F is impoverished in that (like the IS-LM model itself), while “the money
supply” plays a key role, money has no accounting relationship to any other variable. The model
also contains no explicit analysis of what happens when either goods and services or financial
assets are traded between countries.
In many countries, medicine is at present
facing urgent political and economic calls
for reform. These socioeconomic pressures
notwithstanding, pharmacotherapy has always
been an integral part of the health care
system and will remain so in the future.
Well-founded knowledge of the preventive
and therapeutic value of drugs is a sine qua
non for the successful treatment of patients
entrusting themselves to a physician or
Because of the plethora of proprietary medicines
and the continuous influx of new
pharmaceuticals, the drug market is dif cult
to survey and hard to understand.
The responses.properties and global.properties files are protected by access controls on the
$VCLOUD _ HOME/etc folder and the files themselves. Do not change the permissions on the files or folder as it
may either give too much access, reducing security, or restrict access too much, stopping the VMware vCloud
Director software from working. In order for the access controls to properly work, physical and logical access to
the VMware vCloud Director servers must be strictly limited to those with a need to log in and only with the
minimal levels of access required.
The importance of the anesthetist in perioperative care cannot be too greatly
emphasized. Correct patient selection and procedure planning can only be optimized
by a team approach and together with the surgeon; the anesthetist forms the core of
the team. A thorough understanding of the underlying physiology of the
gastrointestinal tract is important and a logical starting place for this book.