Abiotic stress conditions

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  • Plants are sessile organisms and as such must have mechanisms to deal with both abiotic and biotic stresses to ensure survival. The term “abiotic stress” includes many stresses caused by environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, UV and extreme temperatures. Due to global climate change it is predicted that abiotic stresses will increase in the near future and have substantial impacts on crop yields (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change; http://www.ipcc.ch).

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  • The purpose of this book is to provide the advances in plant in vitro culture as related to perennial fruit crops and medicinal plants. Basic principles and new techniques, now available, are presented in detail. The book will be of use to researchers, teachers in biotechnology and for individuals interested to the commercial application of plant in vitro culture.

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  • Dynamicity of participants: Some P2P systems, such as [10], assume a fixed set of nodes in the system. However, one of the greatest potential strengths of P2P systems is when they eschew reliance on dedicated infrastructure and allow peers to leave the system at will. Even under these conditions, participants typically have broadly varying availability characteristics. Some peers are akin to servers: their membership in the system stays largely static. Others have much more dynamic membership, joining and leaving the system at will.

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  • Building engineering physics emerged during the latter part of the 20th Century, at the interface between three disciplines: building services engineering, applied physics and building construction engineering. Building services engineering is the design of mechanical and electrical systems to maintain internal environmental conditions that enable occupants to be comfortable and achieve their maximum performance potential.

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  • The basic physics of sound propagation are simple, but the interaction of sound pressure waves with complex shapes and multi-layer constructions with openings, as you find in buildings, is more challenging. Controlling noise, both from the internal and external environment and from the internal mechanical and electrical services in buildings, is essential to create environments that promote aural communication and comfortable working conditions.

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  • So what was the impact, then, of these funds? The IDB’s conclusion is that social funds’ impact is not on employment and income. The big impact is on improvement in living conditions. The funds deliver gov- ernment services to poor communities that never had them before; they develop simple systems of targeting based on basic needs, and they build simple social infrastructure quite efficiently at low cost. They improve the living conditions of the poor even if the measured income of the poor does not go up very much.

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  • For most of the 1800s, hospitals had been a place where the chronically ill and indigent received charitable care because they had no family capable of shouldering the burden. Those who could afford it received care at home. But as the importance of asepsis began to be appreciated, surgical and acute care patients were more likely to be treated in hospitals designed to facilitate antiseptic conditions. Hospitals began charging for the use of their facilities. During the transition, medical bills began absorbing significant amounts of family income. Hospital costs rose from 7.

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  • While the ECB’s policy response has, to a signifi cant extent, sheltered the non-fi nancial private sector from the sovereign debt crisis, and has avoided major disruptions in the fi nancing of the economy, the fi nancing environment of both banks and the non-fi nancial private sector of countries affected by the sovereign debt crisis remains challenging.

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  • A study from 1979-1989 indicated that REITs performance is positively affected by the flow of information in the market. The demand for such information is largely attributable to institutional investors monitoring their investments (Chan, et al, 2003). Overall, institutional investor involvement in REITs market is essential and the lukewarm response from institutional investors may have contributed to the slow development of the Malaysian LPT market.

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  • Ozone is a gas that is composed of three oxygen atoms (O3). It is created by the oxides in the air’s nitrogen reaction with volatile organic compounds (VOC). Normally we think of ozone being higher in the atmosphere, also known as “good” ozone. However, when the conditions are right, ozone can occur at ground level, which is known as “bad” ozone. Sunlight and hot weather cause “bad” ozone in harmful concentrations. Thus in the summertime, urban areas have to be concerned about the amount of “bad” ozone. Why do you think urban areas are more...

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  • The choice of local breed depends upon availability in a particular region. Preferably, only the non-descript local animals and very lowly productive animals of recognized breeds should be used for crossbreeding. The destruction of valuable indigenous breeds with unique adaptability characters for those particular agro-climatic conditions should be avoided. Indigenous animals should be properly characterized prior to initiating crossbreeding to identify breeds with particularly valuable characteristics.

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  • One of the largest sources of energy flow in many buildings is the sun. We are used to thinking of the sun in terms of providing light, which with proper design can avoid the need for artificial lighting in buildings for the majority of the year. In addition to light, solar heat gain through windows typically dominates the cooling demands of commercial buildings and without adequate control can lead to reliance on air conditioning. On the other hand, the same energy can also be harvested for both space and water heating in carefully designed buildings. ...

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  • Every woman of childbearing age in the sample was asked about her maternity history. In particular, the questions addressed the outcome and the completion time of each pregnancy, the gender of live births, the number of months of pure breastfeeding for each child and the health condition of each live birth at the time of the survey. Unfortunately, women were not asked about the health condition of each child at birth. In the present paper, we restrict our analysis to the youngest child born to each woman of childbearing age. 5 There are three main reasons for doing this.

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  • In addition to historical facts or statements of current conditions, this presentation contains forward-looking statements that are intended to qualify for the “safe harbor” from liability established by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words or phrases “believe”, “will”, “expect”, “continue”, "are confident that", "intend", "plan", "seek", "estimate", “project", "may", or the negative or other variations thereof, or comparable terminology, signify such forward-looking statements.

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  • The extensive use of visual images is a core feature of this book. Over 570 figures and 65 summary tables are used to illustrate various cardiovascular disease conditions and key concepts. The opportunity to write such a richly illustrated book is what drew me to this project. Over twenty years of teaching veterinary students and interacting with veterinary practitioners has convinced me of the importance of visual learning. Most of the images were collected in the course of my practice at the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital.

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  • The built environment embraces a wide range of concepts, from the design and integrity of housing, to land-use and urban planning. A high quality environment is essential for children to achieve optimal health and development. Building and land-use policies, including the quality and design of a child’s physical environment, can cause or prevent illness, disability and injury, and degrade or preserve natural resources.

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  • IN BOTH NATURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS, plants are frequently exposed to environmental stresses. Some environmental factors, such as air temperature, can become stressful in just a few minutes; others, such as soil water content, may take days to weeks, and factors such as soil mineral deficiencies can take months to become stressful. It has been estimated that because of stress resulting from climatic and soil conditions (abiotic factors) that are suboptimal, the yield of field-grown crops in the United States is only 22% of the genetic potential yield (Boyer 1982).

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  • In case of the control period (1961-1990), the initial and the lateral boundary conditions for the regional model are taken from (i) the ERA-40 reanalysis database (Uppala et al., 2005) using 1° horizontal resolution, compiled by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (ii) the HadCM3 ocean-atmosphere coupled GCM using ~150 km as a horizontal resolution. For the validation of the PRECIS results CRU TS 1.2 (Mitchell & Jones, 2005) datasets were used.

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  • however, even with tested, low-cost solutions for maternal and neonatal health available, mothers and infants die needlessly. every year, more than 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and many more are permanently disabled. 6 even when infants survive, their chance for a healthy and productive life is much diminished by the death or disability of the mother.

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