Congenital heart disease in newborns is associated with global impairment in development.
We characterized brain metabolism and microstructure, as measures of
brain maturation, in newborns with congenital heart disease before they underwent
We studied 41 term newborns with congenital heart disease — 29 who had transposition
of the great arteries and 12 who had single-ventricle physiology — with
the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy
(MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before cardiac surgery....
This book is the result of many years of clinical and
academic interest in diffusion-weighted MR (DW)
imaging of the brain. Researchers and clinicians at
the University of Rochester started to collect DW images
of a spectrum of abnormalities affecting the
brain immediately after this technique became available.
Several case series with clinical and radiographic
correlations have been presented at the annual
meetings of the American Society of Neuroradiology
and the Radiological Society of North America via
posters and scientific reports....
(BQ) Part 1 book "Brain Imaging with MRI and CT" presents the following contents: Bilateral predominantly symmetric abnormalities, sellar, perisellar and midline lesions, parenchymal defects or abnormal volume.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Brain Imaging with MRI and CT" presents the following contents: Abnormalities without significant mass effect, primarily extra axial focal space occupying lesions, primarily intra axial masses, intracranial calcifications.
Regarding the neural correlates of these operations, Chatterjee (2003) suggested
that early visual processing of the basic features of artworks and other aesthetic
stimuli takes place in occipital brain regions, like any other kind of stimuli.
However, features processed in intermediate stages, such as shape or composition,
can engage frontal-parietal attentional circuits, which enhance the processing of
those attributes within the ventral visual stream (Chatterjee, 2003).
In many respects man’s reaction to his environment - that is his behaviour, is principally
a function of his central nervous system. Over the last few decades there have
been considerable advances in the understanding of the organisation and functions
of this system, but much remains to be discovered concerning its basic biochemistry
Encephalitises are a group of inflammatory human and animal diseases of brain caused essentially by different pathogens. In spite of evident success in approaches for prevention, diagnostics and treatment during the last decades, the encephalitises of different etiology still constitute a menace for thousands of people all around the world. In this book the different aspects of encephalitises of different etiology are discussed such as diagnostics, treatment and clinical management of patients.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Diagnostic ultrasound" presents the following contents: The first trimester, chromosomal abnormalities, multifetal pregnancy, the fetal face and neck, the fetal brain, the fetal musculoskeletal system, sonographic evaluation of the placenta, the pediatric spinal canal,...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities
(BQ) Part 2 book "Diagnostic imaging of infants and children" presents the following contents: Congenital abnormalities of the brain, intracranial infections, autoimmune disorders of the brain, intracranial neoplasms and masses, neoplasms and masses of the spine, trauma and surgery of the spine,...
Traumatic brain injury has been major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide,
especially in children and young adults and it has been continuing a difficult problem in
intensive care units.
Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone.
In Chapter 5, Carrascosa Romero and de Cabo de la Vega consider the relevance of
genetics and brain imaging findings in the diagnosis of diseases which result from
abnormal development or neoplasia of cells derived from the neural crest
(neurocristopathies). Koga and Saito (Chapter 6) provide a beautifully illustrated
discussion of the use of neuroimaging tools to guide gamma knife radiosurgery.
Molecular cloning has identified eight metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)
subtypes, each with distinct patterns of expression. However, the characteristic roles of
these different mGluRs in physiological processes are not well understood.
Identification of subtype-specific compounds may potentially act as therapeutic agents
for the treatment of a wide range of conditions (including progressive brain disease,
epilepsy and cerebral ischemia) all of which are associated with abnormal mGLuR
While history and examination will always remain the foundation of neurolog-
ical diagnosis, MRI and CT have now become the most important diagnostic
tests used by neurologists and neurosurgeons. These tests are critical not only
for confirming clinical diagnosis, but in many cases will give additional infor-
mation absolutely essential to patient care. Modern clinical diagnosis and treat-
ment of central nervous system disorders relies heavily upon neuroimaging. In
some cases, the optimal management of clinical problems affecting patients
with brain tumors, strokes, etc.
There have been major changes in attitudes
towards schizophrenia in recent years. In clinical
practice, more effective pharmacological and
psychological treatments for schizophrenia have
helped regenerate a sense of therapeutic optimism.
In research, progress in a range of basic
disciplines has opened up new avenues which
promise to help unravel the abnormalities of
brain development, structure and function
which are at the core of the disorder.
Brain Masses Mass lesions of the brain most often present as headache with or without fever or neurologic abnormalities. Infections associated with mass lesions may be caused by bacteria (particularly Nocardia), fungi (particularly Cryptococcus or Aspergillus), or parasites (Toxoplasma). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–associated lymphoproliferative disease may also present as single or multiple mass lesions of the brain. A biopsy may be required for a definitive diagnosis.
Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis and Focal Encephalitis
The term encephalomyelitis describes an inflammatory process with multifocal involvement of the nervous system, including brain, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. It is often associated with dorsal root ganglia and autonomic dysfunction. For any given patient, the clinical manifestations are determined by the area or areas predominantly involved, but pathology almost always reveals abnormalities (inflammatory infiltrates, neuronal loss, gliosis) beyond the symptomatic regions. ...
One of the most popular organic pesticides, neem, is toxic to non-target species including
crustaceans and tadpoles. Neem has been shown to cause the brain disease toxic encephalopathy in
children. In mice, it causes chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells and damages the DNA
of sperm .
Are there any other problems with organic pesticides? We really do not know simply because they
are not regulated like the “synthetic” ones.
The central mechanism of DIC is the uncontrolled generation of thrombin by exposure of the blood to pathologic levels of tissue factor (Fig. 110-3). Simultaneous suppression of physiologic anticoagulant mechanisms and abnormal fibrinolysis further accelerate the process. Together these abnormalities contribute to systemic fibrin deposition in small and mid-sized vessels. The duration and intensity of the fibrin deposition can compromise the blood supply of many organs, especially the lung, kidney, liver, and brain, with consequent organ failure.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) reflects a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities seen in
patients with liver dysfunction after exclusion of other known brain disease.
Classification of hepatic encephalopathy is based on the clinical setting in which symptoms
occur (Table 1).1 The encephalopathy of acute liver failure shares clinical characteristics with
that of cirrhosis, but also exhibits unique features. In cirrhosis, three major syndromes can