Absorption factor

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  • The pig faces significant biological and environmental challenges after weaning. A great deal of information is available on behavior, environment, health, and nutrition of the newly weaned pig; however, newly weaned pigs still suffer a growth lag. The pig’s small intestinal structure and function is altered during the days that follow weaning. As a consequence, the digestive and absorptive capacity of weanling pigs is decreased during this period and this may be partially responsible for the post weaning growth lag....

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  • Paradoxically, skin is both a primary barrier to systemic absorption of topically exposed chemicals and a portal to systemic delivery of transdermal medicaments. Knowledge of the factors that determine both extent and rate of chemical flux across the skin is an important component of both toxicology and pharmacology studies. The aim of this book is to provide current approaches and techniques by which dermal absorption may be quantitated utilizing end points relative to these two disciplines.

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  • X-ray diffraction is a tool for the investigation of the fine structure of matter. This technique had its beginnings in von Laue's discovery in 1912 that crystals diffract x-rays, the manner of the diffraction revealing the structure of the crystal. At first, x-ray diffraction was used only for the determination of crystal structure.

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  • Pharmacokinetics describes, in a quantitative manner, the passage of drugs through the body. A series of distinctive parameters such as bioavailability, volume of distribution and clearance are used to describe: --The rate and extent of drug absorption into the blood stream The rate and extent of drug movement out of blood into the tissues The rate of drug removal from the body These parameters can then be used to predict the blood concentration of drug that will arise with any given dosage regime. A diverse range of students will have some exposure to PKs....

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  • Over the same period of time, the population in the largest towns have been growing at the expense of rural municipalities. The Norwegian housing market was deregulated through the 1980 s and thus has become more sensi- tive to development in macroeconomic factors like inte- rest rates and unemployment. This was a clear experi- ence during the late 1980s and through the 1990s when the economy first boomed with rising building costs and house prices, then almost collapsed with a rapid increase in real interest rates and an unemployment rate higher than for more than fifty years.

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  • Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfam-ily, has been shown to play pivotal roles in bile acid homeostasis by regu-lating the biosynthesis, conjugation, secretion and absorption of bile acids. Accumulating data suggest that FXR signaling is involved in the pathogen-esis of liver and metabolic disorders.

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  • VOCs from process vents are, where possible, re-used within processes but this is dependent on such factors as VOC composition, any restrictions on re-use and VOC value. The next alternative is to recover the VOC calorific content as fuel and, if not, there may be a requirement for abatement. A combination of techniques may be needed, for example: pre- treatment (to remove moisture and particulates); concentration of a dilute gas stream; primary removal to reduce high concentrations, and finally polishing to achieve the desired release levels.

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  • Identify the ways toxicants are distributed in the body. • Recognize the relationship between route of absorption and pathway for distribution. • Describe factors affecting distribution. • Define volume of distribution. • List storage sites. • Discuss how storage influences toxicant half-life. • Review case studies and model of storage and distribution.

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  • Energy balance and pathophysiology of weight loss. Food intake may be influenced by a wide variety of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli as well as by genetic, psychological, and social factors. Absorption may be impaired because of pancreatic insufficiency, cholestasis, celiac sprue, intestinal tumors, radiation injury, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, or medication effect. These disease processes may be manifest as changes in stool frequency and consistency. Calories may also be lost due to vomiting or diarrhea, glucosuria in diabetes mellitus, or fistulous drainage.

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  • Zinc Zinc is an integral component of many metalloenzymes in the body; it is involved in the synthesis and stabilization of proteins, DNA, and RNA and plays a structural role in ribosomes and membranes. Zinc is necessary for the binding of steroid hormone receptors and several other transcription factors to DNA. Zinc is absolutely required for normal spermatogenesis, fetal growth, and embryonic development.

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  • Anaemia is one of the most common nutritional problems affecting women in developing countries, where iron deficiency usually combines with other micronutrient deficiencies such as folate and vitamin B. In addition, the diet of the poorest populations is often monotonous and mainly based on staple foods, which are low in iron and contain absorption inhibitors. Other important factors involved in the occurrence of anaemia include malaria and hookworm infestations, chronic infections such as HIV, and congenital conditions like sickle cell disease, among others.

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  • Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a circadian rhythm-associated transcription factor with two heme-binding sites on two PAS domains. In the present study, we compared the optical absorption spectra, resonance Raman spectra, heme-binding kinetics and DNA-binding characteristics of the isolated fragment containing the N-terminal basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) of the first PAS (PAS-A) domain of NPAS2 with those of the PAS-A domain alone.

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  • A new procedure for calculation and analysis of XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) cumulants of hcp crystals containing dopant atom has been derived based on quantum statistical theory with generalized anharmonic correlated Einstein model. Analytical expressions for effective local force constants, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, first cumulant or net thermal expansion, second cumulant or Debye Waller factor and third cumulant of hcp crystals containing dopant atom have been derived.

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