Abuse and neglect

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  • Child maltreatment constitutes a social problem that affects all societies of the world. A recent study by the World Health Organisation points out that millions of children suffer some form of maltreatment and require medical and social attention. It should be noted that around 53,000 children are murdered every year; the prevalence of sexual abuse is 73 million (7%) and 150 million (14%) in boys and girls, respectively, under 18 years of age; and between 25% and 50% of the children inform that they have been physically abused. ...

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  • There are approximately 11,000 local public bodies which, together, are responsible for some £200bn of public money. Of these, there are 353 local authorities; 268 NHS bodies (in addition to Special Health Authorities audited by the National Audit Office, and Foundation Trusts); 38 police authorities; and 215 other bodies, including fire and rescue authorities; national park authorities; conservation boards; larger internal drainage boards, joint committees; and probation trusts.

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  • One-time reports also provide Child Health program indicator results e.g., National Survey of Parents of Young Children (66) http://www.investinkids.ca/parents/about-us/ourresearch/articletype/articleview/articleid/1258/ national-survey-of-parents-of-young-children.aspx and Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect [OIS], 2003 (117) http://www.phac.arpc.gc.ca/publicat/cissr-ecirc/pdf/cmic_e.

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  • In a seminal study in New Haven, CT, United States, data from a comprehensive annual health and welfare study of a representative sample of 2812 older people were merged with the database of the local agency concerned with adult abuse for each year over a 9-year period (50). Information for the health survey was recorded by nurses, who saw the older people at a hospital for the first year’s data collection and every third year after that. In the intervening years, data were updated by telephone.

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  • In 2008, the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) – the leading research agency in Brazil – in collaboration with the Research Foundations of the various Brazilian states, called for the creation of “National Institutes of Science and Technology” (CNPq), one of the most important research initiatives that Brazil has seen. CNPq’s National Institutes were conceptualized to be built upon collaborative work of national and international research groups focused on cutting edge areas of science or areas of national priority.

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  • Mistreatment of older people has been identified in facilities for continuing care (such as nursing homes, residential care, hospitals and day care facilities) in almost every country where such institutions exist. Various people may be responsible for the abuse: a paid member of the staff, another resident, a voluntary visitor, or relatives or friends. An abusive or neglectful relationship between the older person and their caregiver at home may not necessarily end once the older person has entered institutional care; the abuse may sometimes continue in a new setting.

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  • The existence of child abuse and neglect extends as far back in history as children themselves. Sadly, the history of the recognition of forms of abuse and neglect, as well as the laws designed to protect children from them, is not nearly as long. Author L. DeMause; in his book The History of Childhood: The Untold History of Child Abuse, stated, “the history of child abuse is a nightmare from which we have only begun to awaken.” 1 The United States followed its European counterparts’ views of children well into the Industrial Revolution, disregarding massive poverty, child...

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  • This report therefore proposes a regulatory system based on the principle that individuals and organisations must not act in a way where the purpose or effect is to promote an unhealthy food product to individuals under the age of 16. This should be a statutory system enshrined in law, not a voluntary industry code. The proposed law prohibits all marketing whose purpose or effect is to promote unhealthy food to children.

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  • The early identification and treatment of toxic stress, including child maltreatment, can lessen the associated long-term negative health and behavioral outcomes. Daycare providers, teachers, and other adults who interact frequently with children should have sufficient knowledge and skills to identify and care for children who have been exposed to traumatic childhood experiences. They should be familiar with support services to meet the needs of children whose problems cannot be adequately addressed by front-line staff.

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  • In this chapter you will learn about the following: Define battering, describe the characteristics of abusive relationships, outline findings that indicate a battered patient, describe prehospital considerations when responding to and caring for battered patients, identify types of elder abuse, discuss legal considerations related to all forms of abuse,...

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  • Child maltreatment constitutes a social problem that affects all societies of the world. A recent study by the World Health Organisation points out that millions of children suffer some form of maltreatment and require medical and social attention. It should be noted that around 53,000 children are murdered every year; the prevalence of sexual abuse is 73 million (7%) and 150 million (14%) in boys and girls, respectively, under 18 years of age; and between 25% and 50% of the children inform that they have been physically abused....

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  • Prison policies often overlook the special needs of women and their health. Many women in prison have high levels of mental illness and drug or alcohol dependence as well as histories of sexual and physical abuse and violence. Issues arising from gender-specific health care needs and family responsibilities are also frequently neglected. Although women represent a small percentage of the total prison population, their numbers are increasing and the rate of increase is much greater than that of men. ...

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  • Hootkani et al. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2010, 5:41 http://www.josr-online.com/content/5/1/41 CASE REPORT Case report Open Access Neglected simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to narcotic drug abuse treated by bilateral one-staged hemiarthroplasty: a case report Alireza Hootkani, Ali Moradi and Ehsan Vahedi* Abstract Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are extremely rare and associated with various conditions.

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  • Most of the early work on abuse of the elderly was limited to domestic settings and carried out in developed countries. In seeking explanations for elder abuse, researchers drew from the literature in the fields of psychology, sociology, gerontology and the study of family violence. To accommodate the complexity of elder abuse and the many factors associated with it, researchers have turned to the ecological model, which was first applied to the study of child abuse and neglect (24) and has been applied more recently to elder abuse (25, 26).

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  • Costs of averting-behaviour result from changes in behaviour due to air pollution. The abstention from outdoor sport activities during a summer day with high ozone concentration, the installation of air filters or a different choice of residential location to avoid high levels of air pollution are some current examples. The higher the costs of avoidance measures, the smaller will probably be the number of air pollution related morbidity cases.

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  • Women constitute a special group within prisons because of their sex. Although the characteristics and corresponding needs of women prisoners can vary considerably between countries, several factors are common to most. These include many mental disorders, a high level of drug or alcohol dependence, many women experiencing sexual and physical abuse and violence before or in prison, the neglect of gender-specific health care needs and additional issues related to the women’s responsibility for children and families.

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  • The health status of prisoners is generally much poorer than that of the general population, and women’s health needs can be seriously neglected in a male-dominated prison system. Many women in prison have a background of physical and sexual abuse and of alcohol and drug dependence. Many did not receive adequate health care before incarceration. Women in prison generally have more mental health problems than women in the general population. This frequently stems from prior victimization.

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  • This definition of elder abuse has been heavily influenced by the work done in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Studies conducted in China (Hong Kong SAR), Finland, Greece, India, Ireland, Israel, Norway, Poland and South Africa have approached the topic in distinctly different ways (8). Norwegian researchers, for instance, identified abuse with a ‘‘triangle of violence’’ that includes a victim, a perpetrator and others, who – directly or indirectly – observe the principal players.

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  • It is generally agreed that abuse of older people is either an act of commission or of omission (in which case it is usually described as ‘‘neglect’’), and that it may be either intentional or unintentional. The abuse may be of a physical nature, it may be psychological (involving emotional or verbal aggression), or it may involve financial or other material maltreatment. Regardless of the type of abuse, it will certainly result in unnecessary suffering, injury or pain, the loss or violation of human rights, and a decreased quality of life for the older person (4).

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  • These efforts of over a century have led to our current understanding that child maltreatment includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as neglect and endangerment. The risk to a child’s physical, mental, or emotional well-being is endangerment. It is this recognition of child endangerment that implicates minors and motor vehicles most often. Today, child abuse statutes encompass child endangerment in several states. In many other states, such crimes are charged under the “reckless” provisions of traditional criminal charges.

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