Accelerator physics

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  • The Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics was established in April 2001 by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Physics and Astronomy to identify scientific opportunities and develop a unifying theme for research on matter under extreme high energy density conditions.

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  • A vector is a quantity that possesses both magnitude and direction. Examples of vector quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force. A vector quantity can be represented by an arrow drawn to scale. The length of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the vector quantity. The direction of the arrow represents the direction of the vector quantity.physics in general is the most scientific study of "physical" and "interaction".

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  • We Americans assume that our economic system will always scamper to provide us with the products we want. Special orders don’t upset us! I want my MTV! The truth is more complicated, especially in our education system, which is paid for by the students but controlled by the professoriate. Witness the perverse success of the bloated science textbook.

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  • This report originated in 1999 as a result of discussions between the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and officials within NASA’s Office of Space Science Sun- Earth Connections program. As noted in the statement of task (Appendix A), the objective of the study was to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of magnetized plasmas in the solar system. By emphasizing the connections between locally occurring (solar system) structures and processes and their astrophysical counterparts, the study would contribute to a unified view of cosmic plasma behavior.

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  • This cross-disciplinary book documents the key research challenges in the mathematical sciences and physics that could enable the economical development of novel biomedical imaging devices. It is hoped that the infusion of new insights from mathematical scientists and physicists will accelerate progress in imaging.

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  • This manual explains why Windows slows down and what you can do to prevent this from happening too quickly. We will explain how to store your data to reduce disk fragmentation, how you should properly remove programs to avoid registry junk, which system maintenance tools you should use to maintain a top notch performance, how to protect your system from malware attacks, and how to physically clean your machine to avoid hardware damage and failure.

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  • Science of brachytherapy is currently increasing in the field of cancer therapy. By virtue of the development of computer assisted technologies, we can reap the benefits of accurate radiotherapies more than ever, which enabled precise irradiation to a target safely avoiding unnecessary involvement of the surrounding normal tissue. Unlike teleradiotherapy provided by X-ray linear accelerator, brachytherapy utilizes radiation source placing inside or close to the target.

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  • A wave is one of the basic physics phenomena observed by mankind since ancient time. The wave is also one of the most-studied physics phenomena that can be well described by mathematics. The study may be the best illustration of what is “science”, which approximates the laws of nature by using human defined symbols, operators, and languages.

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  • Lastly, there is a new form of science emerging. Each scientific discipline is generating huge data volumes, for example, from accelerators (physics), telescopes (astronomy), remote sensors (earth sciences), and DNA microarrays (biology). Simulations are also generating massive datasets. Organizing, analyzing and summarizing these huge scientific datasets stands as a real DBMS challenge. So is the positioning and transfer of data...

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  • Real-time programming Newton’s law for translation: F = m a F in Newtons, m in kg, a in m/s2. Acceleration a = dv / dt Kinetic energy E = ½ m v2 E in Joules, m in kg, v in m/s So even though an object wobbles when there is no external force, the angular momentum is conserved: q = I 

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  • This book evolved from the first term of a two-term course on the physics of charged particle acceleration that I taught at the University of New Mexico and at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first term covered conventional accelerators in the single particle limit. The second term covered collective effects in charged particle beams, including high current transport and instabilities. The material was selected to make the course accessible to graduate students in physics and electrical engineering with no previous background in accelerator theory.

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  • The bremsstrahlung beam with energy end point of 65M eV created when the e− beam with energy of 65M eV irradiated to thin wolfram target was used to irradiate to TiO2 sample in order to make the 46 Ti (γ, pn)44m,g Sc reaction. The gamma spectrum of Sc44m,g was analyzed by the gammavision spectrometry with HPGe detector at linear accelerator laboratory in POSTECH, Korea.

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  • Bremsstrahlung energy spectrum from thin W target produced by 15 MeV incident electrons was determined by a combination of measurements and theoretical calculation. The shape of spectrum was calculated by Monte-Carlo method using the code EGS4. The photon flux measurements were performed based on the activation technique using the high pure metallic foils. The radioactivities of the irradiated foils were measured by using a gamma spectrometer with a high energy resolution HPGe detector.

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  • In the 1990s, regulations in some countries (e.g. Sweden, France) limited to 1.5% the maxi- mum proportion of UVB in the UV output of tanning appliances. However, in practice, the UV output and spectral characteristics of tanning appliances vary considerably. Surveys in the United Kingdom on tanning appliances operated in public or commercial facilities revealed sub- stantial differences in UV output, mainly for UVB, for which up to 60-fold differences in output have been observed (Wright et al., 1996; McGinley et al., 1998). The proportion of UVB in total UV out- put varied from 0.

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  • Intra-partum, post-natal and neonatal cares have the potential to save 20-40% of newborn lives. Care at birth and in the first days of life not only saves the lives of mothers and newborns, but also reduces serious complications that may have long-term effect. The SNL (Saving Newborn Lives) initiative demonstrates remarkable changes in all areas of maternal and newborn care. Training CHWs in Essential Newborn Care (ENC) has increased the proportion of women receiving early ante- and post-natal care. Trained TBAs are important providers of delivery and PNC services in the community.

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  • In Physics we have parameters that can be completely described by a number and are known as “scalars” .Temperature, and mass are such parameters Other physical parameters require additional information about direction and are known as “vectors” . Examples of vectors are displacement, velocity and acceleration.

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  • Microsensors are appropriately categorized as “transducers”, which are defined as devices that convert energy from one form to another. In the case of microsensors, the device typically converts a measured mechanical signal into an electrical signal. The critical physical dimensions of microsensors devices can vary from well below one micron on the lower end of the dimensional spectrum, all the way to several millimeters.

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  • Wet processing of textiles uses large quantities of water, and electrical and thermal energy. Most of these processes involve the use of chemicals as assisting, accelerating or retarding their rates and are carried out at elevated temperatures to transfer mass from processing liquid medium across the surface of textile material in a reasonable time. So, we can use some natural materials and some physical tools to reduce the chemicals, water, energy and pollution.

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  • To stay in business, you must develop and maintain a Value Proposition that is compelling. Whether you are a high-volume manufacturer of commercial products or a low-volume, high-value-added producer, over the last decade Reliability has become a critical aspect of that proposition. Customers have come to expect that every product shipped will work the first time and every time. This is evidenced in the PPM, Six Sigma, and Cpk programs that we, as manufacturers, are expected to deliver.

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  • objective or subjective, when making decisions under uncertainty. This is especially true when the consequences of the decisions can have a significant impact, financial or otherwise. Most of us make everyday personal decisions this way, using an intuitive process based on our experience and subjective judgments. Mainstream statistical analysis, however, seeks objectivity by generally restricting the information used in an analysis to that obtained from a current set of clearly relevant data.

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