Microsoft Office 2007 is the latest-and-greatest version of a long line of versions, starting (not surprisingly) with Version 1. Not that this is
the 2,007th version. Somewhere along the way Microsoft switched from using sequential numbers for versions to using years. Teresa Hennig loves challenges, solving problems, and making things happen. Her company, Data
Dynamics NW, reflects her dynamic personality and her innate ability to quickly grasp a situation and
formulate a solution.
Navigation in large, complex and multidimensional information spaces is still a challenging task. The search is even more difﬁcult in small devices such as MP3 players, which only have a reduced screen and lack of a proper keyboard. In the MIAMM project 1 we have developed a multimodal dialogue system that uses speech, haptic interaction and advanced techniques for information visualization to allow a natural and fast access to music databases on small scale devices.
But I can take this stand strongly only by being very liberal in defining both "natural language interface" and "database systems". Instead of assuming that the problem is one of using typed English to access and/or update a file or files in a single database system, let us define a spectrum of potential natural language interfaces (limiting that phrase, for the moment, to mean typed English sentences) to various kinds of information systems. At one end of this spectrum is simple, single database query, in which the translation from NL to the db system is quite direct. ...
One of several current trends in distributed database system de-
sign is a move away from supporting traditional ACID database
transactions. Some systems, such as Amazon’s Dynamo ,Mon-
goDB , CouchDB , and Cassandra  provide no transac-
tional support whatsoever. Others provide only limited transaction-
ality, such as single-row transactional updates (e.g. Bigtable )
or transactions whose accesses are limited to small subsets of a
database (e.g. Azure , Megastore , and the Oracle NoSQL
introduction What is SQL? SQL (pronounced "ess-que-el") stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems. SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a database, or retrieve data from a database. Some common relational database management systems that use SQL are: Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Ingres, etc.
This manual describes all features of the Oracle server, an object-relational database
management system. It describes how the Oracle server functions and lays a
conceptual foundation for much of the practical information contained in other
Oracle server manuals. Information in this manual applies to the Oracle server
running on all operating systems.
Oracle8i and Oracle8i Enterprise Edition
Oracle8i Concepts contains information that describes the features and functionality
of the Oracle8i and the Oracle8i Enterprise Edition products.
One important consideration when examining database technologies is the user
communitythe number of users who need to be able to use the database.
Users are not only the people, but also the other applications that can
interactively access the database. If a different application or system needs to
access a database, its impact on the database must be taken into account.
Because P2P systems designers have to a large extent failed to overcome these challenges, the semantics provided
by these systems is typically quite weak. In most content sharing systems, only popular content is readily accessible
— yet content popularity seems to be driven by Zipf distributions, in which a large fraction of requests are directed to
unpopular content. Similarly, current content sharing systems ignore problems such as updates to content, and they
typically only support retrieval of objects by name.
The product type of the Target of Evaluation (TOE) described in this ST is a database
management system (DBMS) with the capability to limit TOE access to authorized users,
enforce Discretionary Access Controls on objects under the control of the database
management system based on user and/or role authorizations, and to provide user
accountability via audit of users‘ actions.
A DBMS is a computerized repository that stores information and allows authorized users to
retrieve and update that information.
Oracle also uses locks to control concurrent access to data. When updating
information, the data server holds that information with a lock until the update is
submitted or committed. Until that happens, no one else can make changes to the
locked information. This ensures the data integrity of the system.
Oracle provides unique non-escalating row-level locking. Unlike other data servers
that “escalate” locks to cover entire groups of rows or even the entire table, Oracle
always locks only the row of information being updated.
Users and Security
The database administrator defines the names of the users who are allowed to access a database. A security domain defines the settings that apply to the user.
A user who requires access to the database can be authenticated by one of the following:
The means of authentication is specified at the time the user is defined in the database and can be altered later. This lesson covers authentication by database and by operating system only.
An improved version of IRACQ (for Interpretation Rule ACQuisition) is presented. I Our approach to semantic knowledge acquisition: 1 ) is in the context of a general purpose NL interface rather than one that accesses only databases, 2) employs a knowledge representation formalism with limited inferencing capabilities, 3) assumes a trained person but not an AI expert, and 4) provides a complete environment for not only acquiring semantic knowledge, but also maintaining and editing it in a consistent knowledge base. IRACQ is currently in use at the Naval Ocean Systems Center. ...