Upon completion of this chapter you should understand: Basic concepts associated with the Income Statement, basic concepts associated with the Balance Sheet, cash flow and cash flow statements, financial statement generation and the accounting equation, other types of financial statements.
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Accounting equation entries applied to capital costs and expenses and their impact on financial statements; depreciation methods, calculating depreciation and book value of assets and the affect on profit, taxes and cash flow; inventory management and the affect on the accounting equation; financial statement ratios and their use for economic decision making.
After completing this unit, you should be able to: Explain the nature and general purpose of financial statements; explain certain accounting principles that are important for an understanding of financial statements and how professional judgment by accountants may affect the application of those principles; explain how the statement of financial position, often referred to as the balance sheet, is an expansion of the basic accounting equation;...
Above all, remember that accounting is a vehicle for providing financial information in a form
that assists decision-making. Work hard at presenting your work as neatly as possible and
remember that pictures (in this case, financial figures) only carry half the message. When you
are asked for them, words of explanation and insight are essential in order to make an examiner
appreciate what you know and that you actually understand what the figures mean.
English for Accounting and Auditing has been specifically developed for people studying and working in accounting and auditing who need English to study higher programs or communicate in a variety of situations with colleagues and business partners. In this short course, students will learn the language related to accounting and auditing as well as ways toachieve their goals.
An understanding of the principles of bookkeeping
and accounting is essential for anyone
who is interested in a successful career in business.
The purpose of bookkeeping and accounting
is to provide information concerning the financial
affairs of a business. This information
is needed by owners, managers, creditors, and
An individual who earns a living by recording the financial activities
of a business is known as a bookkeeper, while the process of classifying and summarizing business transactions and interpreting their effects is
accomplished by the accountant.
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Explain and use basic financial terms and concepts.
Define the key financial statements and accounting equations and explain their purposes and
Describe the different forms of business structure and recognize similarities and differences
Change is a given in business today, and managers are expected to do more and understand more
than they ever had to in the past. How often have you heard statements just like these—often from
your own managers?...
The success or failure of a business is measured in dollars. And
dollars are recorded and reported using accounting. Accounting
is truly the language of business. No matter what your role
may be, if you are involved in business, you can benefit from
learning accounting. That’s what this book is all about—taking
the subject and making it understandable and accessible.
You likely have a general concept of what accountants do. They capture information about the
transactions and events of a business, and summarize that activity in reports that are used by persons
interested in the entity. But, you likely do not realize the complexity of accomplishing this task. It
involves a talented blending of technical knowledge and measurement artistry that can only be fully
appreciated via extensive study of the subject.
Chapter 2 - The accounting cycle: During the period. In this chapter you will learn: Identify the basic steps in measuring external transactions, analyze the impact of external transactions on the accounting equation, assess whether the impact of external transactions results in a debit or credit to an account balance, record transactions using debits and credits, post transactions to t-accounts in the general ledger, prepare a trial balance.
After you have mastered the material in this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the role of accounting in society; construct an accounting equation using elements of financial statement terminology; record business events in general ledger accounts organized under an accounting equation; classify business events as asset source, use, or exchange transactions; use general ledger account information to prepare four financial statements; record business events using a horizontal financial statements model.
The learning objectives in this chapter are: Record basic accrual and deferral events in a horizontal financial statements model; organize general ledger accounts under an accounting equation; prepare financial statements based on accrual accounting; describe the closing process, the accounting cycle, and the matching concept; explain how business events affect financial statements over multiple accounting cycles.
Chapter 2 - Basic financial statements. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature and general purpose of financial statements, explain certain accounting principles that are important for an understanding of financial statements and how professional judgment by accountants may affect the application of those principles, demonstrate how certain business transactions affect the elements of the accounting equation: Assets = Liabilities+ Owner's Equity,...
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain the role of accounting information, identify the users of accounting information, distinguish between financial accounting and management accounting, explain the role of the regulatory bodies in developing generally accepted accounting principles, explain five of the general principles that underlie accounting standards,...
Chapter 2 - Review of the accounting process. The purpose of this chapter is to review the fundamental accounting process used to produce the financial statements. This review establishes a framework for the study of the concepts covered in intermediate accounting. Actual accounting systems differ significantly from company to company. This chapter focuses on the many features that tend to be common to any accounting system.
Chapter 1: Introducing financial accounting. The goals of this chapter are: Explain the purpose and importance of accounting; identify users and uses of, and opportunities in, accounting; explain why ethics are crucial to accounting; explain generally accepted accounting principles and define and apply several accounting principles; define and interpret the accounting equation and each of its components.
Chapter 2 - Analyzing business transactions. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Record in equation form the financial effects of a business transaction; define, identify, and understand the relationship between asset, liability, and owner’s equity accounts; analyze the effects of business transactions on a firm’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity and record these effects in accounting equation form; prepare an income statement.
Chapter 1 explained that the primary means of conveying financial information to investors, creditors, and other external users is through financial statements and related notes. The purpose of this chapter is to review the fundamental accounting process used to produce the financial statements. This review establishes a framework for the study of the concepts covered in intermediate accounting. Actual accounting systems differ significantly from company to company. This chapter focuses on the many features that tend to be common to any accounting system.
The business world is full of endless opportunity to make it big, or
crash and burn. Small businesses crop up every day, but very few of
them last to see a second anniversary, even when their basic idea was
a good one. In this world, the difference between success and failure
is in knowing how to work the numbers. Those who learn to unlock
the secrets of financial statements win; those who muddle through and
leave the numbers solely to the “numbers guys” often lose their shirts.
A complete introduction to partial differential equations, this textbook provides a rigorous yet accessible guide to students in mathematics, physics and engineering. The presentation is lively and up to date, with particular emphasis on developing an appreciation of underlying mathematical theory. Beginning with basic deﬁnitions, properties and derivations of some fundamental equations of mathematical physics from basic principles, the book studies ﬁrst-order equat