Accounting measurement

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  • This revision of Principles of Accounting is based on an understanding of the nature, culture, and motivations of today’s undergraduate students and on extensive feedback from many instructors who use our book. These substantial changes meet the needs of these students, who not only face a business world increasingly complicated by ethical issues, globalization, and technology but who also have more demands on their time.

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  • When I first began discussing the concept of a book on governmental accounting for nonaccountants, the publisher, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., asked a good question: “Who would be interested in a book on governmental accounting who is not an accountant?” The quick answers were obvious—bond underwriters and investors, lawyers, elected officials, financial and other managers working in government, labor unions, and so forth.

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  • Generally accepted accounting principles, known as GAAP, require that inventories be carried on the balance sheet at lower-of-cost-or-market. Lower-of-cost-or-market represents a departure from the historical cost concept, but is considered a conservative accounting measure.

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  • Chapter 1 - A framework for financial accounting. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe the two primary functions of financial accounting, understand the business activities that financial accounting measures, determine how financial accounting information is communicated through financial statements, describe the role that financial accounting plays in the decision-making process.

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  • administrative expenses, being treated as period costs. ABSORPTION VARIANCE is the variance from budgeted absorption costing of manufactured product. See also ABSORPTION COSTING. ACAT (Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation) is a national organization established in 1973 as a non-profit independent testing, accrediting and monitoring organization. The Council seeks to identify professionals in independent practice who specialize in providing financial, accounting and taxation services to individuals and small to mid-size businesses.

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  • The empirical relationship between capital controls and the financial development of credit and equity markets is examined. We extend the literature on this subject along a number of dimensions.Specifically, we (1) investigate a substantially broader set of proxy measures of financial development; (2) create and utilize a new index based on the IMF measures of exchange restrictions that incorporates a measure of the intensity of capital controls; and (3) extend the previous literature by systematically examining the implications of institutional (legal) factors.

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  • In earlier book chapters, it was noted that the accounting profession uses an “all inclusive” approach to measuring income. Virtually all transactions, other than shareholder related transactions like issuing stock and paying dividends, are eventually channeled through the income statement. However, there are certain situations where the accounting rules have evolved in sophistication to provide special disclosures.

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  • Thomas Ahrens Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer in Accounting at the London School of Economics where he has been working since 1996. His research is mostly qualitative. It is broadly concerned with accounting and organisational process. Thomas has compared management accounting practices in contemporary British and German firms and studied the uses of performance measurement systems in a large U.K. restaurant chain. He has also written on comparative and case study research in accounting. Thomas’ latest research project is investigating performance measurement in British and German banks.

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  • IAS 2 Inventories was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in December 1993. It replaced IAS 2 Valuation and Presentation of Inventories in the Context of the Historical Cost System (originally issued in October 1975). The Standing Interpretations Committee developed SIC-1 Consistency—Different Cost Formulas for Inventories, which was issued in December 1997

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  • Creative accounting is nothing new. It has been a temptation and a problem from the moment that accounting principles were first used to report on business performance. There is an old joke about the accountant who is asked to add up two and two and who produces the response ‘What would you like the answer to be?’ It is an appropriate reminder that financial measurement is not an exact science. In fact this old joke provides a good starting point because it leads to a helpful working definition of creative accounting.

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  • The success or failure of a business is measured in dollars. And dollars are recorded and reported using accounting. Accounting is truly the language of business. No matter what your role may be, if you are involved in business, you can benefit from learning accounting. That’s what this book is all about—taking the subject and making it understandable and accessible.

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  • This monograph emerged from our efforts to study the behavior of the households from the Townsend Thai Monthly Survey. This experience convinced us that imposing an accounting framework and creating financial statements would be a useful, indeed a necessary, first step for the analysis of household finance, especially from high-frequency, monthly data.

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  • Governance research in accounting exploits the role of accounting information as a source of credible information variables that support the existence of enforceable contracts, such as compensation contracts with payoffs to managers contingent on realized measures of performance, the monitoring of managers by boards of directors and outside investors and regulators, and the exercise of investor rights granted by existing securities laws. The remainder of Section 3 is organized as follows. Section 3.

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  • Why is the market share of accounting measures shrinking, and can cross-sectional differences in the extent of shrinkage be explained? Has the information content of accounting information itself deteriorated, or should we look to more fundamental changes in the economic environment? For example, Milliron (2000) documents a significant shift over the past twenty years in board characteristics measuring director accountability, independence, and effectiveness consistent with a general increase in directors’ incentive alignment with shareholders’ interests.

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  • Bertrand and Mullainathan (1998) illustrate the potential power of designs that consider interactions across governance mechanisms. They examine the impact on executive compensation of changes in states’ anti-takeover legislation. Adoption of anti-takeover legislation presumably reduces pressure on top managers. They attempt to distinguish between optimal contracting and skimming theories in explaining observed contracting arrangements.

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  • These accounts measure the capacity or potential of ecosystems to deliver ecosystem services in a sustainable way. Typical indicators are Landscape Ecosystem Potential (LEP), Green Accessible Landscape Infrastructure (GALI) and Rivers Ecosystem Potential (REP).

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  • You likely have a general concept of what accountants do. They capture information about the transactions and events of a business, and summarize that activity in reports that are used by persons interested in the entity. But, you likely do not realize the complexity of accomplishing this task. It involves a talented blending of technical knowledge and measurement artistry that can only be fully appreciated via extensive study of the subject.

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  • This project originated in the Board on Testing and Assessment (BOTA) in 2002 as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 was in its early stages of implementation. The initial discussions were sparked by the different perspectives on the use of test-based incentives by the board members, whose expertise included a wide range of disciplines. In particular, the board’s interest in the topic was animated by the apparent tension between the economics and educational measurement literatures about the potential of test-based accountability to improve student achievement....

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  • In earlier book chapters, it was noted that the accounting profession uses an “all inclusive” approach to measuring income. Virtually all transactions, other than shareholder related transactions like issuing stock and paying dividends, are eventually channeled through the income statement. However, there are certain situations where the accounting rules have evolved in sophistication to provide special disclosures.

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  • As an academic who teaches courses on performance measurement and public sector accountability, I continually ask myself, and my students, questions about government performance.

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