Accounts and errors

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  • This textbook is organised to provide you with what has been found to be the most appropriate sequencing of topics as you build the foundations of your accounting knowledge. You will find that a number of features of the book, properly used, will enhance your understanding and extend your ability to cope with what will possibly appear, at first, to be a mystifying array of rules and procedures.

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  • In some cases, there may be reasonable proxies for quantified benefits and costs. For example, a firm might possess relatively complete technical descriptions of material flows (inputs, intermediate products, emissions). These material quantities, while not explicitly translated into financial quantities, may provide rules of thumb that qualitatively inform decision-making and guard against severe errors in decision-making.

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  • The year 2004 witnessed what was probably the most highly publicized fingerprint error ever exposed: the case of Brandon Mayfield, an Oregon attorney and Muslim convert who was held for two weeks as a material witness in the Madrid bombing of March 11, 2004, a terrorist attack in which 191 people were killed. Mayfield, who claimed not to have left the United States in ten years and did not have a passport, was implicated in this attack almost solely on the basis of a latent fingerprint found on a bag in Madrid containing detonators and explosives in the aftermath of the bombing.

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  • Common to these episodes is a struggle to manage tensions associated with the (long- term) movement of accountants into markets that have not been conventionally associated with their professional expertise and status.

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  • Learning Objectives Define what is meant by internal control and describe some key elements of an internal control system for cash receipts and disbursements. Encourages adherence to company policies and procedures Promotes operational efficiency Minimizes errors and theft...

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  • Governance research in accounting exploits the role of accounting information as a source of credible information variables that support the existence of enforceable contracts, such as compensation contracts with payoffs to managers contingent on realized measures of performance, the monitoring of managers by boards of directors and outside investors and regulators, and the exercise of investor rights granted by existing securities laws. The remainder of Section 3 is organized as follows. Section 3.

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  • Assume a policy with a $2 million premium that reimburses the policyholder when aggregate losses for the calendar year exceed $10 million. Assume that the losses covered by the policy are generally low severity/high frequency, with minimal catastrophe potential (i.e., the policy is meant to cover mostly pricing risk, not large loss risk). Also assume that the expected losses are $8 million, and that the expected losses normally occur evenly throughout the year. After one quarter, losses would have to be 500% of expected for attachment to occur.

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  • Second, we reestimate our baseline specification while adding control variables, ranging from initial fiscal and current account balances to initial bank credit risk and household debt levels. These could plausibly have both affected the growth forecast error and been correlated with fiscal consolidation forecasts. Not controlling for such factors could influence the estimated relation between fiscal consolidation forecasts and growth forecast errors. We find, however, that our results are robust to the introduction of such controls. ...

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  • In earlier book chapters, it was noted that the accounting profession uses an “all inclusive” approach to measuring income. Virtually all transactions, other than shareholder related transactions like issuing stock and paying dividends, are eventually channeled through the income statement. However, there are certain situations where the accounting rules have evolved in sophistication to provide special disclosures.

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  • Supporters of credit scoring note that credit scores have statistical validity, and are predictive of repayment behavior for large populations. However, this does not mean that credit data are error free, nor that credit scoring models are perfect predictors of individual creditworthiness; it only means that they work on average. While the systems do present an accurate risk profile of a large numbers of consumers, data users who manage large numbers of accounts priced by credit risk have a greater tolerance for errors in credit scoring systems than consumers do.

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  • Life cycle analysis, examining all stages in using a re- source, is central to the full cost accounting needed to guide public policy and private investment. A previous study examined the life cycle stages of oil, but without systematic quantification. 24 This pa- per is intended to advance understanding of the measurable, quantifiable, and qualitative costs of coal. In order to rigorously examine these different damage endpoints, we examined the many stages in the life cycle of coal, using a framework of en- vironmental externalities, or “hidden costs.

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  • No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical or electronic, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, or transmitted by email without permission in writing from the author. While all attempts have been made to verify the information provided in this publication, neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for errors, omissions, or contrary interpretations of the subject matter herein.

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  • All attempts have been made to verify information provided in this publication and any attachments, neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for errors, omissions or contrary

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  • This paper explores the use of clickthrough data for query spelling correction. First, large amounts of query-correction pairs are derived by analyzing users' query reformulation behavior encoded in the clickthrough data. Then, a phrase-based error model that accounts for the transformation probability between multi-term phrases is trained and integrated into a query speller system.

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  • Building on work detecting errors in dependency annotation, we set out to correct local dependency errors. To do this, we outline the properties of annotation errors that make the task challenging and their existence problematic for learning. For the task, we define a feature-based model that explicitly accounts for non-relations between words, and then use ambiguities from one model to constrain a second, more relaxed model. In this way, we are successfully able to correct many errors, in a way which is potentially applicable to dependency parsing more generally. ...

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  • This chapter explores how budgets can be adjusted so that meaningful comparisons to actual costs can be made. This chapter include objectives: Prepare a flexible budget, prepare a report showing activity variances, prepare a report showing revenue and spending variances, prepare a performance report that combines activity variances and revenue and spending variances, prepare a flexible budget with more than one cost driver, understand common errors made in preparing performance reports based on budgets and actual results.

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  • First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 17 January 2008. IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards was issued by the International Accounting Standards Board in June 2003.

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  • This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 17 January 2008. IAS 23 Borrowing Costs was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in December 1993. It replaced IAS 23 Capitalisation of Borrowing Costs (issued March 1984). In April 2001 the International Accounting Standards Board resolved that all Standards and Interpretations issued under previous Constitutions continued to be applicable unless and until they were amended or withdrawn. IAS 23 was amended by IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors (issued December 2003).

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  • The measurement of all international transactions in and out of a country over a year is a difficult task Mistakes, errors, and statistical discrepancies will and do occur Current and capital account entries are recorded independent of one another, not together as this accounting method would prescribe

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