Mastering American English is the book selected for complicity best understanding of all the grammar rules. Words, sentences, and other factors, as well as explaining the combination of them is difficult because this book is a very accurate and the U.S.. This is a book appropriate to understand American English and the book is ideal for foreigners who want to excel as TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). This book describes the rules and power generated, so nobody should have any problem to achieve good scores in English tests.
What is Technical English: Vocabulary and Grammar and who is it for?
Technical English: Vocabulary and Grammar will help you increase your knowledge of technical
English and develop your vocabulary and grammar. By working through the materials you will
become more accurate and more appropriate in a range of key technical contexts. You can use it
on your own (self-access) or in class (as part of a course).
Effective pronunciation involes accurate production of individual sounds in a total lânguge situation including tress and intônatin.Sounds english is a course which trains in this complex area of language learning in this complex area of language learing.Each unit stars with intensive practive in hearing and saying particular sounds, then moves on to reat- life
Headway is for students who want to use English accurately and fluently, and to communicate with ease in both social and everyday situatiuons. This latest addition to the Headway family offers the beginner and false beginner all the best features of the Headway package plus the newer features of 'Everyday English' sections, an integrated vocabulary syllabus, and revision and self-access sections after every four units.
Conversations these exercises can be used for both listening and speaking practice. They require you to work with a partner. Because the conversation exercises model conversational expressions and pronunciation and present relevant functions, accurate repetition of the conversations on the audio is important.
Blending communicative and interactive approaches with tried-and-true grammar teaching, Basic English Grammar, Third Edition, by Betty Schrampfer Azar and Stacy A. Hagen, offers concise, accurate, level-appropriate grammar information with an abundance of exercises, contexts, and classroom activities.
This paper proposes a new method for approximate string search, speciﬁcally candidate generation in spelling error correction, which is a task as follows. Given a misspelled word, the system ﬁnds words in a dictionary, which are most “similar” to the misspelled word. The paper proposes a probabilistic approach to the task, which is both accurate and efﬁcient. The approach includes the use of a log linear model, a method for training the model, and an algorithm for ﬁnding the top k candidates. ...
We study the challenges raised by Arabic verb and subject detection and reordering in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We show that post-verbal subject (VS) constructions are hard to translate because they have highly ambiguous reordering patterns when translated to English. In addition, implementing reordering is difﬁcult because the boundaries of VS constructions are hard to detect accurately, even with a state-of-the-art Arabic dependency parser.
We report in this paper our work on accurately generating case markers and sufﬁxes in English-to-Hindi SMT. Hindi is a relatively free word-order language, and makes use of a comparatively richer set of case markers and morphological sufﬁxes for correct meaning representation. From our experience of large-scale English-Hindi MT, we are convinced that ﬂuency and ﬁdelity in the Hindi output get an order of magnitude facelift if accurate case markers and sufﬁxes are produced.
When automatically translating from a weakly inﬂected source language like English to a target language with richer grammatical features such as gender and dual number, the output commonly contains morpho-syntactic agreement errors. To address this issue, we present a target-side, class-based agreement model.
The Chinese language is characterized by the lack of formal devices such as morphological tense and number that often provide important clues for syntactic processing tasks. While state-of-theart tagging systems have achieved accuracies above 97% on English, Chinese POS tagging has proven to be more challenging and obtained accuracies about 93-94% (Tseng et al., 2005b; Huang et al., 2007, 2009; Li et al., 2011).
We present a novel classiﬁer-based deterministic parser for Chinese constituency parsing. Our parser computes parse trees from bottom up in one pass, and uses classiﬁers to make shift-reduce decisions. Trained and evaluated on the standard training and test sets, our best model (using stacked classiﬁers) runs in linear time and has labeled precision and recall above 88% using gold-standard part-of-speech tags, surpassing the best published results. Our SVM parser is 2-13 times faster than state-of-the-art parsers, while producing more accurate results. ...
This paper introduces a novel framework for the accurate retrieval of relational concepts from huge texts. Prior to retrieval, all sentences are annotated with predicate argument structures and ontological identiﬁers by applying a deep parser and a term recognizer. During the run time, user requests are converted into queries of region algebra on these annotations. Structural matching with pre-computed semantic annotations establishes the accurate and efﬁcient retrieval of relational concepts. This framework was applied to a text retrieval system for MEDLINE. ...
Automatically acquired lexicons with subcategorization information have already proved accurate and useful enough for some purposes but their accuracy still shows room for improvement. By means of diathesis alternation, this paper proposes a new filtering method, which improved the performance of Korhonen’s acquisition system remarkably, with the precision increased to 91.18% and recall unchanged, making the acquired lexicon much more practical for further manual proofreading and other NLP uses. ...
We present a simple but accurate parser which exploits both large tree fragments and symbol reﬁnement. We parse with all fragments of the training set, in contrast to much recent work on tree selection in data-oriented parsing and treesubstitution grammar learning. We require only simple, deterministic grammar symbol reﬁnement, in contrast to recent work on latent symbol reﬁnement.
Data-driven function tag assignment has been studied for English using Penn Treebank data. In this paper, we address the question of whether such method can be applied to other languages and Treebank resources. In addition to simply extend previous method from English to Chinese, we also proposed an effective way to recognize function tags directly from lexical information, which is easily scalable for languages that lack sufﬁcient parsing resources or have inherent linguistic challenges for parsing. ...
This paper focuses on the use of advanced techniques of text analysis as support for collocation extraction. A hybrid system is presented that combines statistical methods and multilingual parsing for detecting accurate collocational information from English, French, Spanish and Italian corpora. The advantage of relying on full parsing over using a traditional window method (which ignores the syntactic information) is ﬁrst theoretically motivated, then empirically validated by a comparative evaluation experiment. ...
Named entity translation is indispensable in cross language information retrieval nowadays. We propose an approach of combining lexical information, web statistics, and inverse search based on Google to backward translate a Chinese named entity (NE) into English. Our system achieves a high Top-1 accuracy of 87.6%, which is a relatively good performance reported in this area until present.
We demonstrate that an unlexicalized PCFG can parse much more accurately than previously shown, by making use of simple, linguistically motivated state splits, which break down false independence assumptions latent in a vanilla treebank grammar. Indeed, its performance of 86.36% (LP/LR F1 ) is better than that of early lexicalized PCFG models, and surprisingly close to the current state-of-theart.
Systems Analysis and Design: Chapter 15 - Designing Accurate Data Entry Procedure's Objectives is Understand the uses of effective coding to support users in accomplishing their tasks; Design effective and efficient data capture approaches for people and systems.