Xem 1-20 trên 341 kết quả Acid analysis
  • Introduction: Small amount of drugs and poisons incorporated into human bodies are hidden among large amounts of biological components, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and membranes. It is not easy to detect only a target compound from such complicated matrices. Before instrumental analysis, extraction procedure is usually essential and very important.

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  • Introduction: The identification of a causative toxin is one of the most important tasks in emergency medicine; it requires both rapidness and accuracy. In the Japan-shaking poisoning incidents taking place in 1998, such as curry (arsenous acid) poisoning in Wakayama, sodium azide poisoning in Niigata and cyanide poisoning in Nagano, the importance of a rapid and accurate analysis system for poisons was well recognized by Japanese people and goverment.

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  • .FOOD PROTEIN ANALYSIS Quantitative Ideal for planning, performing, and interpreting food protein analyses, especially as it relates to the effect of food processing on protei investigation results. Delineates basic research principles, practices, and anticipated outcomes in each of the illustrated protein assays.Effects on Processing R. K. Owusu-Apenten The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Marcel Dekker, Inc. TM New York • Basel Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. .ISBN: 0-8247-0684-6 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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  • Introduction: Propionic acid derivative analgesic-antipyretics ( Table 2.1) are non-steroidal and antiinflammatory drugs. As one of mechanisms of their pharmacological actions, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis can be mentioned. Although fatal cases due to propionic acid derivative analgesic-antipyretics are not many in the world, the incidence of poisoning (including survived cases) by this drug group is relatively high among therapeutic drugs in Japan [1].

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  • Introduction: Non-selective phosphorus-containing amino acid-type herbicides (PAAHs) to be used for foliage exhibit lower toxicities than paraquat and are easily obtainable; they, thus, have come into wide use since 1980. The PAAHs include glufosinate (GLUF), glyphosate (GLYP) and bialaphos (BIAL). In Japan, there are many kinds of products containing GLUF and GLYP commercially available, and the number of suicidal cases using them is increasing [1].

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  • Introduction: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) ( Figure 4.1) has been being used as an analgesic-antipyretic for a long time; it is contained in many of over-the-counter drugs. Although ASA is relatively safe, various poisoning symptoms, such as lowered consciousness levels, hypotension, pulmonary edema and convulsion, were reported upon ingestion of a large amount of this drug [1]. For analysis of ASA, methods by HPLC [2–19], GC [20–23], GC/MS [24] and capillary electrophoresis [25–27] were reported; among these methods, HPLC is most popular. ...

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  • Introduction: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with the smell of putrid eggs; it can exist in both nonionic and ionic forms in aqueous solution. The ratio of the nonionic form to the total ionized one is influenced by concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution. Under acidic conditions, H2S does not ionized and evaporated from water; under alkaline conditions it is easily ionized and retained in the solution.

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  • Introduction: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly; 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically modified from ergot alkaloid produced by a bacterium Claviceps purpurea.

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  • Introduction: Determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood is important for the diagnosis of poisoning by oxidants, such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, chlorite, alkyl nitrites, nitroglycerin, aniline and other compounds. In 1938, Evelyn and Malloy [1] had devised a photoelectric method for determination of Met-Hb in blood. Minor modifications of this method were made by several researchers to increase sensitivity [2–4]. These methods are based on a phenomenon that the absorbance maximum of weakly acidic Met-Hb at 630 nm disappears by addition of cyanide.

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  • Introduction: Methanol (methyl alcohol) poisoning accidents take place most frequently by drinking it in mistake for ethanol. Methanol poisoning is not due to the effect of methanol itself, but due to toxicity of its metabolites. Methanol is rapidly absorbed into human body through the airway mucous membranes, digestive tract mucous membranes or the skin; it is metabolized into formaldehyde (formalin, HCHO) and then formic acid (HCOOH) by the actions of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively.

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  • Introduction: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is volatile (boiling point: 25.7°C) and weakly acidic (pKa: 9.2). It is bound with cytochrome oxidase to inhibit its activity and induce cellular anoxia; it shows an immediate toxic effects. The fatal dose of HCN is about 100 mg. Cyanide has been being involved in various incidents of suicides, homicides and accidents. It is relatively easy to obtain cyanide, because it is being widely used in metallurgy, metal-plating and other chemical industries. It is a typical poison to be analyzed with high priority.

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  • Introduction: Boric acid and borax (sodium tetraborate) had been widely used as antiseptics (preservatives) and/or ethical drugs; however, by reevaluation made in Japan, 1985, the questionability was raised on their effectiveness. Nowadays, they are being permitted to be used only for washing or disinfection of the eye as ethical drugs. In recent year, boric acid has been widely used as a household insecticide especially for cockroaches (called “boric acid ball”), resulting in the increase of boric acid poisoning cases.

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  • 1928, Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation § 1944:Avery, MacLeod & McCarty - Strong evidence that DNA is genetic material § 1950:Chargaff - careful analysis of DNA from a wide variety of organisms.

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  • Introduction: Nitrate and nitrite compounds are being used for various purposes, such as coronary artery dilators, coloring reagents for meat, rust preventives, fertilizers and explosives. When a nitrate salt is ingested by a human, nitric acid is converted into nitrous acid by the action of nitric acidreducing bacteria inhabiting the upper digestive tract; the nitrous acid oxidizes the divalent ferrous ion of hemoglobin to produce methemoglobin a with the trivalent ferric ion.

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  • Lipids (fats and oils) are a wide range of organic molecules that serve several functions in organisms. Lipids are essential components of our diet, highlighting their important contribution in energy, representing 9 kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by some components relevant to the metabolism, such as essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols).

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  • Introduction: Salicylic acid ( Figure 9.1) is being used as a keratolytic agent for treatment of corns or verrucae; the acid is included in adhesive plasters, ointments and liquid medicines as their ingredient for removing the stratum corneum. Since such products containing salicylic acid are easily obtainable, salicylic acid poisoning (salicylism) cases are relatively many especially for infants not older than 5 years. Its poisoning symptoms were reported to be headache, vertigo, tinnitus, bradyacusia, amblyopia and sweating [1].

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  • Introduction: Hypochlorite a (HClO) is a weak acid, which exerts oxidative action; it is being widely used in the salt forms for bleaching and other purposes. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) aqueous solution is usually used as a disinfectant, bleaching agent, fungicide and ink eraser, and is thus usually included in detergents for laundry. Calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2, bleaching powder] is also used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant.

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  • Introduction: There are a number of compounds, such as morphine and codeine, which are classified into the opium alkaloids (opiates). They are being used as ethical drugs of narcotic analgesics and antitussives; 1 % powder of codeine or dihydrocodeine is commonly included in over-the-counter drugs of antitussives. Figure 3.1 shows metabolic pathways of morphine, heroin and codeine. Since morphine and codeine are finally excreted into urine in the conjugated forms with glucuronic acid [1–3], it is necessary to hydrolyze the conjugated forms of these compounds before GC/MS analysis.

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  • Introduction: Ethylene glycol is being widely used as solvents, lubricants and surfactants in industries; for daily necessities, it is being used as a component of cold-reserving materials and of nonfreezing coolants of automobiles. There were cases of accidental and suicidal ingestion of such fluids [1–3]. As toxic actions of ethylene glycol, suppression of central nervous system activities similar to that of alcohol and metabolic acidosis caused by glycolic acid produced from ethylene glycol can be mentioned.

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  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Elements of Blowpipe Analysis, by Frederick Hutton Getman This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Elements of Blowpipe Analysis Author: Frederick Hutton Getman Release Date: June 25, 2010

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