Chapter 17 (part 1) - Amino acid metabolism: Nitrogen assimilation and amino acid biosynthesis. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know how different forms of nitrogen get to assimilatable form, know what types of organisms have this enzyme, know the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes below. Know structure of substrates and products, know co-enzymes and co-substrates involved,...
Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are a diverse collection of
enzymes acting on various endogenous and xenobiotic molecules. Most of
them catalyse hydroxylation reactions and one group of possible substrates
are fatty acids and their related structures. In this minireview, the signifi-cance of P450s in microbial fatty acid conversion is described.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations" presents the following contents: Amino acid metabolism, purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism, metabolic interrelationships, structure and conformation, repair, synthesis and recombination...
(BQ) Part 1 book "Lippincott's illustrated Q&A review of biochemistry" presents the following contents: TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, glycogen metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, HMP shunt and oxidative reactions, amino acid metabolism and the urea cycle, phospholipid metabolism,...
A fatty-acid-metabolizing enzyme fromArabidopsis thaliana, CYP94C1,
belonging to the cytochrome P450 family was cloned and characterized.
CYP94C1 was heterologously expressed in aSaccharomyces cerevisiae
strain (WAT11) engineered for P450 expression. When recombinant yeast
microsomes were incubated with lauric acid (C12:0) for 15 min, one major
metabolite was formed.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Elsevier’s integrated review biochemistry" presents the following contents: Fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism, metabolism of steroids and other lipids, amino acid and heme metabolism; integration of carbohydrate, fat, and amino acid metabolism; purine, pyrimidine, and single carbon metabolism,...Invite you to consult.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Endocrine physiology" presents the following contents: Carbohydrate metabolism A - Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; the tricarboxylic acid cycle; carbohydrate metabolism B: Di-, Oligo-, and polysaccharide synthesis and degradation; lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism; nucleotide metabolism, photosynthesis; DNA, RNA, and protein metabolism.
(BQ) Part 2 book "BRS Biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics" presents the following contents: Ketones and other lipid derivatives, amino acid metabolism, products derived from amino acids, nucleotide and porphyrin metabolism, integrative metabolism and nutrition, molecular endocrinology,... and other contents.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Elsevier's integrated review biochemistry" presents the following contents: Metabolism of steroids and other lipids, amino acid and heme metabolism; integration of carbohydrate, fat and amino acid metabolism; purine, pyrimidine, and single carbon metabolism; organization, synthesis and repair of DNA,...
(BQ) Part 2 book "High-Yield biochemistry" presents the following contents: Amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, nutrition, gene expression, biochemical technology, hormones. Invite you to consult.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Quick review of biochemistry for undergraduate" presents the following contents: Minerals, nutrition, nucleic acid chemistry, nucleic acid metabolism, molecular biology, molecular biology, acid base balance and disorders, organ function tests, organ function tests,...
Lipids (fats and oils) are a wide range of organic molecules that serve several functions in organisms. Lipids are essential components of our diet, highlighting their important contribution in energy, representing 9 kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by some components relevant to the metabolism, such as essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols).
We report unambiguous proof of the stability of a carbinol intermediate in
the case of P450 metabolism of an N-methylated natural cyclo-peptide,
namely tentoxin. Under mild acidic or neutral conditions, the lifetime of
carbinol-amide is long enough to be fully characterized.
In plants, fatty acids (FA) are subjected to various types of oxygenation
reactions. Products include hydroxyacids, as well as hydroperoxides, epox-ides, aldehydes, ketones and a,x-diacids. Many of these reactions are cata-lysed by cytochrome P450s (P450s), which represent one of the largest
superfamilies of proteins in plants.
We investigated the role of glutamine synthetases (cytosolic GS1 and chlo-roplast GS2) and glutamate synthases (ferredoxin-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT) in the inorganic nitrogen assimilation and reassimilation into
amino acids between bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells for the remo-bilization of amino acids during the early phase of grain filling inZea mays
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What are the biochemical pathways that form ammonium from inorganic nitrogen compounds prevalent in the inanimate environment? How is ammonium incorporated into organic compounds? How are amino acids synthesized and degraded?
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism plays an important role
in several biological systems affected by aging. We quantified tryptophan and
its metabolites kynurenine (KYN), kynurenine acid (KYNA), picolinic acid
(PIC) and quinolinic acid (QUIN), and activity of the kynurenine pathway
enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase