Acid synthesis

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  • In this chapter 16 (part 3), you will: Know the reactions/enzymes/co-substrates/intermediates of fatty acid synthesis, be able to recognize the intermediates of one round of fatty acid synthesis, know the co-enzymes and co-substrates involved in each step, know how the fatty acid synthetic machinery is organized in plants, bacteria and animals.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

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  • Trichloroisocyanuric acid synthesis process was studied by using DFT method. The obtained results demonstrate that the keto-enol isomerization of the cyanuric acid is a base-catalyzed reaction. It is possible that in the presence of NaOH the process of moving hydrogen in the cyanuric acid molecule and the reaction of neutralizing cyanuric acid can execute consecutively. And in this case NaOH plays the role as a donor of hydroxyl group catalyzing the movement of hydrogen and as neutralizing agent in an exothermal process.

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  • In nature, the most common representatives are 2-amino acids (α-amino acids) with the general formula RCH(NH2)COOH. This chapter provides knowledge of amino acids. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: structure and properties of amino acids, synthesis of amino acids: a combination of amine and carboxylic acidchemistry,...and other contents.

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  • Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.

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  • This experiment aimed to synthesize isoamyl acetate and understand preparing ester’s mechanism. The test compounds underwent reflux, distillation, extraction and vacuum filtration. Through an acid, acetic acid could serve as a substrate. This could easily be attacked by isoamyl alcohol, thus producing isoamyl acetate.

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  • Aspirin is an effective analgesic (pain reliever), antipyretic (fever reducer) and anti-inflammatory agent and is one of the most widely used non-prescription drugs. The use of aspirin had its origin in the 18th century, when it was found that an extract from the bark of willow trees was useful in reducing pain and fever. The active ingredient in willow bark was later found to be salicylic acid.

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  • This book comprises the contributions of several authors in the area of polymer characterization by atomic force microscopy of the polymer network structure formed in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals Cells; polymerization by microwave irradiation method of starch/acrylic acid/acrylamide; polymerization of olefins; emulsion polymerization; ring opening polymerization; cationic polymerization of vinyl monomers ; block and graft copolymerization by controlled/living polymerization; fabrication of doped microstructures by two-photon polymerization; rheology of biomaterials; plant cell wall ...

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  • Tribasic lead sulfate Ž3BS. and tetrabasic lead sulfate Ž4BS., used as precursors of the positive active material in the leadracid batteries, were prepared by a new method: reactive grinding. The effects of various experimental parameters Žstoichiometry, hygrometry of the starting compounds, duration of mechanical treatment. upon the nature and morphological features of the resulting phase were investigated.

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  • Two enzymes control the rearrangement of carbon skeletons which result in the production of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and Fructose-6-phosphate. Transketolase transfers C2 units: TPP requiring enzyme like pyruvate dehydrogenase Transaldolase transfers C3 units: uses a shiffs base with an active lysine group

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  • Phase-transfer-catalyzed alkylation of glycinate Schiff base with racemic secondary alkyl halides proceeded with excellent levels of synand enantioselectivities under the influence of a chiral quaternary ammonium bromide and 18- crown-6. The alkylation product can be selectively converted to the corresponding anti isomer, allowing the preparation of all the stereoisomers of β-alkyl-α-amino acid derivatives.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học trên tạp chí khoa học vật lý quốc tế đề tài: Synthesis, Characterisation and Catalytic Performance of Porous Nafion Resin/Silica Nanocomposites for Esterification of Lauric Acid and Methanol

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quấc tế đề tài: Minireview: Transaminases for the synthesis of enantiopure beta-amino acids

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  • Pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR; EC 1.2.7.1) catalyzes the thia-mine pyrophosphate-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA and CO2 . The thermophilic, obligate chemolithoauto-trophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenobacter thermophilusTK-6, assimilates CO2 via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle.

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  • It is widely recognized that proper gonadal function depends on the coordinated action of multiple factors influencing the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin hormones. The term gonadotropin derives from the combination of gonas (from Greek gonos or “seed”) and tropin (from Greek trepein or “to change”). Thus, gonadotropins are protein hormones that have the ability to change gonadal function. Although the word gonadotrophin is also used in scientific literature, the etymological derivation of this alternative spelling is different.

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  • Stress protein responses have evolved in part as a mechanism to protect cells from the toxic effects of environmental damaging agents. Oesophageal squamous epithelial cells have evolved an atypical stress response that results in the synthesis of a 53 kDa protein of undefined function named squamous epithelial-induced stress protein of 53 kDa (SEP53).

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  • Biotin Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in gene expression, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis and serves as a CO 2 carrier on the surface of both cytosolic and mitochondrial carboxylase enzymes. The vitamin also functions in the catabolism of specific amino acids (e.g., leucine). Excellent food sources of biotin include organ meat such as liver or kidney, soy, beans, yeast, and egg yolks; however, egg white contains the protein avidin, which strongly binds the vitamin and reduces its bioavailability.

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  • Sputum samples were fi rst classifi ed according to their macroscopic aspect in the laboratory. Salivary samples were immediately removed and a new sample was requested. The time between sputum collection and analysis was recorded. A 20–30 mm smear was made on a new slide with a wooden applicator. After heat fi xation, hot Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed: carbol fuchsin 0.3%, slow heating until steaming, rinsing after 5 min, destaining with 25% sulfuric acid, rinsing, counterstaining with methylene blue 0.3% for 1 min, rinsing and drying.

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  • Comparing the total air pollution related health costs per capita (see Figure 14) the results of the three countries stay within the same range, although the central estimates indicate differences between the three countries. The highest per capita costs are shown for Austria. For the road traffic-related health costs, the per capita results differ much less between the three countries: The highest value is obtained in France with about 370 EUR per capita, followed by Austria with about 360 EUR per capita and Switzerland with about 310 EUR per capita.

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  • The last step of the biosynthesis ofl-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in plants and animals is catalyzed by l-gulono-1,4-lactone oxidoreductases, which use bothl-gulono-1,4-lactone and l-galactono-1,4-lactone as substrates. l-Gul-ono-1,4-lactone oxidase is missing in scurvy-prone, vitamin C-deficient ani-mals, such as humans and guinea pigs, which are also highly susceptible to tuberculosis.

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