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Acoustic emission (AE) is a phenomenon in which elastic or stress waves are emitted from
rapid, localized change of strain energy in material. The practical application of the AE first
emerged in the 1950's, but only in the last 20 years the science, technology and applications
of AE have progressed significantly.
The subject of acoustic waves might easily be considered a mature one, quite
specialized, with narrow and circumscribed fields of interest and of application. The
present book is an evidence of the opposite: it witnesses how the concept of acoustic
wave, a collective displacement of matter which perturbs an equilibrium
configuration, is a pervasive concept, which emerges in very different fields. This type
of phenomena can be analyzed from different points of view, it can be exploited in
different ways, and is the object of active investigations.
The science of acoustics deals with the creation of sound, sound transmission
through solids, and the effects of sound on both inert and living materials. As a
mechanical effect, sound is essentially the passage of pressure fluctuations through
matter as the result of vibrational forces acting on that medium. Sound possesses
the attributes of wave phenomena, as do light and radio signals. But unlike its
electromagnetic counterparts, sound cannot travel through a vacuum.
We investigate the problem of acoustic modeling in which prior language-speciﬁc knowledge and transcribed data are unavailable. We present an unsupervised model that simultaneously segments the speech, discovers a proper set of sub-word units (e.g., phones) and learns a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for each induced acoustic unit.
The variation in speech due to dialect is a factor which significantly impacts speech system performance. In this study, we investigate effective methods of combining acoustic and language information to take advantage of (i) speaker based acoustic traits as well as (ii) content based word selection across the text sequence. For acoustics, a GMM based system is employed and for text based dialect classification, we proposed n-gram language models combined with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based dialect classifiers. ...
We address the task of unsupervised topic segmentation of speech data operating over raw acoustic information. In contrast to existing algorithms for topic segmentation of speech, our approach does not require input transcripts. Our method predicts topic changes by analyzing the distribution of reoccurring acoustic patterns in the speech signal corresponding to a single speaker. The algorithm robustly handles noise inherent in acoustic matching by intelligently aggregating information about the similarity proﬁle from multiple local comparisons. ...
We use machine learners trained on a combination of acoustic conﬁdence and pragmatic plausibility features computed from dialogue context to predict the accuracy of incoming n-best recognition hypotheses to a spoken dialogue system. Our best results show a 25% weighted f-score improvement over a baseline system that implements a “grammar-switching” approach to context-sensitive speech recognition.
Rather than focusing on earlier treatments, based largely on the simplifications of geometrical acoustics, Physical Principles of Medical Ultrasonics examines concepts of wave acoustics, introducing them in the very first chapter. Practical implications of these concepts are explored, first the generation and nature of acoustic fields, and then their formal descriptions and measurement. Real tissues attenuate and scatter ultrasound in ways that have interesting relationships to their physical chemistry, and the book includes coverage of these topics.
The use of acoustic energy in food or bioprocessing operations is a relatively new
endeavor if compared with other sources of energy, such as mechanical or thermal,
which have been utilized for centuries in various applications. There are two
important factors that make the current ultrasound-assisted processes possible. One
is related with the development in ultrasound generation technology and the other
one is the better understanding of interactions between acoustic energy and liquid
media, enabling the development of important guidelines for ultrasound-based
The concept of acoustic wave is a pervasive one, which emerges in any type of medium, from solids to plasmas, at length and time scales ranging from sub-micrometric layers in microdevices to seismic waves in the Sun's interior. This book presents several aspects of the active research ongoing in this field. Theoretical efforts are leading to a deeper understanding of phenomena, also in complicated environments like the solar surface boundary.
The basic idea behind any sonar system is as follows: an acoustic signal (or ping) is emitted
by the sonar into an area to be observed; the sonar then listens for echoes of the ping that
have been produced when bouncing back from the objects that might be present in the area.
Typically, sonar images are produced by plotting the intensity measured back by the sonar
versus time, and since the speed of sound underwater is known (or can be measured), the
time axis effectively corresponds to range from the sonar.
In this way, just as light illuminates a scene...
In 2001 I was contacted by a consortium of research institutions and wind energy
interests with a request to provide some background information on the operational
characteristics of acoustic radars or SODARs. The consortium partners had set
up and been funded for an European EU project to evaluate SODARs as a tool in
monitoring wind flows at wind turbine sites. They felt reasonably confident in their
knowledge of SODARs and had purchased some instruments, but wanted to be able
to consult on any more complex issues which arose.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are widely used in multitude of device concepts mainly
in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and communication electronics. As such,
SAW based micro-sensors, actuators and communication electronic devices are well known
applications of SAW technology. Due to their solid state design and fabrication compatible
with other modern technologies such as Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIC), MEMS, (Charge
Coupled Devices) CCD and integrated optic devices, SAW based sensors are considered to be
The book generously covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to RFID systems, namely the design of RFID antennas, RFID readers and the variety of tags (e.g. UHF tags for sensing applications, surface acoustic wave RFID tags, smart RFID tags), complex RFID systems, security and privacy issues in RFID applications, as well as the selection of encryption algorithms.
This book is an outgrowth of lecture notes developed for a course in
the applications of crystal acoustics at Johns Hopkins University. The
course serves the needs of engineers and scientists working in the area of
defense electronics, primarily in radar, electro-optics, and electronic warfare
systems. Students generally are quite knowledgeable in system requirements,
but lack the theory of device physics. The course and this
book attempt to fill this gap
Ancient Hebrew and Christian tradition relates that the universe was created in six days,
following which there was a day of rest. What the old chronicles never recorded was that, on
the eighth day, the Creator must have dropped back into the lab to do some tidying up. Only
then, coming across his rough notes for Maxwell’s and the acoustic wave equations, did the
thought occur that the creation of light and sound could be logically extrapolated to x-rays
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: vResearch Article ¨ On Coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger Equations with Acoustic Boundary Conditions