Semi-Active Suspension Systems II
13.1 Concepts of Semi-Active Suspension Systems
Karnopp’s Original Concept • Sky-Hook for Comfort • Extended Ground-Hook for Road-Tire Forces • Semi-Active Actuators and Their Models
Control Design Methodology
General Design Methodology • Clipped Active Control • MOPO Approach • NQR Approach • Preview Control
Michael Valásek ˇ
Czech Technical University, Prague
Semi-active (SA) suspensions are those which otherwise passively generated damping or spring
forces modulated according to a parameter tuning policy with only a small amount of control effort.
SA suspensions, as their name implies, fill the gap between purely passive and fully active suspensions
and offer the reliability of passive systems, yet maintain the versatility and adaptability of
fully active devices.
Whether mode choice yields expected impacts on daily activity level remains an
open question. Available research confirms declining activity levels for children (Dietz
and Gortmaker, 2001; Trost et al, 2002) and adolescents (Sallis, et al, 2000). However,
studies evaluating the role of walking to school have been mixed in finding statistically
significant increases in children's daily activity level (Krizek et al, 2004).
TiO2 thin film with nanoporous structure are prepared from colloidal suspension containing polyethylen glycol (PEG) via Sol-Gel method. The effect of PEG addition to the precursor solution on the surface structures and photocatalytic activity of the resultant thin films are studied. The larger the amount of PEG added to to the precursor solution, the larger the size and number of pores produced in the resultant films when PEG added to the gel films decomposed completely during heat-treatment.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Regulation of callose synthase activity in situ in alamethicin-permeabilized Arabidopsis and tobacco suspension cells
About $4 trillion is currently invested in U.S. domestic equity mutual funds, making
them a fundamental part of the average U.S. investor’s overall portfolio. Since about 90%
of these funds are actively managed, researchers have devoted extensive efforts in studying
their performance and have found that, on average, active management underperforms
passive benchmarks. For example, Wermers (2000) ﬁnds that the average U.S. domestic
equity fund underperforms its overall market, size, book-to-market, and momentum
benchmarks by 1.2%/year over the 1975–1994 period.
GM-CSF is one of several naturally occurring glycoproteins
that regulate leukocyte production, migration and function.
It has been produced in different cell types, with different
properties that depend on the production process used. The
purpose of this work was to characterize the recombinant
human GM-CSF from an engineered Chinese hamster
ovary cell line grown in suspension and as adherent culture
for the identification of the glycosylation sites and the defi-nition of the glycosidic moiety, including the degree of site
Certain amino acids, like glutamine and leucine, induce an anabolic response in liver. They activate p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) involved in protein and fatty acids synthesis, respectively. In contrast, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which senses the energy state of the cell and becomes activated under metabolic stress, inactivates by phosphorylation key enzymes in biosynthetic pathways thereby conserving ATP.
Islet transplantation provides a promising cure for Type 1 diabetes; however it is limited by a shortage of pancreas donors. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer renewable cells for generating insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Methods: We used a four-stage differentiation protocol, containing neuronal differentiation and IPC-conversion stages, and combined with pellet suspension culture to induce IPC differentiation.
Two secreted acid phosphatases (SAP1 and SAP2) were
markedly up-regulated during Pi-starvation of tomato
suspension cells.SAP1 and SAP2 were resolved during cat-ion-exchange FPLC of culture media proteins from 8-day-old Pi
-starved cells, and purified to homogeneity and final
p-nitrophenylphosphatehydrolyzing specificactivitiesof 246
and 940lmol Pi producedÆmin
, respect-ively.SDS/PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and analyt-ical gel filtration demonstrated that SAP1 and SAP2,
respectively, exist as 84 and57 kDa glycosylatedmonomers....
The red mud wasted from the Guinean bauxite refinery was studied for phosphate removal from model aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate (OPh) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPPh). The red mud has been treated with concentrated sulphuric acid. After filtration of the acid suspension, the activated mud was washed (pH 7), dried and ground to powder.
in a word
- briefly, to sum up In a word, the problem with the car is that it needs a new motor.
in a world of one`s own
- in deep thought or concentration, not caring about other people He is always in a world of his own and doesn`t notice what other people say or think.
- the temporary suspension of an activity or a ruling The final estate settlement was in abeyance while the lawyers looked at the will in more detail.
in accordance with (something)
- in agreement with (something) In accordance with the wishes of my grandfather we did not...
The larger, so-called "coarse" particles are mostly produced by mechanical processes,
such as automobile tire wear on the road, industrial cutting, grinding and pulverizing
processes and re-suspension of particles from the ground or other surfaces by wind and
human activities. The chemical composition of coarse particles may be somewhat
similar to the chemical composition of soil in that area, along with industrial compounds
from activities such as mining or smelting operations.
Strictosidine glucosidase (SG) is an enzyme that catalyses the second step in the biosynthesis of various classes of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Based on the comparison of cDNA sequences of SG from Catharanthus roseus and raucaﬀricine glucosidase (RG) from Rauvolﬁa serpentina, primers for RT-PCR were designed and the cDNA encoding SG was cloned from R. serpentina cell suspension cultures. The active enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and puriﬁed to homogeneity. Analysis of its deduced amino-acid sequence assigned the SG from R. serpentina to family 1 of glycosyl hydrolases.