Adaptation and tolerance

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  • Before discussing our methodology, we motivate our study with a table illustrating bank adaptation and soft credit at work. The data are from a large Greek bank, covering tens of thousands applications by individuals for credit products. 4 Columns 1 and 2 show the monthly declared income and monthly payments on household credit products for self-employed individuals across di§erent industries, and column 3 presents the ratio of payments-to-income. On average, self-employed Greeks spend 82% of their monthly reported income servicing debt.

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  • Increasing attention has also been given to dissecting and understanding diversity in relation to genes underlying important agronomic traits in a number of crops. Molecular phylogenetics and genetic diversity analysis can help to clarify the taxonomic identity and evolutionary relationships of the wild relatives of crop species. These methods can also help prevent misidentification and carefully plan effective germplasm management strategies.

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  • Dalton et al. reported the average production costs and returns for 2004 from a sample of 30 organic dairy farms in Vermont and Maine. They reported a total cost for organic milk production of $22.58 per cwt, before a deduction for unpaid operator labor and management, which was not significantly different from milk revenues. Thus organic milk production did not generate any return to unpaid labor and management nor did it produce a positive return to farm assets or equity.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide and catalyst solutions needed for Fenton's Reagent are usually added to the treatment area by pressure injection into one or more designated chemical oxidation injection wells, or gravity injection into one or more monitoring or other wells. In pressure injection, compressed air is used to sparge the ferrous iron catalyst and relatively large volumes of peroxide solution (e.g., hundreds to thousands of gallons) into the contaminated soil and groundwater over a short period of time (e.g., days).

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  • In 2004, we realized that the Web was on the cusp of a new era, one that would finally let loose the power of network effects, setting off a surge of innovation and opportunity. To help usher in this new era, O’Reilly Media and CMP launched a conference that showcased the innovators who were driving it. When O’Reilly’s Dale Dougherty came up with the term “Web 2.0” during a brainstorming session, we knew we had the name for the conference. What we didn’t know was that the industry would embrace the Web 2.0 meme and that it would come to represent the new Web. Web 2.

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  • Seeking Innovative Ways to Eliminate the Pay Gap. The Department of Labor, in conjunction with the National Equal Pay Task Force, issued an “Equal Pay App Challenge.” This challenge invites software developers to use publicly available data and resources to create applications that accomplish at least one of the following goals: provide greater access to pay data broken down by gender, race, and ethnicity; provide interactive tools for early career coaching; help inform negotiations; and promote online mentoring.

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  • The universities must develop new fields of multi-discipline research in building design, engineering, energy and carbon efficiency, directed towards providing the industry with feedback on the success or otherwise of current initiatives. This will create numerous opportunities for industrial and international partnerships, supported by a wide range of new funding and revenue streams, not traditionally available to academic researchers.

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  • Faulty construction or neglected maintenance is the primary cause of structural hazards in homes and schools. Faulty construction leads to building defects that increase the likelihood of structural hazards and fires, which in turn increase the risk of falls, burns, and other injuries. These defects also lead to inadequate ventilation and moisture accumulation; both factors raise the levels of asthma triggers in the home (38, 52).

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  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied.

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  • Second, system owners or investors with limited state tax burdens may not be able to take full advantage of the ITC. Thus, a tax credit may have little value to low- and moderate- income residents and others who have a small state-tax liability. While nearly all state tax- credit programs allow the unused portion of the credit to be carried over for five or 10 years, spreading the credit over time reduces its benefit. Third, ITCs reward the purchase and installation of technologies regardless of potential or actual energy production. Federal ITCs implemented in the 1970s and 1980s...

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  • The adjustable keyboard surfaces in cluster workstations also fix the position of the computer, making the workstation less flexible for other tasks. The optimum positioning of the VDU monitor to minimise screen reflections and background glare is also inhibited. Convenient height adjustment for the whole of the work surface should be aimed for.

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  • A number of specification checks support the identifying as- sumption that the timing of television’s entry is uncorrelated with direct determinants of test scores. Most importantly, we find that the within-area cross-cohort variation in television exposure that identifies our models does not correlate with demographic variables that affect test scores. We also find that the timing of television introduction is uncorrelated with trends in area school quality, teacher characteristics, and demographics. ...

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  • Before embarking on policy reforms to improve access, national policy-makers need to have a clear understanding of the factors that are contributing to high prices and poor avail- ability; this will help ensure that their response is tailored to the national context. Table 1.3 lists a number of possible policy options and specific actions that are open to governments for reducing prices and improving availability.

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  • The data illustrate a consistent and striking pattern of incremental improvements in health with increasing levels of family income and educational attainment: As family income and levels of education rise, health improves. In almost every state, shortfalls in health are greatest among children in the poorest or least- educated households, but even middle-class children are less healthy than children with greater advantages.

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  • These brokers, banks and trust companies are typically participants in a securities depository, such as the Canadian Depository for Securities ("CDS'). CDS receives securities from its participants and holds them in fungible bulks. CDS registers these securities in the name of a CDS nominee, and maintains accounts showing the entitlements of each participant.

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  • It usually looks at cash flow during the hold period of the investment plus the cash flow resulting from the ultimate disposition of the investment property. In these respects it is different from and more sophisticated than Tool Kit #2 Direct Capitalization, which usually limits its focus to annual net incomes without taking into account cash flow, appreciation in value, paying down of mortgages, or ultimate cash flow on disposition.

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  • Because the insurance industry employs both captive and independent producers in its various models of product distribution, understanding the insurer-producer relationship is critical when determining the insurer’s responsibility for its appointed producers’ social media communications. As such, if the content of an appointed producer’s social media communication can be attributed to a specific carrier, regulators will also attribute the communication to the carrier.

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  • For the last 100 years, a health care regulatory project enthusiastically endorsed by generations of health policy experts has been encrusting U.S. health care with layer upon layer of increasingly intrusive regulation. Though each regulation may be innocuous in its own right, taken together they have had the unfortunate effect of divorcing patients from spending on their health, creating explosive growth in Wisconsin’s Medicaid budget, and making Wisconsin’s market for hospital services one of the least competitive in the United States.

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  • This guidance is not legally-binding. It represents a synthesis of the information and experience available to the Commission. It is intended as a summary of the current state of the art with respect to best practice on integrated environmental management. The guidance is not intended to be a rigid set of rules to be followed in all circumstances. The mere fact that there is so much diversity between cities across the EU means that no one solution is applicable nor appropriate for all situations.

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  • The program attracts between 60 and 110 applications per year. After one class with 45 students was started in 1998, 1999 and 2000, two classes with together 85 students were started in 2001. On the aver- age, employers contribute 50% to the tuition fees, the other expenses and the absences. Between 75% and 90% of the students of this mainly German language program work in Switzerland, the remainder mostly in Germany. Figure 4 exhibits the graduation disciplines of the participants in the first six classes.

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